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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

3.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 5(3): 189-198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041842

RESUMO

Germline TP53 pathogenic variants are rare but associated with a high risk of cancer; they are often identified in the context of clinically diagnosed Li-Fraumeni syndrome predisposing to a range of young onset cancers including sarcomas and breast cancer. The study aim was to conduct a detailed morphological review and immuno-phenotyping of breast cancer arising in carriers of a germline TP53 pathogenic variant. We compared breast cancers from five defined groups: (1) TP53 carriers with breast cancer (n = 59), (2) early onset HER2-amplified breast cancer, no germline pathogenic variant in BRCA1/2 or TP53 (n = 55), (3) BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers (n = 60); (4) BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers (n = 61) and (5) young onset breast cancer with no known germline pathogenic variant (n = 98). Pathologists assessed a pre-agreed set of morphological characteristics using light microscopy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2, ER, PR, p53, integrin alpha v beta 6 (αvß6) integrin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and pSMAD2/3 was performed on tissue microarrays of invasive carcinoma. We confirmed a previously reported high prevalence of HER2-amplified, ductal no special type invasive breast carcinoma amongst known TP53 germline pathogenic variant carriers 20 of 36 (56%). Furthermore we observed a high frequency of densely sclerotic tumour stroma in cancers from TP53 carriers (29/36, 80.6%) when compared with non-carriers, 50.9% (28/55), 34.7% (50/144), 41.4% (65/157), 43.8% (95/217) in groups 2-5 respectively. The majority of germline TP53 gene carrier breast tumours had a high intensity of integrin αvß6, α-SMA and pSMAD2/3 expression in the majority of cancer cells. In conclusion, aggressive HER2 positive breast cancers with densely sclerotic stroma are common in germline TP53 carriers. High levels of αvß6 integrin, α-SMA and pSMAD2/3 expression suggest that the dense stromal phenotype may be driven by upregulated transforming growth factor beta signalling.

4.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 693-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859559

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterised by distinctive facial features, heart defects, variable degrees of intellectual disability and other phenotypic manifestations. Although the mode of inheritance is typically dominant, recent studies indicate LZTR1 may be associated with both dominant and recessive forms. Seeking to describe the phenotypic characteristics of LZTR1-associated NS, we searched for likely pathogenic variants using two approaches. First, scrutiny of exomes from 9624 patients recruited by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDDs) study uncovered six dominantly-acting mutations (p.R97L; p.Y136C; p.Y136H, p.N145I, p.S244C; p.G248R) of which five arose de novo, and three patients with compound-heterozygous variants (p.R210*/p.V579M; p.R210*/p.D531N; c.1149+1G>T/p.R688C). One patient also had biallelic loss-of-function mutations in NEB, consistent with a composite phenotype. After removing this complex case, analysis of human phenotype ontology terms indicated significant phenotypic similarities (P = 0.0005), supporting a causal role for LZTR1. Second, targeted sequencing of eight unsolved NS-like cases identified biallelic LZTR1 variants in three further subjects (p.W469*/p.Y749C, p.W437*/c.-38T>A and p.A461D/p.I462T). Our study strengthens the association of LZTR1 with NS, with de novo mutations clustering around the KT1-4 domains. Although LZTR1 variants explain ~0.1% of cases across the DDD cohort, the gene is a relatively common cause of unsolved NS cases where recessive inheritance is suspected.

