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1.
Blood Adv ; 4(3): 539-545, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045473

RESUMO

Patients with severe autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) experience acute hematologic emergencies during disease flares and a lifelong threat for relapse. Rituximab, in addition to steroids and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), has been shown to mitigate relapse risk. A barrier to care in initiating rituximab in the inpatient setting has been the presumed excessive cost of medication to the hospital. Retrospectively reviewing TTP admissions from 2004 to 2018 at our academic center, we calculated the actual inpatient cost of care. We then calculated the theoretical cost to the hospital of initiating rituximab in the inpatient setting for both initial TTP and relapse TTP cohorts, with the hypothesis that preventing sufficient future TTP admissions offsets the cost of initiating rituximab in all patients with TTP. At a median follow-up of 55 months in the initial TTP cohort, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $905 906 and would have prevented 185 inpatient admission days and saved 137 TPE procedures. In the relapse TTP setting, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $425 736 and would have prevented 86 inpatient admission days and saved 64 TPE procedures. From a hospital cost standpoint, cost of rituximab should no longer be a barrier to initiating inpatient rituximab in both initial and relapse TTP settings.

3.
Transfusion ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood donors represent a healthy population, whose red blood cell (RBC) alloantibody persistence or evanescence kinetics may differ from those of immunocompromised patients. A better understanding of the biologic factors impacting antibody persistence is warranted, as the presence of alloantibodies may impact donor health and the fate of the donated blood product. METHODS: Donor/donation data collected from four US blood centers from 2012 to 2016 as part of the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) were analyzed. Clinically significant antibodies from blood donors with more than one donation who underwent at least one follow-up antibody screen after the initial antibody identification were included. Of 632,378 blood donors, 481 (128 males and 353 females) fit inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Antibody screens detected 562 alloantibodies, with 368 of 562 (65%) of antibodies being persistently detected and with 194 of 562 (35%) becoming evanescent. Factors associated with antibody persistence included antibody specificity, detection at the first donation, reported history of transfusion, and detection of multiple antibodies concurrently. Anti-D, C, and Fya were most likely to persist, while anti-M, Jka , and S were most frequently evanescent. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide insight into variables impacting the duration of antibody detection, and they may also influence blood donor center policies regarding donor recruitment/acceptance.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(2): 327-355, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red cell transfusions remain a mainstay of therapy for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but pose significant clinical challenges. Guidance for specific indications and administration of transfusion, as well as screening, prevention, and management of alloimmunization, delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs), and iron overload may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop evidence-based guidelines to support patients, clinicians, and other healthcare professionals in their decisions about transfusion support for SCD and the management of transfusion-related complications. METHODS: The American Society of Hematology formed a multidisciplinary panel that was balanced to minimize bias from conflicts of interest and that included a patient representative. The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes. The Mayo Clinic Evidence-Based Practice Research Program supported the guideline development process. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to form recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel developed 10 recommendations focused on red cell antigen typing and matching, indications, and mode of administration (simple vs red cell exchange), as well as screening, prevention, and management of alloimmunization, DHTRs, and iron overload. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of panel recommendations were conditional due to the paucity of direct, high-certainty evidence for outcomes of interest. Research priorities were identified, including prospective studies to understand the role of serologic vs genotypic red cell matching, the mechanism of HTRs resulting from specific alloantigens to inform therapy, the role and timing of regular transfusions during pregnancy for women, and the optimal treatment of transfusional iron overload in SCD.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674662

