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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Task Force also provided recommendations for children with hyperinflammation during COVID-19, the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The Task Force was composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved anonymous voting and discussion through webinars. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (1-3, inappropriate; 4-6, uncertain; 7-9, appropriate), and consensus was rated as low (L), moderate (M), or high (H) based on dispersion of the votes along the numeric scale. Approved guidance statements had to be classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, which were pre-specified prior to voting. RESULTS: The first version of the guidance was approved by the Task Force in June 2020 and consisted of 40 final guidance statements accompanied by a flow diagram depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C. The document was revised in November 2020, and a new flow diagram with recommendations for initial immunomodulatory treatment of MIS-C was added. CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. This guidance document reflects currently available evidence coupled with expert opinion but is meant to be modified as additional data become available.

2.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349661
3.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5942-5950, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701511

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDPediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection can be complicated by a dangerous hyperinflammatory condition termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical and immunologic spectrum of MIS-C and its relationship to other inflammatory conditions of childhood have not been studied in detail.METHODSWe retrospectively studied confirmed cases of MIS-C at our institution from March to June 2020. The clinical characteristics, laboratory studies, and treatment response were collected. Data were compared with historic cohorts of Kawasaki disease (KD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).RESULTSTwenty-eight patients fulfilled the case definition of MIS-C. Median age at presentation was 9 years (range: 1 month to 17 years); 50% of patients had preexisting conditions. All patients had laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seventeen patients (61%) required intensive care, including 7 patients (25%) who required inotrope support. Seven patients (25%) met criteria for complete or incomplete KD, and coronary abnormalities were found in 6 cases. Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevation in inflammatory markers, D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were common but not ubiquitous. Cytopenias distinguished MIS-C from KD and the degree of hyperferritinemia and pattern of cytokine production differed between MIS-C and MAS. Immunomodulatory therapy given to patients with MIS-C included intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) (71%), corticosteroids (61%), and anakinra (18%). Clinical and laboratory improvement were observed in all cases, including 6 cases that did not require immunomodulatory therapy. No mortality was recorded in this cohort.CONCLUSIONMIS-C encompasses a broad phenotypic spectrum with clinical and laboratory features distinct from KD and MAS.FUNDINGThis work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Rheumatology Research Foundation Investigator Awards and Medical Education Award; Boston Children's Hospital Faculty Career Development Awards; the McCance Family Foundation; and the Samara Jan Turkel Center.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Imunomodulação , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/sangue , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(11): 1791-1805, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and to provide recommendations for children with hyperinflammation during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A multidisciplinary task force was convened by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) to provide guidance on the management of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperinflammation in COVID-19. The task force was composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved 2 rounds of anonymous voting and 2 webinars. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (median scores of 1-3 for inappropriate, 4-6 for uncertain, and 7-9 for appropriate), and consensus was rated as low, moderate, or high based on dispersion of the votes along the numeric scale. Approved guidance statements were those that were classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, as prespecified prior to voting. RESULTS: The ACR task force approved a total of 128 guidance statements addressing the management of MIS-C and hyperinflammation in pediatric COVID-19. These statements were refined into 40 final clinical guidance statements, accompanied by a flow diagram depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. The guidance provided in this "living document" reflects currently available evidence, coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised as further evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , /etiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia
5.
Epilepsy Behav Rep ; 14: 100360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368732

RESUMO

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a disorder characterized by drug-resistant seizures and progressive unihemispheric atrophy, hemiparesis, and varying degrees of cognitive decline. The pathophysiology of RE remains elusive, with hypotheses suggesting underlying autoimmune- and T cell-mediated processes. In this case report, we describe a single patient's clinical course from the first day of presentation until definitive treatment for atypical Rasmussen encephalitis at a tertiary care pediatric center. The patient exhibited several atypical features of Rasmussen encephalitis, including a posterior predominance of initial seizure onset with the development of severe choreoathetosis and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy. He subsequently developed coexistent autoimmune disorders in the form of psoriasis and uveitis, and underwent multiple forms of immunotherapy with limited benefit. This patient shows an association of RE with other autoimmune conditions supporting an autoimmune mechanism of disease while exhibiting several atypical features of RE. Rarely, occipital lobe seizures have been documented as the presenting semiology of this syndrome. This case highlights the need to be mindful of atypical features that may delay hemispherectomy, which remains the definitive treatment. It also suggests that children may be predisposed to the development of autoimmune disorders in later stages of the disease.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(7): 1059-1063, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293098

