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1.
Opt Lett ; 46(17): 4104-4107, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469950

RESUMO

Significant improvements in time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) Raman spectroscopy acquisition times can be achieved through exploitation of megahertz (MHz) laser repetition rates. We have developed a TCSPC Raman spectroscopy system based on a high peak power (>40W) pulsed laser, a high pulse repetition rate (40 MHz), a custom f/1.5 spectrometer, and a 512 spectral channel × 16 time bin single photon avalanche diode line sensor. We report millisecond Raman spectrum acquisition times, a peak Raman count rate of 104 kcps, and a linewidth aggregated count rate of 440 kcps with a diamond sample. This represents a three-order-of-magnitude increase in measured Raman count rate in comparison with a 104 kHz pulsed laser operating at 300 W and a four-order-of-magnitude increase over a 0.1 W pulsed laser operating at 40 MHz. A Raman-to-fluorescence ratio of 4.76 is achieved with a sesame oil sample at a 20 MHz repetition rate. Achieving high count rates and Raman-to-fluorescence ratios unlocks the potential of combined Raman/fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for imaging and other short acquisition time applications.

2.
Opt Lett ; 46(15): 3612-3615, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329237

RESUMO

Time of flight and photometric stereo are two three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques with complementary properties, where the former can achieve depth accuracy in discontinuous scenes, and the latter can reconstruct surfaces of objects with fine depth details and high spatial resolution. In this work, we demonstrate the surface reconstruction of complex 3D fields with discontinuity between objects by combining the two imaging methods. Using commercial LEDs, a single-photon avalanche diode camera, and a mobile phone device, high resolution of surface reconstruction is achieved with a RMS error of 6% for an object auto-selected from a scene imaged at a distance of 50 cm.

3.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112018

RESUMO

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Asco , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Opt Express ; 29(8): 11917-11937, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984963

RESUMO

The number of applications that use depth imaging is increasing rapidly, e.g. self-driving autonomous vehicles and auto-focus assist on smartphone cameras. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) via single-photon sensitive detector (SPAD) arrays is an emerging technology that enables the acquisition of depth images at high frame rates. However, the spatial resolution of this technology is typically low in comparison to the intensity images recorded by conventional cameras. To increase the native resolution of depth images from a SPAD camera, we develop a deep network built to take advantage of the multiple features that can be extracted from a camera's histogram data. The network is designed for a SPAD camera operating in a dual-mode such that it captures alternate low resolution depth and high resolution intensity images at high frame rates, thus the system does not require any additional sensor to provide intensity images. The network then uses the intensity images and multiple features extracted from down-sampled histograms to guide the up-sampling of the depth. Our network provides significant image resolution enhancement and image denoising across a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios and photon levels. Additionally, we show that the network can be applied to other data types of SPAD data, demonstrating the generality of the algorithm.

5.
Opt Express ; 29(7): 10749-10768, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820203

RESUMO

Small satellites have challenging size weight and power requirements for communications modules, which we address here by using chip-scale light-emitting diode (LED) transmitters and single-photon avalanche diode receivers. Data rates of 100 Mb/s have been demonstrated at a sensitivity of -55.2 dBm, and simulations with supporting experimental work indicate ranges in excess of 1 km are feasible with a directional gain of up to 52 dBi and comparatively modest pointing requirements. A 750 m, 20 Mb/s link using a single micro-LED has been demonstrated experimentally. The low electrical power requirements and compact, semiconductor nature of these devices offer high data rate, high sensitivity communications for small satellite platforms.

6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e22, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599583

RESUMO

We propose that procedures of separation have two functions, namely first, to establish the integrity of individual parts, and second, to make previously joint entities discreet and therefore countable. This allows taking stock of available resources, including evaluating the use of individual objects, a process that is especially adaptive under conditions of threat of contagious disease and resource scarcity.