RESUMO

The relevance of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in HLA-mismatched haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is known, but the importance of HLA antibodies in HLA-matched HCT is unclear. We hypothesized that HLA antibodies detected before HCT would cause platelet transfusion refractoriness during HCT and investigated this in a multi-centre study. Pre-HCT samples from 45 paediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing HLA-matched HCT were tested for HLA class I antibodies. The number of platelet transfusions received before day +45 was compared between those with and without antibodies. Thirteen of 45 (29%) patients had a positive HLA class I antibody screen, and these patients received significantly more platelet transfusions than patients without antibodies (median 19 vs. 7·5, P = 0·028). This platelet transfusion association remained significant when controlling for conditioning regimen. Among alloimmunized patients, there was no association between the panel-reactive antibody and the number of platelet transfusions. Patients with HLA class I antibodies also had a higher incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD): 6/13 (46%) vs. 3/32 (9%), P = 0·011. Pre-HCT HLA class I alloimmunization is associated with increased platelet transfusion support and acute GVHD in paediatric HLA-matched HCT for SCD. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathobiology of this association.

7.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 26(6): 434-441, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483335

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an important treatment for some complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). On the contrary, transfusion may lead to alloimmunization to RBC antigens, with such alloantibodies putting patients at risk for acute or delayed hemolysis, and increasing the difficulty of finding compatible RBCs. Patients with SCD are more susceptible to developing RBC alloantibodies than other multiply transfused patient populations, for reasons that are not completely understood. In this review, we summarize the available data about risk factors and underlying mechanisms associated with RBC alloimmunization in SCD. RECENT FINDINGS: Although RBC antigen matching between blood donors and transfusion recipients can decrease alloimmunization, complete matching at all loci is not feasible. Patients with SCD show evidence of increased inflammation at baseline and in times of illness. Resultant changes to the innate and adaptive immune systems presumably influence the development of RBC alloantibodies as well as RBC autoantibodies. SUMMARY: The inflammation and immune dysregulation associated with SCD may be therapeutic targets for preventing the formation of antibodies and/or for mitigating the dangers of existing RBC alloantibodies. As long as RBC transfusion therapy remains an important treatment for SCD, the quest to improve its safety profile will continue.

8.
Transfusion ; 59(10): 3243-3252, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a fraction of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion recipients form alloantibodies, and variables determining responsiveness or nonresponsiveness are poorly understood. We and others have previously shown in animal models that pretreatment with toll-like receptor agonists that mimic different types of infections impacts the magnitude or frequency of RBC alloantibody responses. We hypothesized that influenza infection, coexistent with transfusion, would impact responses to transfused RBCs in a manner dependent on Type 1(α/ß) interferon (IFN) signaling and tested this in a murine model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Wild-type mice or mice lacking the ability to respond to Type 1 IFN were infected with influenza prior to the transfusion of transgenic murine RBCs (K1) expressing the human KEL glycoprotein or the triple fusion HOD protein. Alloantibody responses were measured longitudinally after transfusion by flow cytometric crossmatch, and posttransfusion RBC recovery and survival was evaluated. RESULTS: Influenza-infected mice transfused with K1 RBCs developed robust anti-KEL alloantibodies, whereas animals transfused in the absence of infection remained nonresponders; influenza-associated RBC alloimmunization was also observed after transfusion of HOD RBCs. Recipient Type 1 IFN production was critical to the mechanism of action of influenza-induced RBC alloimmunization, with alloimmunization being significantly decreased in mice unable to sense Type 1 IFN (through antibody blockade or genetic approaches). CONCLUSION: These and other data suggest that Type 1 IFN responses to toll-like receptor agonists or infections regulate RBC alloantibody responses. Studies investigating whether such a correlation exists in humans may be informative.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3494, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375667

