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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446707

RESUMO

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , RNA/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Traqueia/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab385, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405093

RESUMO

We characterized the antibody composition of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) and the immunologic responses of hospitalized COVID-19 patients after receiving CCP or nonimmune fresh frozen plasma. Despite selection of CCP with significantly higher total immunoglobulin G than recipients, neutralizing antibody levels did not differ between donor plasma and CCP recipients.

5.
Thorax ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253679

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Using latent class analysis (LCA), two subphenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have consistently been identified in five randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with distinct biological characteristics, divergent outcomes and differential treatment responses to randomised interventions. Their existence in unselected populations of ARDS remains unknown. We sought to identify subphenotypes in observational cohorts of ARDS using LCA. METHODS: LCA was independently applied to patients with ARDS from two prospective observational cohorts of patients admitted to the intensive care unit, derived from the Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID) (n=624) and Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury (EARLI) (n=335) studies. Clinical and biological data were used as class-defining variables. To test for concordance with prior ARDS subphenotypes, the performance metrics of parsimonious classifier models (interleukin 8, bicarbonate, protein C and vasopressor-use), previously developed in RCTs, were evaluated in EARLI and VALID with LCA-derived subphenotypes as the gold-standard. RESULTS: A 2-class model best fit the population in VALID (p=0.0010) and in EARLI (p<0.0001). Class 2 comprised 27% and 37% of the populations in VALID and EARLI, respectively. Consistent with the previously described 'hyperinflammatory' subphenotype, Class 2 was characterised by higher proinflammatory biomarkers, acidosis and increased shock and worse clinical outcomes. The similarities between these and prior RCT-derived subphenotypes were further substantiated by the performance of the parsimonious classifier models in both cohorts (area under the curves 0.92-0.94). The hyperinflammatory subphenotype was associated with increased prevalence of chronic liver disease and neutropenia and reduced incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Measurement of novel biomarkers showed significantly higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 and markers of endothelial injury in the hyperinflammatory subphenotype, whereas, matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly lower. CONCLUSION: Previously described subphenotypes are generalisable to unselected populations of non-trauma ARDS.

6.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791731

RESUMO

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections. Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) face an elevated risk of VAP, although susceptibility varies widely. Because mechanisms underlying VAP predisposition remained unknown, we assessed lower respiratory tract host immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 36 patients, including 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill controls. We employed a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Two days before VAP onset, a lower respiratory transcriptional signature of bacterial infection was observed, characterized by increased expression of neutrophil degranulation, toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathways. When assessed at an earlier time point following endotracheal intubation, more than two weeks prior to VAP onset, we observed a striking early impairment in antibacterial innate and adaptive immune signaling that markedly differed from COVID-19 patients who did not develop VAP. scRNA-seq further demonstrated suppressed immune signaling across monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. While viral load did not differ at an early post-intubation timepoint, impaired SARS-CoV-2 clearance and persistent interferon signaling characterized the patients who later developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients who developed VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Together, these findings demonstrate that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense weeks before secondary infection onset. One sentence summary: COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia have impaired immune signaling and lung microbiome changes weeks before onset.

7.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494096

RESUMO

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Sequência de Bases , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Masculino , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Domínios Proteicos , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Carga Viral/imunologia
8.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140041

RESUMO

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a wholeblood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferonstimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and autodirected antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140050