5.
Lancet ; 393(10173): 747-757, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal structural anomalies, which are detected by ultrasonography, have a range of genetic causes, including chromosomal aneuploidy, copy number variations (CNVs; which are detectable by chromosomal microarrays), and pathogenic sequence variants in developmental genes. Testing for aneuploidy and CNVs is routine during the investigation of fetal structural anomalies, but there is little information on the clinical usefulness of genome-wide next-generation sequencing in the prenatal setting. We therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of fetuses with structural abnormalities that had identifiable variants in genes associated with developmental disorders when assessed with whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, two groups in Birmingham and London recruited patients from 34 fetal medicine units in England and Scotland. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to evaluate the presence of genetic variants in developmental disorder genes (diagnostic genetic variants) in a cohort of fetuses with structural anomalies and samples from their parents, after exclusion of aneuploidy and large CNVs. Women were eligible for inclusion if they were undergoing invasive testing for identified nuchal translucency or structural anomalies in their fetus, as detected by ultrasound after 11 weeks of gestation. The partners of these women also had to consent to participate. Sequencing results were interpreted with a targeted virtual gene panel for developmental disorders that comprised 1628 genes. Genetic results related to fetal structural anomaly phenotypes were then validated and reported postnatally. The primary endpoint, which was assessed in all fetuses, was the detection of diagnostic genetic variants considered to have caused the fetal developmental anomaly. FINDINGS: The cohort was recruited between Oct 22, 2014, and June 29, 2017, and clinical data were collected until March 31, 2018. After exclusion of fetuses with aneuploidy and CNVs, 610 fetuses with structural anomalies and 1202 matched parental samples (analysed as 596 fetus-parental trios, including two sets of twins, and 14 fetus-parent dyads) were analysed by WES. After bioinformatic filtering and prioritisation according to allele frequency and effect on protein and inheritance pattern, 321 genetic variants (representing 255 potential diagnoses) were selected as potentially pathogenic genetic variants (diagnostic genetic variants), and these variants were reviewed by a multidisciplinary clinical review panel. A diagnostic genetic variant was identified in 52 (8·5%; 95% CI 6·4-11·0) of 610 fetuses assessed and an additional 24 (3·9%) fetuses had a variant of uncertain significance that had potential clinical usefulness. Detection of diagnostic genetic variants enabled us to distinguish between syndromic and non-syndromic fetal anomalies (eg, congenital heart disease only vs a syndrome with congenital heart disease and learning disability). Diagnostic genetic variants were present in 22 (15·4%) of 143 fetuses with multisystem anomalies (ie, more than one fetal structural anomaly), nine (11·1%) of 81 fetuses with cardiac anomalies, and ten (15·4%) of 65 fetuses with skeletal anomalies; these phenotypes were most commonly associated with diagnostic variants. However, diagnostic genetic variants were least common in fetuses with isolated increased nuchal translucency (≥4·0 mm) in the first trimester (in three [3·2%] of 93 fetuses). INTERPRETATION: WES facilitates genetic diagnosis of fetal structural anomalies, which enables more accurate predictions of fetal prognosis and risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. However, the overall detection of diagnostic genetic variants in a prospectively ascertained cohort with a broad range of fetal structural anomalies is lower than that suggested by previous smaller-scale studies of fewer phenotypes. WES improved the identification of genetic disorders in fetuses with structural abnormalities; however, before clinical implementation, careful consideration should be given to case selection to maximise clinical usefulness. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care and The Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Cariótipo Anormal/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto/anormalidades , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Cariótipo Anormal/embriologia , Aborto Eugênico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Pais , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1576-1584, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing numbers of genes are being implicated in Mendelian disorders and incorporated into clinical test panels. However, lack of evidence supporting the gene-disease relationship can hinder interpretation. We explored the utility of testing 51 additional genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most commonly tested Mendelian disorders. METHODS: Using genome sequencing data from 240 sarcomere gene negative HCM cases and 6229 controls, we undertook case-control and individual variant analyses to assess 51 genes that have been proposed for HCM testing. RESULTS: We found no evidence to suggest that rare variants in these genes are prevalent causes of HCM. One variant, in a single case, was categorized as likely to be pathogenic. Over 99% of variants were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and 54% of cases had one or more VUS. CONCLUSION: For almost all genes, the gene-disease relationship could not be validated and lack of evidence precluded variant interpretation. Thus, the incremental diagnostic yield of extending testing was negligible, and would, we propose, be outweighed by problems that arise with a high rate of uninterpretable findings. These findings highlight the need for rigorous, evidence-based selection of genes for clinical test panels.

9.
Urology ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients who required nursing home (NH) care after radical cystectomy (RC), as this surgery can impair patients' ability to perform ADLs in the postoperative period. METHODS: Patients undergoing RC were identified in a novel database of patients with at least two NH assessments linked with Medicare inpatient claims. The NH assessment included the Minimum Data Set (MDS)-ADL Long Form (0-28; a higher score equals greater impairment), which quantifies ADLs. Paired t-tests and chi-squared analysis were used for comparisons. RESULTS: We identified 471 patients that underwent RC and had at least one MDS-ADL assessment. In total, 245 patients lived elsewhere prior to RC and went to an NH after RC, while 122 patients lived in an NH before and after RC. Mean age of the population was 80.7 years (standard deviation 5.7). Of the 245 patients who did not live in a facility before RC, 68% of patients were discharged directly to an NH and 31% were discharged to another location before NH. There was no difference in MDS-ADL score between these groups (16.4 vs 15.0, P = .09). Among the patients who lived in an NH before and after RC, the mean pre- and post-operative MDS-ADL scores were significantly different (12.1 vs 16.6, P<.0001). CONCLUSION: ADLs, as measured by the MDS-ADL Long Form score, worsen after RC. This should be an important part of the risks and benefits conversation with patients, their families, and caregivers.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.

14.
BJU Int ; 2018 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. PARTICPANTS AND METHODS: Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented. RESULTS: A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening.