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an idiopathic, inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. Clinical studies have linked NEC with antecedent red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we report a neonatal murine model to investigate this association. C57BL/6 mouse pups rendered anemic by timed phlebotomy and then given RBC transfusions develop NEC-like intestinal injury with prominent necrosis, inflammation, and submucosal edema/separation of the lamina propria in the ileocecal region and colon within 12-24 h. The anemic intestine is infiltrated by inflammatory macrophages, which are activated in situ by RBC transfusions via a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-mediated mechanism and cause bowel injury. Chelation of RBC degradation products with haptoglobin, absence of TLR4, macrophage depletion, and inhibition of macrophage activation is protective. Intestinal injury worsens with increasing severity and the duration of anemia prior to transfusion, indicating a need for the re-evaluation of current transfusion guidelines for premature infants.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Anemia/terapia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ceco/patologia , Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/patologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Transfusion ; 59(10): 3219-3227, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the clinical significance of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies, there are currently no laboratory tests available to predict which patients may be at risk of antibody formation after transfusion exposure. Given their phagocytic and inflammatory functions, we hypothesized that differences in circulating monocytes may play a role in alloimmunization. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-two adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) were recruited, with data extracted from the electronic medical record and peripheral blood analyzed by flow cytometry for total monocytes, monocyte subsets (CD14 high/CD16 low+ classical monocytes, CD14 high/CD16 high+ intermediate monocytes, and CD14 intermediate/CD16 high+ non-classical/inflammatory monocytes), and FcγR1 (CD64) expression. Thirteen "non-responder" patients (non-alloimmunized patients with documented RBC transfusion at the study institution) were compared to 20 alloimmunized "responder" patients, who had a total of 44 RBC alloantibodies identified. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the percentages of total monocytes, monocyte subsets, or measured cytokines between non-responders and responders. However, non-responders had higher CD64 expression on classical monocytes (MFI mean 3424 ± standard deviation 1141) compared to responders (MFI mean 2285 ± 1501), p = 0.029, and on intermediate monocytes (MFI mean 3720 ± 1191) compared to responders (MFI mean 2497 ± 1640), p = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: Monocytes and the inflammatory milieu increasingly are being appreciated to play a role in some complications of SCD. The differences in FcγR1 expression on monocyte subsets noted between responders and non-responders, which cannot be directly explained by the serum cytokines evaluated, warrant further investigation.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(23): 519-523, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194723

RESUMO

During May-October 2018, four patients from three states experienced sepsis after transfusion of apheresis platelets contaminated with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (ACBC) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus; one patient died. ACBC isolates from patients' blood, transfused platelet residuals, and two environmental samples were closely related by whole genome sequencing. S. saprophyticus isolates from two patients' blood, three transfused platelet residuals, and one hospital environmental sample formed two whole genome sequencing clusters. This whole genome sequencing analysis indicated a potential common source of bacterial contamination; investigation into the contamination source continues. All platelet donations were collected using apheresis cell separator machines and collection sets from the same manufacturer; two of three collection sets were from the same lot. One implicated platelet unit had been treated with pathogen-inactivation technology, and two had tested negative with a rapid bacterial detection device after negative primary culture. Because platelets are usually stored at room temperature, bacteria in contaminated platelet units can proliferate to clinically relevant levels by the time of transfusion. Clinicians should monitor for sepsis after platelet transfusions even after implementation of bacterial contamination mitigation strategies. Recognizing adverse transfusion reactions and reporting to the platelet supplier and hemovigilance systems is crucial for public health practitioners to detect and prevent sepsis associated with contaminated platelets.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/microbiologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Sepse/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
14.
Transfusion ; 59(6): 1911-1915, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemolytic transfusion reactions from out-of-group plasma in platelet (PLT) transfusions are uncommon, with most involving passive transfer of anti-A. Only rare reactions have ever been reported due to anti-B. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An apheresis PLT product was donated by a blood group O male, processed using PLT additive solution, and pathogen reduced. Postreaction recipient testing included an antibody screen using gel technology, a direct antiglobulin test (DAT) using immunoglobulin G and C3, and an eluate against group O and B cells. Postreaction donor testing included measuring anti-B titers in saline, with and without anti-human globulin. RESULTS: A 60-year-old blood group B patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia developed confusion, fever, and hypotension within hours after a blood group O PLT transfusion. The posttransfusion reaction evaluation was remarkable for a positive DAT 3+ for C3; the eluate showed anti-B. Rapid extravascular hemolysis occurred, with a 50% decline in hemoglobin, a high lactate dehydrogenase, and a high bilirubin. She was resuscitated with fluids, blood products, pressors, and oxygen and died of asystole 60 hours later. The donor's anti-B titers were 128 by tube testing at immediate spin and 512 at the anti-human globulin phase. Notably, a group B patient at a different hospital received a split of the same apheresis unit, with no reaction. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first fatality reported from passively transfused anti-B. The fact that one transfusion recipient died whereas another did not have any reported reaction highlights the potential importance of recipient variables in isohemagglutinin-mediated hemolysis.