RESUMO

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. One Sentence Summary: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease; antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 416, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C is a well-validated marker of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease. Higher plasma concentrations of cystatin C are associated with worse clinical outcomes in heterogenous populations of critically ill patients and may be superior to creatinine in identifying kidney injury in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that elevated levels of plasma cystatin C in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) would be associated with mortality risk. METHODS: In a retrospective study, cystatin C was measured by nephelometry on plasma obtained at enrollment from 919 patients in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial. Multivariable logistic regression was performed testing the association between quartiles of cystatin C and 60-day mortality. Analyses were stratified by acute kidney injury (AKI) status identified in the first 7 days after enrollment by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. RESULTS: Cystatin C was significantly higher among those patients who died compared to those who survived to 60 days [1.2 (0.9-1.9) mg/L vs. 0.8 (0.6-1.2) mg/L, p < 0.001]. Compared to the lower three quartiles, subjects in the highest quartile of cystatin C had a significantly higher odds of death at 60 days [OR 1.8 (1.2-2.6), p = 0.003 in adjusted analyses]; the odds of death incrementally rose in higher cystatin C quartiles compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.1, 1.8, and 2.5). In adjusted analyses stratified by AKI status, compared to subjects in the lower three quartiles, subjects in the highest quartile of cystatin C with AKI had a significantly higher odds of death at 60 days both in participants with AKI [OR 1.6 (1.0-2.4), p = 0.048] and those without AKI [OR 2.4 (1.2-5.0), p = 0.017]. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant association between sex-stratified baseline creatinine quartiles and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma levels of cystatin C on enrollment were strongly associated with mortality at 60 days in patients with ARDS with and without AKI identified by creatinine-based definitions. Compared to creatinine, cystatin C may be a better biomarker of kidney function in patients with ARDS and therefore identify patients with multiple organ failure at higher risk of death.


Assuntos
Cistatina C/efeitos adversos , Cistatina C/análise , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following early implementation of public health measures, San Francisco has experienced a slow rise and a low peak level of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the safety net hospital for San Francisco through April 8, 2020. Each patient had ≥15 days of follow-up. Among 26 patients, the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 43 to 62), 65% were men, and 77% were Latinx. Mechanical ventilation was initiated for 11 (42%) patients within 24 hours of ICU admission and 20 patients (77%) overall. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.5 days (interquartile range, 5 to 20). Patients were managed with lung protective ventilation (tidal volume <8 ml/kg of ideal body weight and plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O on 98% and 78% of ventilator days, respectively). Prone positioning was used for 13 of 20 (65%) ventilated patients for a median of 5 days (interquartile range, 2 to 10). Seventeen (65%) patients were discharged home, 1 (4%) was discharged to nursing home, 3 (12%) were discharged from the ICU, and 2 (8%) remain intubated in the ICU at the time of this report. Three (12%) patients have died. CONCLUSIONS: Good outcomes were achieved in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by using standard therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) such as lung protective ventilation and prone positioning. Ensuring hospitals can deliver sustained high-quality and evidence-based critical care to patients with ARDS should remain a priority.

14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(5): 1042-1051, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired postinjury platelet aggregation is common, but the effect of transfusion on this remains unclear. Data suggest that following injury platelet transfusion may not correct impaired platelet aggregation, and impaired platelet aggregation may not predict the need for platelet transfusion. We sought to further investigate platelet aggregation responses to transfusions, using regression statistics to isolate the independent effects of transfusions given in discrete time intervals from injury on both immediate and longitudinal platelet aggregation. We hypothesized that platelet aggregation response to platelet transfusion increases over time from injury. METHODS: Serial (0-96 hours) blood samples were collected from 248 trauma patients. Platelet aggregation was assessed in vitro with impedance aggregometry stimulated by adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6. Using regression, transfusion exposure was modeled against platelet aggregation at each subsequent timepoint and adjusted for confounders (Injury Severity Score, international normalized ratio (INR), base deficit, platelet count, and interval transfusions). The expected change in platelet aggregation at each timepoint under the intervention of transfusion exposure was calculated and compared with the observed platelet aggregation. RESULTS: The 248 patients analyzed were severely injured (Injury Severity Score, 21 ± 19), with normal platelet counts (mean, 268 × 10/L ± 90), and 62% were transfused in 24 hours. The independent effect of transfusions on subsequent platelet aggregation over time was modeled with observed platelet aggregation under hypothetical treatment of one unit transfusion of blood, plasma, or platelets. Platelet transfusions had increasing expected effects on subsequent platelet aggregation over time, with the maximal expected effect occurring late (4-5 days from injury). CONCLUSION: Controversy exists on whether transfusions improve impaired postinjury platelet aggregation. Using regression modeling, we identified that expected transfusion effects on subsequent platelet aggregation are maximal with platelet transfusion given late after injury. This is critical for tailored resuscitation, identifying a potential early period of resistance to platelet transfusion that resolves by 96 hours. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level V.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/terapia , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 371-378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following trauma is historically associated with crystalloid and blood product exposure. Advances in resuscitation have occurred over the last decade, but their impact on ARDS is unknown. We sought to investigate predictors of postinjury ARDS in the era of hemostatic resuscitation. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from arrival to 28 days for 914 highest-level trauma activations who required intubation and survived more than 6 hours from 2005 to 2016 at a Level I trauma center. Patients with ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mmHg or less during the first 8 days were identified. Two blinded expert clinicians adjudicated all chest radiographs for bilateral infiltrates in the first 8 days. Those with left-sided heart failure detected were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to define predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: Of the 914 intubated patients, 63% had a ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 or less, and 22% developed ARDS; among the ARDS cases, 57% were diagnosed early (in the first 24 hours), and 43% later. Patients with ARDS diagnosed later were more severely injured (ISS 32 vs. 20, p = 0.001), with higher rates of blunt injury (84% vs. 72%, p = 0.008), chest injury (58% vs. 36%, p < 0.001), and traumatic brain injury (72% vs. 48%, p < 0.001) compared with the no ARDS group. In multivariate analysis, head/chest Abbreviated Injury Score scores, crystalloid from 0 to 6 hours, and platelet transfusion from 0 to 6 hours and 7 to 24 hours were independent predictors of ARDS developing after 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Blood and plasma transfusion were not independently associated with ARDS. However, platelet transfusion was a significant independent risk factor. The role of platelets warrants further investigation but may be mechanistically explained by lung injury models of pulmonary platelet sequestration with peripheral thrombocytopenia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
16.
Crit Care Explor ; 1(8): e0038, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166279