7.
Appl Opt ; 59(14): 4488-4498, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400429

RESUMO

Large-format single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays often suffer from low fill-factors-the ratio of the active area to the overall pixel area. The detection efficiency of these detector arrays can be vastly increased with the integration of microlens arrays designed to concentrate incident light onto the active areas and may be refractive or diffractive in nature. The ability of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) to efficiently cover a square or rectangular pixel, combined with their capability of working as fast lenses (i.e., ∼f/3) makes them versatile and practical lens designs for use in sparse photon applications using microscale, large-format detector arrays. Binary-mask-based photolithography was employed to fabricate fast diffractive microlenses for two designs of 32×32 SPAD detector arrays, each design having a different pixel pitch and fill-factor. A spectral characterization of the lenses is performed, as well as analysis of performance under different illumination conditions from wide- to narrow-angle illumination (i.e., f/2 to f/22 optics). The performance of the microlenses presented exceeds previous designs in terms of both concentration factor (i.e., increase in light collection capability) and lens speed. Concentration factors greater than 33× are achieved for focal lengths in the substrate material as short as 190µm, representing a microlens f-number of 3.8 and providing a focal spot diameter of <4µm. These results were achieved while retaining an extremely high degree of performance uniformity across the 1024 devices in each case, which demonstrates the significant benefits to be gained by the implementation of DOEs as part of an integrated detector system using SPAD arrays with very small active areas.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5146, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198437

RESUMO

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a quantitative, intensity-independent microscopical method for measurement of diverse biochemical and physical properties in cell biology. It is a highly effective method for measurements of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and for quantification of protein-protein interactions in cells. Time-domain FLIM-FRET measurements of these dynamic interactions are particularly challenging, since the technique requires excellent photon statistics to derive experimental parameters from the complex decay kinetics often observed from fluorophores in living cells. Here we present a new time-domain multi-confocal FLIM instrument with an array of 64 visible beamlets to achieve parallelised excitation and detection with average excitation powers of ~ 1-2 µW per beamlet. We exemplify this instrument with up to 0.5 frames per second time-lapse FLIM measurements of cAMP levels using an Epac-based fluorescent biosensor in live HeLa cells with nanometer spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. We demonstrate the use of time-dependent phasor plots to determine parameterisation for multi-exponential decay fitting to monitor the fractional contribution of the activated conformation of the biosensor. Our parallelised confocal approach avoids having to compromise on speed, noise, accuracy in lifetime measurements and provides powerful means to quantify biochemical dynamics in living cells.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Citoplasma , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Fótons
9.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2169): 20190194, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114924

RESUMO

The high internal gain of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode allows the quantum limit of detection to be approached. This offers a significantly improved sensitivity for optical communication over existing photodiodes. A fully integrated CMOS SPAD array receiver (RX) is presented which achieves 500 Mb s-1 four-level pulse amplitude modulation in a visible light communication link within 15.2 dB of the quantum limit. However, SPAD dead time induces around 5.7 dB of transient distortion which restricts error performance and data rate. We propose a model describing a discrete photon counting system which exhibits this nonlinear behaviour and compare it to practical measurements with the RX. A unipolar intensity modulated optical signal is considered, as opposed to bipolar electric fields in conventional radio frequency wireless systems. Intermodulation between the DC and harmonic components of the data-carrying waveform is investigated, and the resulting degradation of signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio and bit error rate is evaluated. The model is developed as a tool for understanding distortion to ultimately allow rectification through RX architecture, modulation scheme, coding and equalization techniques. This article is part of the theme issue 'Optical wireless communication'.

10.
Opt Express ; 27(24): 35485-35498, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878719

RESUMO

Multispectral and 3-D imaging are useful for a wide variety of applications, adding valuable spectral and depth information for image analysis. Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) based imaging systems provide photon time-of-arrival information, and can be used for imaging with time-correlated single photon counting techniques. Here we demonstrate an LED based synchronised illumination system, where temporally structured light can be used to relate time-of-arrival to specific wavelengths, thus recovering reflectance information. Cross-correlation of the received multi-peak histogram with a reference measurement yields a time delay, allowing depth information to be determined with cm-scale resolution despite the long sequence of relatively wide (∼10 ns) pulses. Using commercial LEDs and a SPAD imaging array, multispectral 3-D imaging is demonstrated across 9 visible wavelength bands.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8075, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147564