15.
Blood ; 133(17): 1821-1830, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808636

RESUMO

Blood transfusion is the most common procedure completed during a given hospitalization in the United States. Although often life-saving, transfusions are not risk-free. One sequela that occurs in a subset of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion recipients is the development of alloantibodies. It is estimated that only 30% of induced RBC alloantibodies are detected, given alloantibody induction and evanescence patterns, missed opportunities for alloantibody detection, and record fragmentation. Alloantibodies may be clinically significant in future transfusion scenarios, potentially resulting in acute or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or in difficulty locating compatible RBC units for future transfusion. Alloantibodies can also be clinically significant in future pregnancies, potentially resulting in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. A better understanding of factors that impact RBC alloantibody formation may allow general or targeted preventative strategies to be developed. Animal and human studies suggest that blood donor, blood product, and transfusion recipient variables potentially influence which transfusion recipients will become alloimmunized, with genetic as well as innate/adaptive immune factors also playing a role. At present, judicious transfusion of RBCs is the primary strategy invoked in alloimmunization prevention. Other mitigation strategies include matching RBC antigens of blood donors to those of transfusion recipients or providing immunomodulatory therapies prior to blood product exposure in select recipients with a history of life-threatening alloimmunization. Multidisciplinary collaborations between providers with expertise in transfusion medicine, hematology, oncology, transplantation, obstetrics, and immunology, among other areas, are needed to better understand RBC alloimmunization and refine preventative strategies.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/imunologia , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/sangue , Reação Transfusional/etiologia , Humanos
16.
Transfusion ; 59(5): 1651-1656, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that specific groups of patients immunologically respond more readily than others to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. While allogeneic RBC antigen exposure is the primary determinant of alloantibody formation, other variables are also involved. Given the significant primary sequence identity between common RBC and microbial antigens, we hypothesized that certain individuals may be immunologically primed to form RBC alloantibodies via environmental exposure to cross-reactive microbial epitopes, and that such a correlation may be linked to blood group antigen immunogenicity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the relationship between RBC-microbe peptide homology and the formation of alloantibodies to the most immunogenic RBC antigens, using the BLASTp homology database. Thirteen-residue peptides centered on the polymorphic amino acids of K, Jka , Lua , E, c, M, C, and S antigens were queried for identity with microbial peptides using the BLASTp database. Results were restricted to bacteria and fungi, with a selective threshold of >80% identity for inclusion, to allow for minor peptide variability. RESULTS: Significant peptide identity was found between RBC antigens and pathogenic organisms including B. fragilis, P. aeruginosa, and Candida spp., among others. Linear regression and k-medoids clustering analysis of the microbial genera meeting the inclusion criteria showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with RBC immunogenicity (b = -0.0017, r2 = 0.624 & p = 0.0197), with lower immunogenicity antigens associated with larger number of genera. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings raise a potential relationship between microbial exposure and alloantibody formation, and lead to interesting questions regarding the potential relationship between RBC antigen immunogenicity and microbial prevalence.

