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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 350: 19-24, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a genetic disorder characterized by systemic calcification of elastin fibers. Additionally, PXE is associated with an increased risk of stroke. It has been hypothesized that this may be caused by accelerated (intracranial) atherogenesis, as a consequence of specific genetic mutations underlying PXE. Hence, we compared the distribution and burden of intracranial atherosclerosis between PXE patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty PXE patients and 40 age-and-sex-matched healthy controls (without previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease) underwent 3T MRI to visualize atherosclerotic intracranial vessel wall lesions (VWLs). We compared the presence and burden of VWLs (total and for the anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, intracranial internal carotid, posterior cerebral, and basilar arteries separately) between PXE patients and healthy controls using logistic (presence versus absence) and negative binomial regression models (VWL count) adjusted for relevant confounders. All regressions included group (PXE patients vs. healthy controls) as independent variable. RESULTS: We found that 34 (68.0%) PXE patients and 28 (70.0%) healthy controls had a VWL (odds ratio for presence 1.06 [95%CI 0.38-2.91]). In addition, the total burden of VWLs was similar between PXE patients (68 VWLs) and healthy controls (73 VWLs, incidence rate ratio for count 0.81 [95%CI 0.55-1.20]). Findings were similar when analyses were stratified for artery. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution and burden of intracranial atherosclerosis were similar between PXE patients and healthy controls. This implies PXE and its underlying mutations do not involve increased (intracranial) atherogenesis and that vascular calcification or other mechanisms explains the increased stroke risk in PXE.

2.
Neurology ; 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-treatment radiological deterioration of patients with an irradiated high-grade (WHO grade 3-4) glioma (HGG) may be the result of true progressive disease (PD) or treatment-induced effects (TIE). Differentiation between these entities is of great importance, but remains a diagnostic challenge. This study assesses the diagnostic value of conventional MRI characteristics to differentiate PD from TIE in HGGs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single-centre, retrospective, consecutive cohort study, we included adults with a HGG, who were treated with (chemo-)radiotherapy and subsequently developed a new or increasing contrast-enhancing lesion on conventional follow-up MRI. TIE and PD were defined radiologically as stable/decreased for ≥6 weeks or RANO-progression, and histologically as TIE without viable tumour or PD. Two neuroradiologists assessed twenty-one preselected MRI characteristics of the progressive lesions. The statistical analysis included logistic regression to develop a) a full multivariable model b) a diagnostic model with model reduction, and a Cohen's Kappa interrater reliability (IRR) coefficient. RESULTS: 210 patients (median age=61, IQR=54-68, 189 males) with 284 lesions were included, of which 141 (50%) had PD. Median time to PD was 2 (0.7-6.1) and to TIE 0.9 (0.7-3.5) months after radiotherapy. After multivariable modelling and model reduction, the following determinants prevailed: Radiation dose (Odds ratio (OR)=0.68, 95%-CI=0.49-0.93), longer time to progression (TTP, OR=3.56, 95%-CI=1.84-6.88), marginal enhancement (OR=2.04, 95%-CI=1.09-3.83), soap bubble enhancement (OR=2.63, 95%-CI=1.39-4.98) and isointense apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-signal (OR=2.11, 95%-CI=1.05-4.24). ORs>1 indicate higher odds of PD. The Hosmer&Lemeshow test showed good calibration (p=0.947) and the area under the ROC-curve was 0.722 (95%-CI=0.66-0.78). In the glioblastoma subgroup, TTP, marginal enhancement and ADC-signal were significant. IRR analysis between neuroradiologists revealed moderate to near-perfect agreement for the predictive items, but poor agreement for others. DISCUSSION: Several characteristics from conventional MRI are significant predictors for the discrimination between PD and TIE. However, IRR was variable. Conventional MRI characteristics from this study should be incorporated into a multimodal diagnostic model with advanced imaging techniques. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with irradiated HGGs, radiation dose, longer time to progression, marginal enhancement, soap bubble enhancement and isointense apparent ADC-signal distinguish PD from TIE.

3.
J Neurol ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) are caused by inflammatory changes of peripheral nerves. It is unknown if the intra-spinal roots are also affected. This MRI study systematically visualized intra-spinal nerve roots, i.e., the ventral and dorsal roots, in patients with CIDP, MMN and motor neuron disease (MND). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 40 patients with CIDP, 27 with MMN and 34 with MND. All patients underwent an MRI scan of the cervical intra-spinal roots. We systematically measured intra-spinal nerve root sizes bilaterally in the transversal plane at C5, C6 and C7 level. We calculated mean nerve root sizes and compared them between study groups and between different clinical phenotypes using a univariate general linear model. RESULTS: Patients with MMN and CIDP with a motor phenotype had thicker ventral roots compared to patients with CIDP with a sensorimotor phenotype (p = 0.012), while patients with CIDP with a sensory phenotype had thicker dorsal roots compared to patients with a sensorimotor phenotype (p = 0.001) and with MND (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: We here show changes in the morphology of intra-spinal nerve roots in patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies, compatible with their clinical phenotype.