RESUMO

Poor outcomes in COVID-19 correlate with clinical and laboratory features of cytokine storm syndrome. Broad screening for cytokine storm and early, targeted antiinflammatory therapy may prevent immunopathology and could help conserve limited health care resources. While studies are ongoing, extrapolating from clinical experience in cytokine storm syndromes may benefit the multidisciplinary teams caring for patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
7.
JCI Insight ; 5(6)2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213704

RESUMO

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) begins with fever, rash, and high-grade systemic inflammation but commonly progresses to a persistent afebrile arthritis. The basis for this transition is unknown. To evaluate a role for lymphocyte polarization, we characterized T cells from patients with acute and chronic sJIA using flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and RNA sequencing. Acute and chronic sJIA each featured an expanded population of activated Tregs uncommon in healthy controls or in children with nonsystemic JIA. In acute sJIA, Tregs expressed IL-17A and a gene expression signature reflecting Th17 polarization. In chronic sJIA, the Th17 transcriptional signature was identified in T effector cells (Teffs), although expression of IL-17A at the protein level remained rare. Th17 polarization was abrogated in patients responding to IL-1 blockade. These findings identify evolving Th17 polarization in sJIA that begins in Tregs and progresses to Teffs, likely reflecting the impact of the cytokine milieu and consistent with a biphasic model of disease pathogenesis. The results support T cells as a potential treatment target in sJIA.

8.
Paediatr Drugs ; 22(1): 29-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732958

RESUMO

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a form of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, is a frequently fatal complication of a variety of pediatric inflammatory disorders. MAS has been most commonly associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), as approximately 10% of children with sJIA develop fulminant MAS, with another 30-40% exhibiting a more subclinical form of the disease. Children with other rheumatologic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Kawasaki disease are also at risk for MAS. Moreover, MAS also complicates various genetic autoinflammatory disorders such as gain of function mutations in the cytosolic inflammasome NLRC4, pediatric hematologic malignancies (e.g., T-cell lymphoma), and primary immunodeficiencies characterized by immune dysregulation. Disease-specific and broadly inclusive diagnostic criteria have been developed to facilitate the diagnosis of MAS. Recently, simple screening tools such as the serum ferritin to erythrocyte sedimentation rate ratio have been proposed. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of immunosuppression are essential for the effective management of MAS. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of MAS and the advent of novel therapeutics, a broad immunosuppressive approach to treatment is giving way to targeted anti-cytokine therapies. These treatments include agents that block interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-18, interferon-γ, as well as inhibitors of downstream targets of cytokine signaling (e.g., Janus kinases). Increased early recognition of MAS among pediatric inflammatory disorders combined with the use of effective and less toxic cytokine-targeted therapies should lower the mortality of this frequently fatal disorder.


Assuntos
Inflamação/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/patologia
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 225-231, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) characterised by a vicious cycle of immune amplification that can culminate in overwhelming inflammation and multiorgan failure. The clinical features of MAS overlap with those of active sJIA, complicating early diagnosis and treatment. We evaluated adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2), a protein of unknown function released principally by monocytes and macrophages, as a novel biomarker of MAS. METHODS: We established age-based normal ranges of peripheral blood ADA2 activity in 324 healthy children and adults. We compared these ranges with 173 children with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including systemic and non-systemic JIA, Kawasaki disease, paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile dermatomyositis. RESULTS: ADA2 elevation beyond the upper limit of normal in children was largely restricted to sJIA with concomitant MAS, a finding confirmed in a validation cohort of sJIA patients with inactive disease, active sJIA without MAS or sJIA with MAS. ADA2 activity strongly correlated with MAS biomarkers including ferritin, interleukin (IL)-18 and the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible chemokine CXCL9 but displayed minimal association with the inflammatory markers C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Correspondingly, ADA2 paralleled disease activity based on serial measurements in patients with recurrent MAS episodes. IL-18 and IFN-γ elicited ADA2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and ADA2 was abundant in MAS haemophagocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings collectively identify the utility of plasma ADA2 activity as a biomarker of MAS and lend further support to a pivotal role of macrophage activation in this condition.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Artrite Juvenil/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Quimiocina CXCL9/sangue , Criança , Dermatomiosite/sangue , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-18/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/sangue , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Clin Immunol ; 211: 108326, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838215