15.
Analyst ; 143(8): 1735-1757, 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504623

RESUMO

Vibrational spectroscopies, based on infrared absorption and/or Raman scattering provide a detailed fingerprint of a material, based on the chemical content. Diagnostic and prognostic tools based on these technologies have the potential to revolutionise our clinical systems leading to improved patient outcome, more efficient public services and significant economic savings. However, despite these strong drivers, there are many fundamental scientific and technological challenges which have limited the implementation of this technology in the clinical arena, although recent years have seen significant progress in addressing these challenges. This review examines (i) the state of the art of clinical applications of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, and (ii) the outstanding challenges, and progress towards translation, highlighting specific examples in the areas of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro applications. In addition, the requirements of instrumentation suitable for use in the clinic, strategies for pre-processing and statistical analysis in clinical spectroscopy and data sharing protocols, will be discussed. Emerging consensus recommendations are presented, and the future perspectives of the field are assessed, particularly in the context of national and international collaborative research initiatives, such as the UK EPSRC Clinical Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Network, the EU COST Action Raman4Clinics, and the International Society for Clinical Spectroscopy.

16.
Genet Med ; 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565421

RESUMO

PurposeBRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.MethodsWe used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsA total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis. There were 23 incident invasive BCs and 2 EOCs. The cumulative risk of invasive BC was 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-15%) by age 85 years and the corresponding risk of EOC was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.6%). The SIR for invasive BC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.62-1.40) in the overall cohort, 0.85 (95% CI 0.48-1.50) in noncarriers from BRCA1 families, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.57-1.87) in noncarriers from BRCA2 families. The SIR for EOC was 0.79 (95% CI 0.20-3.17) in the overall cohort.ConclusionOur results did not provide evidence for elevated risks of invasive BC or EOC in BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.44.

17.
Analyst ; 143(8): 1934, 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595198

RESUMO

Correction for 'Clinical applications of infrared and Raman spectroscopy: state of play and future challenges' by Matthew J. Baker, et al., Analyst, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c7an01871a.

18.
Anal Chem ; 89(14): 7348-7355, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628331

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy coupled with machine learning approaches has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for identifying abnormalities in human tissue. The ability to objectively identify the prediseased state and diagnose cancer with high levels of accuracy has the potential to revolutionize current histopathological practice. Despite recent technological advances in FT-IR microscopy, sample throughput and speed of acquisition are key barriers to clinical translation. Wide-field quantum cascade laser (QCL) infrared imaging systems with large focal plane array detectors utilizing discrete frequency imaging have demonstrated that large tissue microarrays (TMA) can be imaged in a matter of minutes. However, this ground breaking technology is still in its infancy, and its applicability for routine disease diagnosis is, as yet, unproven. In light of this, we report on a large study utilizing a breast cancer TMA comprised of 207 different patients. We show that by using QCL imaging with continuous spectra acquired between 912 and 1800 cm-1, we can accurately differentiate between 4 different histological classes. We demonstrate that we can discriminate between malignant and nonmalignant stroma spectra with high sensitivity (93.56%) and specificity (85.64%) for an independent test set. Finally, we classify each core in the TMA and achieve high diagnostic accuracy on a patient basis with 100% sensitivity and 86.67% specificity. The absence of false negatives reported here opens up the possibility of utilizing high throughput chemical imaging for cancer screening, thereby reducing pathologist workload and improving patient care.

19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175962, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414775

RESUMO

By searching a clinical database of over 60,000 individuals referred for array-based CNV analyses and online resources, we identified four males from three families with intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, joint hypermobility and relative macrocephaly who carried small, overlapping deletions of Xp11.22. The maximum region of overlap between their deletions spanned ~430 kb and included two pseudogenes, CENPVL1 and CENPVL2, whose functions are not known, and two protein coding genes-the G1 to S phase transition 2 gene (GSPT2) and the MAGE family member D1 gene (MAGED1). Deletions of this ~430 kb region have not been previously implicated in human disease. Duplications of GSPT2 have been documented in individuals with intellectual disability, but the phenotypic consequences of a loss of GSPT2 function have not been elucidated in humans or mouse models. Changes in MAGED1 have not been associated with intellectual disability in humans, but loss of MAGED1 function is associated with neurocognitive and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mice. In all cases, the Xp11.22 deletion was inherited from an unaffected mother. Studies performed on DNA from one of these mothers did not show evidence of skewed X-inactivation. These results suggest that deletions of an ~430 kb region on chromosome Xp11.22 that encompass CENPVL1, CENPVL2, GSPT2 and MAGED1 cause a distinct X-linked syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, joint hypermobility and relative macrocephaly. Loss of GSPT2 and/or MAGED1 function may contribute to the intellectual disability and developmental delay seen in males with these deletions.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(20): 2240-2250, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448241

RESUMO

Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos
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