4.
Stroke ; 53(2): 370-378, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidence of ischemic stroke differs between men and women, with substantially higher rates in men. The underlying mechanism of this difference remains poorly understood but may be because of differences in carotid atherosclerosis. Using an in-depth imaging-based approach, we investigated differences between carotid plaque composition and morphology in male and female patients with stroke, taking into account differences in total plaque burden. Additionally, we investigated all possible within-artery combinations of plaque characteristics to explore differences between various plaque phenotypes. METHODS: We included 156 men and 68 women from the PARISK (Plaque At Risk) study, a prospective cohort study of patients with recent ischemic cerebrovascular symptoms and <70% ipsilateral carotid stenosis. Plaque characteristics (intraplaque hemorrhage [IPH], lipid-rich necrotic core [LRNC], calcifications, thin-or-ruptured fibrous cap, ulcerations, total plaque volume) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to assess sex differences in plaque characteristics. RESULTS: We found significant difference in total plaque volume between men and women (ß=22.9 mm3 [95% CI, 15.4-30.5]; mean volume in men 1399±425 mm3, in women 1011±242 mm3). Additionally, men were more likely to have IPH (odds ratio [OR]=2.8 [95% CI, 1.3-6.3]; IPH proportion in men 49%, in women 16%) and LRNC (OR=2.4 [95% CI, 1.2-4.7]; LRNC proportion in men 73%, in women 41%) even after adjustment for total plaque volume. We found no sex-specific differences in plaque volume-corrected volumes of IPH, LRNC, and calcifications. In terms of coexistence of plaque characteristics, we found that men had more often a plaque with coexistence of calcifications, LRNC, and IPH (OR=2.7 [95% CI, 1.2-7.0]), with coexistence of thin-or-ruptured fibrous cap/ulcerations, LRNC, and IPH (OR=2.4 [95% CI, 1.1-5.9]), and with coexistence of all plaque characteristics (OR=3.0 [95% CI, 1.2-8.6]). CONCLUSIONS: In symptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate carotid stenosis, men are more likely to have a high-risk carotid plaque with IPH and LRNC than women, regardless of total plaque burden. Men also have more often a plaque with multiple vulnerable plaque components, which could comprise an even higher stroke risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01208025.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Calcinose/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
5.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(1): 82-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sensitivity of brain MRI and neurological examination for detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied 192 patients with ALS and 314 controls longitudinally. All patients visited our centre twice and underwent full neurological examination and brain MRI. At each visit, we assessed UMN degeneration by measuring motor cortex thickness (CT) and pyramidal tract fibre density (FD) corresponding to five body regions (bulbar region and limbs). For each body region, we measured degree of clinical UMN and lower motor neuron (LMN) symptom burden using a validated scoring system. RESULTS: We found deterioration over time of CT of motor regions (p≤0.0081) and progression of UMN signs of bulbar region and left arm (p≤0.04). FD was discriminative between controls and patients with moderate/severe UMN signs (all regions, p≤0.034), but did not change longitudinally. Higher clinical UMN burden correlated with reduced CT, but not lower FD, for the bulbar region (p=2.2×10-10) and legs (p≤0.025). In the arms, we found that severe LMN signs may reduce the detectability of UMN signs (p≤0.043). With MRI, UMN degeneration was detectable before UMN signs became clinically evident (CT: p=1.1×10-10, FD: p=6.3×10-4). Motor CT, but not FD, deteriorated more than UMN signs during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Motor CT is a more sensitive measure of UMN degeneration than UMN signs. Motor CT and pyramidal tract FD are discriminative between patients and controls. Brain MRI can monitor UMN degeneration before signs become clinically evident. These findings promote MRI as a potential biomarker for UMN progression in clinical trials in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Neuroimagem , Exame Neurológico , Tratos Piramidais/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Magn Reson Med ; 87(2): 800-809, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical applicability of renal arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI is hampered because of time consuming and observer dependent post-processing, including manual segmentation of the cortex to obtain cortical renal blood flow (RBF). Machine learning has proven its value in medical image segmentation, including the kidneys. This study presents a fully automatic workflow for renal cortex perfusion quantification by including machine learning-based segmentation. METHODS: Fully automatic workflow was achieved by construction of a cascade of 3 U-nets to replace manual segmentation in ASL quantification. All 1.5T ASL-MRI data, including M0 , T1 , and ASL label-control images, from 10 healthy volunteers was used for training (dataset 1). Trained cascade performance was validated on 4 additional volunteers (dataset 2). Manual segmentations were generated by 2 observers, yielding reference and second observer segmentations. To validate the intended use of the automatic segmentations, manual