RESUMO

Inflammatory conditions are increasingly described in patients with primary immunodeficiencies; however, little is known about the prevalence of immune defects in patients who present first with autoimmunity. We describe the immunologic features of children with early-onset/polyautoimmunity followed in the Multiple Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency (MAID) Clinic, where patients are co-managed by rheumatologists and immunologists. The most common autoimmune manifestations were cytopenias, lymphoproliferation, and colitis. Recurrent infections were noted in 65% of patients. Abnormalities in lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulins were common. A pathogenic variant was identified in 19% of patients, and 2 novel inherited disorders were discovered. Additionally, 42% of patients had treatment changes implemented in the MAID clinic. By evaluating this unique cohort of patients, we report on the immunologic underpinning of early-onset/polyautoimmunity. The high rate of genetic diagnoses and treatment interventions in this population highlights the value of collaboration between rheumatologists and immunologists in the care of these complex patients.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Adolescente , Autoimunidade/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Infecções/genética , Infecções/imunologia , Masculino
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1722-1731, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of a novel parenchymal lung disease (LD), increasingly detected in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, 61 cases were investigated using physician-reported clinical information and centralised analyses of radiological, pathological and genetic data. RESULTS: LD was associated with distinctive features, including acute erythematous clubbing and a high frequency of anaphylactic reactions to the interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab. Serum ferritin elevation and/or significant lymphopaenia preceded LD detection. The most prevalent chest CT pattern was septal thickening, involving the periphery of multiple lobes ± ground-glass opacities. The predominant pathology (23 of 36) was pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or endogenous lipoid pneumonia (PAP/ELP), with atypical features including regional involvement and concomitant vascular changes. Apparent severe delayed drug hypersensitivity occurred in some cases. The 5-year survival was 42%. Whole exome sequencing (20 of 61) did not identify a novel monogenic defect or likely causal PAP-related or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)-related mutations. Trisomy 21 and young sJIA onset increased LD risk. Exposure to IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors (46 of 61) was associated with multiple LD features. By several indicators, severity of sJIA was comparable in drug-exposed subjects and published sJIA cohorts. MAS at sJIA onset was increased in the drug-exposed, but was not associated with LD features. CONCLUSIONS: A rare, life-threatening lung disease in sJIA is defined by a constellation of unusual clinical characteristics. The pathology, a PAP/ELP variant, suggests macrophage dysfunction. Inhibitor exposure may promote LD, independent of sJIA severity, in a small subset of treated patients. Treatment/prevention strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20635-20643, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548399

RESUMO

SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor and neutrophil survival factor, was recently linked with IL-17-expressing T cells. Here, we show that serpinB1 (Sb1) is dramatically induced in a subset of effector CD4 cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Despite normal T cell priming, Sb1 -/- mice are resistant to EAE with a paucity of T helper (TH) cells that produce two or more of the cytokines, IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-17. These multiple cytokine-producing CD4 cells proliferate extremely rapidly; highly express the cytolytic granule proteins perforin-A, granzyme C (GzmC), and GzmA and surface receptors IL-23R, IL-7Rα, and IL-1R1; and can be identified by the surface marker CXCR6. In Sb1 -/- mice, CXCR6+ TH cells are generated but fail to expand due to enhanced granule protease-mediated mitochondrial damage leading to suicidal cell death. Finally, anti-CXCR6 antibody treatment, like Sb1 deletion, dramatically reverts EAE, strongly indicating that the CXCR6+ T cells are the drivers of encephalitis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Receptores CXCR6/metabolismo , Serpinas/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores CXCR6/genética
13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(3): e560, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044148