RESUMO

We present a unique case of a broken fragment of a hypodermic needle breaking and embolizing to the heart. This needle subsequently penetrated the right ventricle and the patient developed hemopericardium which resulted in cardiac tamponade physiology. Data Sources: None. Study Selection: None. Data Extraction: None. Data Synthesis: Recognizing the potential for unusual and serious complications of IV illicit drug use is an important part of providing effective and timely medical care in this vulnerable population. Conclusions: An embolic needle phenomenon can have significant sequela, including direct cardiac trauma leading to tamponade and subsequent cardiac collapse. Partnering with the patient to take a detailed history was critical in uncovering the underlying etiology of this patient's cardiogenic shock.

17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(5): 873-880, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injury to the blood-brain barrier exposes endothelium rich in von Willebrand factor (vWF), which may play a role in altered platelet aggregation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ristocetin is an antimicrobial substance that induces vWF-mediated aggregation of platelets. We examined these mechanisms in injured patients by measuring the aggregation response of platelets to stimulating agonists (including ristocetin) via whole-blood multiple-electrode platelet aggregometry. We hypothesized that patients with TBI have an altered platelet aggregation response to ristocetin stimulation compared with patients without TBI. METHODS: Blood was collected from 233 trauma patients without thrombocytopenia. Platelet aggregation was assessed using multiple-electrode platelet aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet aggregation response to stimulating agonists collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6, adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, and ristocetin was measured. Factor activity was measured. RESULTS: Of the 233 patients, 23% had TBI. There were no differences in platelet aggregation responses to any agonists between TBI and non-TBI patients except ristocetin. Platelet aggregation response to ristocetin stimulation was significantly lower in TBI patients (p = 0.03). Patients with TBI also had higher factor VIII activity (215% vs. 156%, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, there was a significant independent association of impaired platelet aggregation response to ristocetin stimulation with TBI (odds ratio, 3.05; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of platelets in hemostasis, understanding the mechanisms of impaired platelet aggregation following injury is critical. The impaired platelet aggregation response to ristocetin stimulation and corresponding increase in factor VIII activity in TBI patients may be secondary to a TBI-induced effect on vWF quantity (due to injury-driven consumption of vWF) or vWF function with resultant increase in circulating factor VIII activity (due to impaired carrying capacity of vWF). Given there are multiple known therapies for vWF deficits including desmopressin, purified and recombinant vWF, and estrogens, these lines of investigation are particularly compelling in patients with TBI and hemorrhage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level II.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ristocetina/farmacologia , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/farmacologia , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 3(1): e000171, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023434