17.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 217-225, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in healthy US blood donors, despite the potential significance for donors themselves, blood recipients, and the blood center. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Donor/donation data were sourced from the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, which contains information from four US blood centers during 2012 through 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess prevalence of positive antibody screen by donor demographics, blood type, parity, and transfusion history. RESULTS: More than 2 million units were collected from 632,378 donors, with 0.51% of donations antibody screen positive and 0.77% of donors having at least one positive antibody screen. The most common antibody specificities were D (26.4%), E (23.8%), and K (21.6%). Regression analysis indicated that increasing age, female sex, D-negative status, and history of transfusion and pregnancy were positively associated with a positive antibody screen. Prior transfusion history was most strongly associated with a positive antibody screen, with donors reporting a prior transfusion having a higher adjusted odds ratio (3.9) of having a positive antibody screen compared to donors reporting prior pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0). Though transfusion was a more potent immune stimulus for RBC alloantibody formation than pregnancy, the sheer number of previously pregnant donors contributed to pregnancy being a risk factor for the majority of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies detected in females. CONCLUSION: These findings on prevalence of and risk factors for RBC antibodies may have implications for future medical care of donors and for operations at blood centers.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Blood Transfus ; 17(5): 368-377, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the development of alloantibodies against blood group antigens on transfused red blood cells are poorly defined. We hypothesised that transfused platelets may act as a danger signal to recipients and affect humoral immune responses to transfused red blood cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma prepared from wild-type C57BL/6 or CD40L knock-out donors was transfused into wild-type or CD40L knock-out recipients. Leucoreduced red blood cells from transgenic donors expressing high levels of the human KEL glycoprotein in an erythrocyte-specific manner (KELhi donors) were transfused after the platelets, and anti-KEL responses were measured longitudinally. In some experiments, recipients were treated with poly (I:C), monoclonal CD40L-blocking antibody, or CD4-depleting antibody prior to transfusion. RESULTS: Transfusion of wild-type C57BL/6 platelets or treatment with poly (I:C) prior to KELhi red blood cell transfusion led to an anti-KEL alloimmune response in wild-type recipients. Transfusion of platelets from wild-type but not CD40L knock-out donors prior to KELhi red blood cell transfusion led to an IgG anti-KEL alloimmune response in CD40L knock-out recipients; unexpectedly, transfusion of platelets from CD40L knock-out donors prior to KELhi red blood cell transfusion led to a robust anti-KEL alloimmune response in wild-type recipients. Recipient treatment with MR1 CD40L-blocking antibody or CD4-depleting antibody prevented KEL alloimmunisation altogether. DISCUSSION: Transfused platelets serve as an adjuvant in this T-dependent murine model of anti-KEL red blood cell alloimmunisation, with CD40/CD40L interactions being involved to some degree but with additional mechanisms also playing a role. These findings raise questions about the role that transfused or endogenous platelets may play in other innate/adaptive immune responses.

19.
Immunol Res ; 66(6): 755, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574664

RESUMO

In the recently published paper, "Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview", the last name of the lead author is listed incorrectly. The author's name is Svetlana Blitshteyn.

20.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2516, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505302

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization represents a significant immunological challenge for some patients. While a variety of immune constituents likely contribute to the initiation and orchestration of alloantibodies to RBC antigens, identification of key immune factors that initiate alloantibody formation may aid in the development of a therapeutic modality to minimize or prevent this process. To define the immune factors that may be important in driving alloimmunization to an RBC antigen, we determined the specific immune compartment and distinct cells that may initially engage transfused RBCs and facilitate subsequent alloimmunization. Our findings demonstrate that the splenic compartment is essential for formation of anti-KEL antibodies following KEL RBC transfusion. Within the spleen, transfused KEL RBCs are found within the marginal sinus, where they appear to specifically co-localize with marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Consistent with this, removal of MZ B cells completely prevented alloantibody formation following KEL RBC transfusion. While MZ B cells can mediate a variety of key downstream immune pathways, depletion of follicular B cells or CD4 T cells failed to similarly impact the anti-KEL antibody response, suggesting that MZ B cells may play a key role in the development of anti-KEL IgM and IgG following KEL RBC transfusion. These findings highlight a key contributor to KEL RBC-induced antibody formation, wherein MZ B cells facilitate antibody formation following RBC transfusion.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Baço/imunologia
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