RESUMO

The ability to measure and record high-resolution depth images at long stand-off distances is important for a wide range of applications, including connected and automotive vehicles, defense and security, and agriculture and mining. In LIDAR (light detection and ranging) applications, single-photon sensitive detection is an emerging approach, offering high sensitivity to light and picosecond temporal resolution, and consequently excellent surface-to-surface resolution. The use of large format CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) single-photon detector arrays provides high spatial resolution and allows the timing information to be acquired simultaneously across many pixels. In this work, we combine state-of-the-art single-photon detector array technology with non-local data fusion to generate high resolution three-dimensional depth information of long-range targets. The system is based on a visible pulsed illumination system at a wavelength of 670 nm and a 240 × 320 array sensor, achieving sub-centimeter precision in all three spatial dimensions at a distance of 150 meters. The non-local data fusion combines information from an optical image with sparse sampling of the single-photon array data, providing accurate depth information at low signature regions of the target.

12.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(1): 181-195, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775092

RESUMO

We present a dual-color laser scanning endomicroscope capable of fluorescence lifetime endomicroscopy at one frame per second (FPS). The scanning system uses a coherent imaging fiber with 30,000 cores. High-speed lifetime imaging is achieved by distributing the signal over an array of 1024 parallel single-photon avalanche diode detectors (SPADs), minimizing detection dead-time maximizing the number of photons detected per excitation pulse without photon pile-up to achieve the high frame rate. This also enables dual color fluorescence imaging by temporally shifting the dual excitation lasers, with respect to each other, to separate the two spectrally distinct fluorescent decays in time. Combining the temporal encoding, to provide spectral separation, with lifetime measurements we show a one FPS, multi-channel endomicroscopy platform for clinical applications and diagnosis. We demonstrate the potential of the system by imaging SmartProbe labeled bacteria in ex vivo samples of human lung using lifetime to differentiate bacterial fluorescence from the strong background lung autofluorescence which was used to provide structural information.

13.
Opt Lett ; 43(24): 6057-6060, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548010

RESUMO

In this Letter, we will discuss the development of a multifocal multiphoton fluorescent lifetime imaging system where four individual fluorescent intensity and lifetime planes are acquired simultaneously, allowing us to obtain volumetric data without the need for sequential scanning at different axial depths. Using a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) with an appropriate algorithm to generate a holographic pattern, we project a beamlet array within a sample volume of a size, which can be preprogrammed by the user. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system to image live-cell interactions. While only four planes are shown, this technique can be rescaled to a large number of focal planes, enabling full 3D acquisition and reconstruction.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(4)2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641479

RESUMO

This paper examines methods to best exploit the High Dynamic Range (HDR) of the single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in a high fill-factor HDR photon counting pixel that is scalable to megapixel arrays. The proposed method combines multi-exposure HDR with temporal oversampling in-pixel. We present a silicon demonstration IC with 96 × 40 array of 8.25 µm pitch 66% fill-factor SPAD-based pixels achieving >100 dB dynamic range with 3 back-to-back exposures (short, mid, long). Each pixel sums 15 bit-planes or binary field images internally to constitute one frame providing 3.75× data compression, hence the 1k frames per second (FPS) output off-chip represents 45,000 individual field images per second on chip. Two future projections of this work are described: scaling SPAD-based image sensors to HDR 1 MPixel formats and shrinking the pixel pitch to 1-3 µm.