RESUMO

Objective: To highlight a novel, treatable syndrome, we report 4 patients with CNS-isolated inflammation associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) gene mutations (CNS-FHL). Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: Patients with CNS-FHL are characterized by chronic inflammation restricted to the CNS that is not attributable to any previously described neuroinflammatory etiology and have germline mutations in known FHL-associated genes with no signs of systemic inflammation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can be well tolerated and effective in achieving or maintaining disease remission in patients with CNS-FHL. Conclusions: Early and accurate diagnosis followed by treatment with HCT can reduce morbidity and mortality in CNS-FHL, a novel, treatable syndrome. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that HCT is well tolerated and effective in treating CNS-FHL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) were historically thought to be distinct entities, often managed in isolation. In fact, these conditions are closely related. A collaborative approach, which incorporates expertise from subspecialties that previously treated HLH/MAS independently, is needed. We leveraged quality improvement (QI) techniques in the form of an Evidence-Based Guideline (EBG) to build consensus across disciplines on the diagnosis and treatment of HLH/MAS. METHODS: A multidisciplinary work group was convened that met monthly to develop the HLH/MAS EBG. Literature review and expert opinion were used to develop a management strategy for HLH/MAS. The EBG was implemented, and quality metrics were selected to monitor outcomes. RESULTS: An HLH/MAS clinical team was formed with representatives from subspecialties involved in the care of patients with HLH/MAS. Broad entry criteria for the HLH/MAS EBG were established and included fever and ferritin ≥500 ng/mL. The rheumatology team was identified as the "gate-keeper," charged with overseeing the diagnostic evaluation recommended in the EBG. First-line medications were recommended based on the acuity of illness and risk of concurrent infection. Quality metrics to be tracked prospectively based on time to initiation of treatment and clinical response were selected. CONCLUSION: HLH/MAS are increasingly considered to be a spectrum of related conditions, and joint management across subspecialties could improve patient outcomes. Our experience in creating a multidisciplinary approach to HLH/MAS management can serve as a model for care at other institutions.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Consenso , Citocinas/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade
18.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(4): 482-491, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic immunosuppressive treatment of pediatric chronic anterior uveitis (CAU), both juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated and idiopathic anterior uveitis, varies, making it difficult to identify best treatments. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for CAU for the purpose of reducing practice variability and allowing future comparison of treatments using comparative effectiveness analysis techniques. METHODS: A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, ophthalmologists with uveitis expertise, and a lay advisor comprised the CARRA uveitis workgroup that performed a literature review on pharmacologic treatments, held teleconferences, and developed a case-based survey administered to the CARRA membership to delineate treatment practices. We held 3 face-to-face consensus meetings using nominal group technique to develop CTPs. RESULTS: The survey identified areas of treatment practice variability. We developed 2 CTPs for the treatment of CAU, case definitions, and monitoring parameters. The first CTP is directed at children who are naive to steroid-sparing medication, and the second at children initiating biologic therapy, with options for methotrexate, adalimumab, and infliximab. We defined a core data set and outcome measures, with data collection at 3 and 6 months after therapy initiation. The CARRA membership voted to accept the CTPs with a >95% approval (n = 233). CONCLUSION: Using consensus methodology, 2 standardized CTPs were developed for systemic immunosuppressive treatment of CAU. These CTPs are not meant as treatment guidelines, but are designed for further pragmatic research within the CARRA research network. Use of these CTPs in a prospective comparison effectiveness study should improve outcomes by identifying best practice options.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Uveíte Anterior/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Protocolos Clínicos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Uveíte Anterior/etiologia
19.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 77(12): 1079-1084, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295794

RESUMO

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune hyperactivation syndrome caused by mutations in genes associated with cytotoxic T-cell and NK-cell function. While neurological manifestations frequently accompany systemic inflammation at initial presentation, isolated central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare, and the histological correlates are not well described. We present 3 patients (ages 5, 6, and 7 years) with CNS-isolated familial HLH, who presented with a variety of neurological symptoms and underwent brain biopsies for multifocal enhancing supratentorial and infratentorial lesions. Biopsy slides from all 3 patients revealed similar findings: perivascular lymphocytes, predominantly CD3+ T-cells (CD4>CD8) with occasional intramural infiltration of small vessels; scattered histiocytes without hemophagocytosis; parenchymal and leptomeningeal inflammation varying from mild and focal to severe and sheet-like with associated destructive lesions. There was no evidence of demyelination, neoplasia, or infection. Genetic testing identified compound heterozygous mutations in PRF1 (Patients 1 and 2) and UNC13D (Patient 3), with no evidence of systemic disease except decreased NK-cell function. All 3 patients were treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with marked improvement of symptoms. These findings combined with the poor outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis and lack of aggressive treatment highlight the need to consider HLH in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory brain lesions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Blood ; 131(21): 2335-2344, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653965

RESUMO

Integrity of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex is crucial for positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and for effector and regulatory functions of peripheral T lymphocytes. In humans, CD3D, CD3E, and CD3Z gene defects are a cause of severe immune deficiency and present early in life with increased susceptibility to infections. By contrast, CD3G mutations lead to milder phenotypes, mainly characterized by autoimmunity. However, the role of CD3γ in establishing and maintaining immune tolerance has not been elucidated. In this manuscript, we aimed to investigate abnormalities of T-cell repertoire and function in patients with genetic defects in CD3G associated with autoimmunity. High throughput sequencing was used to study composition and diversity of the T-cell receptor ß (TRB) repertoire in regulatory T cells (Tregs), conventional CD4+ (Tconv), and CD8+ T cells from 6 patients with CD3G mutations and healthy controls. Treg function was assessed by studying its ability to suppress proliferation of Tconv cells. Treg cells of patients with CD3G defects had reduced diversity, increased clonality, and reduced suppressive function. The TRB repertoire of Tconv cells from patients with CD3G deficiency was enriched for hydrophobic amino acids at positions 6 and 7 of the CDR3, a biomarker of self-reactivity. These data demonstrate that the T-cell repertoire of patients with CD3G mutations is characterized by a molecular signature that may contribute to the increased rate of autoimmunity associated with this condition.


Assuntos
Complexo CD3/genética , Imunomodulação , Mutação , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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