RESUMO

Background: Complications after injury, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated with poor clinical outcomes. The mechanisms driving non-neurologic organ dysfunction after TBI are not well understood. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) is a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase activity, inflammation, and vascular permeability, and hence has plausibility as a biomarker for the systemic response to TBI. Methods: In a retrospective study of 182 patients with severe isolated TBI, we measured TIMP-3 in plasma obtained on emergency department arrival. We used non-parametric tests and logistic regression analyses to test the association of TIMP-3 with the incidence of ARDS within 8 days of admission and in-hospital mortality. Results: TIMP-3 was significantly higher among subjects who developed ARDS compared with those who did not (median 2810 pg/mL vs. 2260 pg/mL, p=0.008), and significantly higher among subjects who died than among those who survived to discharge (median 2960 pg/mL vs. 2080 pg/mL, p<0.001). In an unadjusted logistic regression model, for each SD increase in plasma TIMP-3, the odds of ARDS increased significantly, OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.1). This association was only attenuated in multivariate models, OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.0). In an unadjusted logistic regression model, for each SD increase in plasma TIMP-3, the odds of death increased significantly, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.3). The magnitude of this association was greater in a multivariate model adjusted for markers of injury severity, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Discussion: TIMP-3 may play an important role in the biology of the systemic response to brain injury in humans. Along with clinical and demographic data, early measurements of plasma biomarkers such as TIMP-3 may help identify patients at higher risk of ARDS and death after severe isolated TBI. Level of evidence: III.

19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 148-154, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and longer hospitalizations. The relationship between posttraumatic ARDS severity and financial burden has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that increasing ARDS severity is associated with incrementally higher health care costs. METHODS: Adults arriving as the highest level of trauma activation were enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Patients who survived 6 hours or longer are included in the analysis. Blinded review of chest radiographs was performed by two independent physicians for any intubated patient with PaO2:FIO2 ratio of 300 mmHg or lower during the first 8 days of admission. The severity of ARDS was classified by the Berlin criteria. Hospital charge data were used to perform standard costing analysis. RESULTS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 13% (203 of 1,586). The distribution of disease severity was 33% mild, 42% moderate, and 25% severe. Patients with ARDS were older (41 years vs. 35 years, p < 0.01), had higher median Injury Severity Score (30 vs. 10, p < 0.01), more chest injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale score, ≥ 3: 51% vs. 21%, p < 0.01), and blunt mechanisms (85% vs. 53%, p < 0.01). By ARDS severity, there was no significant difference in age, mechanism, or rate of traumatic brain injury. Increasing ARDS severity was associated with higher Injury Severity Score and higher mortality rates. Standardized total hospital charges were fourfold higher for patients who developed ARDS compared with those who did not develop ARDS (US $434,000 vs. US $96,000; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the daily hospital charges significantly increased across categories of worsening ARDS severity (mild, US $20,451; moderate, US $23,994; severe, US $33,316; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The development of posttraumatic ARDS is associated with higher health care costs. Among trauma patients who develop ARDS, total hospital charges per day increase with worsening severity of disease. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment of ARDS after trauma are potentially important objectives for efforts to control health care costs in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic and value-based evaluations, level IV.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia
20.
Pulm Circ ; 8(2): 2045894018769876, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575977

RESUMO

Experimental models of sepsis in small and large animals and a variety of in vitro preparations have established several basic mechanisms that drive endothelial injury. This review is focused on what can be learned from the results of clinical studies of plasma biomarkers of endothelial injury and inflammation in patients with sepsis. There is excellent evidence that elevated plasma levels of several biomarkers of endothelial injury, including von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1), and biomarkers of inflammation, especially interleukin-8 (IL-8) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFr), identify sepsis patients with a higher mortality. There are also some data that elevated levels of endothelial biomarkers can identify which patients with non-pulmonary sepsis will develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). If ARDS patients are divided among those with indirect versus direct lung injury, then there is an association of elevated levels of endothelial biomarkers in indirect injury and markers of inflammation and alveolar epithelial injury in patients with direct lung injury. New research suggests that the combination of biologic and clinical markers may make it possible to segregate patients with ARDS into hypo- versus hyper-inflammatory phenotypes that may have implications for therapeutic responses to fluid therapy. Taken together, the studies reviewed here support a primary role of the microcirculation in the pathogenesis and prognosis of ARDS after sepsis. Biological differences identified by molecular patterns could explain heterogeneity of treatment effects that are not explained by clinical factors alone.

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