15.
Opt Express ; 26(5): 5541-5557, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529757

RESUMO

A CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) quanta image sensor is used to reconstruct depth and intensity profiles when operating in a range-gated mode used in conjunction with pulsed laser illumination. By designing the CMOS SPAD array to acquire photons within a pre-determined temporal gate, the need for timing circuitry was avoided and it was therefore possible to have an enhanced fill factor (61% in this case) and a frame rate (100,000 frames per second) that is more difficult to achieve in a SPAD array which uses time-correlated single-photon counting. When coupled with appropriate image reconstruction algorithms, millimeter resolution depth profiles were achieved by iterating through a sequence of temporal delay steps in synchronization with laser illumination pulses. For photon data with high signal-to-noise ratios, depth images with millimeter scale depth uncertainty can be estimated using a standard cross-correlation approach. To enhance the estimation of depth and intensity images in the sparse photon regime, we used a bespoke clustering-based image restoration strategy, taking into account the binomial statistics of the photon data and non-local spatial correlations within the scene. For sparse photon data with total exposure times of 75 ms or less, the bespoke algorithm can reconstruct depth images with millimeter scale depth uncertainty at a stand-off distance of approximately 2 meters. We demonstrate a new approach to single-photon depth and intensity profiling using different target scenes, taking full advantage of the high fill-factor, high frame rate and large array format of this range-gated CMOS SPAD array.

16.
Opt Express ; 26(3): 2280-2291, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401768

RESUMO

Single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) image sensors offer time-gated photon counting, at high binary frame rates of >100 kFPS and with no readout noise. This makes them well-suited to a range of scientific applications, including microscopy, sensing and quantum optics. However, due to the complex electronics required, the fill factor tends to be significantly lower (< 10%) than that of EMCCD and sCMOS cameras (>90%), whilst the pixel size is typically larger, impacting the sensitivity and practicalities of the SPAD devices. This paper presents the first characterisation of a cylindrical-shaped microlens array applied to a small, 8 micron, pixel SPAD imager. The enhanced fill factor, ≈50% for collimated light, is the highest reported value amongst SPAD sensors with comparable resolution and pixel pitch. We demonstrate the impact of the increased sensitivity in single-molecule localisation microscopy, obtaining a resolution of below 40nm, the best reported figure for a SPAD sensor.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(2)2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360795

RESUMO

Quanta Imager Sensors provide photon detections at high frame rates, with negligible read-out noise, making them ideal for high-speed optical tracking. At the basic level of bit-planes or binary maps of photon detections, objects may present limited detail. However, through motion estimation and spatial reassignment of photon detections, the objects can be reconstructed with minimal motion artefacts. We here present the first demonstration of high-speed two-dimensional (2D) tracking and reconstruction of rigid, planar objects with a Quanta Image Sensor, including a demonstration of depth-resolved tracking.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14080, 2017 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120822

RESUMO

When an optical pulse propagates along an optical fibre, different wavelengths travel at different group velocities. As a result, wavelength information is converted into arrival-time information, a process known as wavelength-to-time mapping. This phenomenon is most cleanly observed using a single-mode fibre transmission line, where spatial mode dispersion is not present, but the use of such fibres restricts possible applications. Here we demonstrate that photonic lanterns based on tapered single-mode multicore fibres provide an efficient way to couple multimode light to an array of single-photon avalanche detectors, each of which has its own time-to-digital converter for time-correlated single-photon counting. Exploiting this capability, we demonstrate the multiplexed single-mode wavelength-to-time mapping of multimode light using a multicore fibre photonic lantern with 121 single-mode cores, coupled to 121 detectors on a 32 × 32 detector array. This work paves the way to efficient multimode wavelength-to-time mapping systems with the spectral performance of single-mode systems.

19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37349, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876857

RESUMO

Single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) has become an essential part of the super-resolution toolbox for probing cellular structure and function. The rapid evolution of these techniques has outstripped detector development and faster, more sensitive cameras are required to further improve localisation certainty. Single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) array cameras offer single-photon sensitivity, very high frame rates and zero readout noise, making them a potentially ideal detector for ultra-fast imaging and SMLM experiments. However, performance traditionally falls behind that of emCCD and sCMOS devices due to lower photon detection efficiency. Here we demonstrate, both experimentally and through simulations, that the sensitivity of a binary SPAD camera in SMLM experiments can be improved significantly by aggregating only frames containing signal, and that this leads to smaller datasets and competitive performance with that of existing detectors. The simulations also indicate that with predicted future advances in SPAD camera technology, SPAD devices will outperform existing scientific cameras when capturing fast temporal dynamics.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(7)2016 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447643

RESUMO

SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed.

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