and automatic RBF values in mL/min/100 g were compared. RESULTS: Good agreement was found between automatic and manual segmentations on dataset 1 (dice score = 0.78 ± 0.04), which was in line with inter-observer variability (dice score = 0.77 ± 0.02). Good agreement was confirmed on dataset 2 (dice score = 0.75 ± 0.03). Moreover, similar cortical RBF was obtained with automatic or manual segmentations, on average and at subject level; with 211 ± 31 mL/min/100 g and 208 ± 31 mL/min/100 g (P < .05), respectively, with narrow limits of agreement at -11 and 4.6 mL/min/100 g. RBF accuracy with automated segmentations was confirmed on dataset 2. CONCLUSION: Our proposed method automates ASL quantification without compromising RBF accuracy. With quick processing and without observer dependence, renal ASL-MRI is more attractive for clinical application as well as for longitudinal and multi-center studies.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfusão , Fluxo de Trabalho
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 732646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869634

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Shear stress (WSS) is involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic disease and might affect plaque ulceration. In this case-control study, we compared carotid plaques that developed a new ulcer during follow-up and plaques that remained silent for their exposure to time-dependent oscillatory shear stress parameters at baseline. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients who underwent CTA and MRI of their carotid arteries at baseline and 2 years follow-up were included. These 18 patients consisted of six patients who demonstrated a new ulcer and 12 control patients selected from a larger cohort with similar MRI-based plaque characteristics as the ulcer group. (Oscillatory) WSS parameters [time average WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT)] were calculated using computational fluid dynamics applying the MRI-based geometry of the carotid arteries and compared among plaques (wall thickness>2 mm) with and without ulceration (Mann-Whitney U test) and ulcer-site vs. non-ulcer-site within the plaque (Wilcoxon signed rank test). More detailed analysis on ulcer cases was performed and the predictive value of oscillatory WSS parameters was calculated using linear and logistic mixed-effect regression models. Results: The ulcer group demonstrated no difference in maximum WSS [9.9 (6.6-18.5) vs. 13.6 (9.7-17.7) Pa, p = 0.349], a lower maximum OSI [0.04 (0.01-0.10) vs. 0.12 (0.06-0.20) p = 0.019] and lower maximum RRT [1.25 (0.78-2.03) Pa-1 vs. 2.93 (2.03-5.28) Pa-1, p = 0.011] compared to controls. The location of the ulcer (ulcer-site) within the plaque was not always at the maximal WSS, but demonstrated higher average WSS, lower average RRT and OSI at the ulcer-site compared to the non-ulcer-sites. High WSS (WSS>4.3 Pa) and low RRT (RRT < 0.25 Pa) were associated with ulceration with an odds ratio of 3.6 [CI 2.1-6.3] and 2.6 [CI 1.54-4.44] respectively, which remained significant after adjustment for wall thickness. Conclusion: In this explorative study, ulcers were not exclusively located at plaque regions exposed to the highest WSS, OSI, or RRT, but high WSS and low RRT regions had a significantly higher odds to present ulceration within the plaque even after adjustment for wall thickness.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 329: 22-29, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and recurrent ischemic stroke. Lipoprotein(a) levels are known to be associated with carotid artery stenosis, but the relation of lipoprotein(a) levels to carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology is less known. We hypothesize that higher lipoprotein(a) levels and lipoprotein(a)-related SNPs are associated with a more vulnerable carotid plaque and that this effect is sex-specific. METHODS: In 182 patients of the Plaque At RISK study we determined lipoprotein(a) concentrations, apo(a) KIV-2 repeats and LPA SNPs. Imaging characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis were determined by MDCTA (n = 161) and/or MRI (n = 171). Regressions analyses were used to investigate sex-stratified associations between lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) KIV-2 repeats, and LPA SNPs and imaging characteristics. RESULTS: Lipoprotein(a) was associated with presence of lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00; 1.15), thin-or-ruptured fibrous cap (TRFC) (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01; 1.14), and degree of stenosis (ß = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.00; 0.88). In women, lipoprotein(a) was associated with presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.61). In men, lipoprotein(a) was associated with degree of stenosis (ß = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.04; 1.12). Rs10455872 was significantly associated with increased calcification volume (ß = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.25; 1.89) and absence of plaque ulceration (aOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.93). T3888P was associated with absence of LRNC (aOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16; 0.78) and smaller maximum vessel wall area (ß = -10.24, 95%CI: -19.03; -1.44). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, increased lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with degree of stenosis, and IPH, LRNC, and TRFC, known as vulnerable plaque characteristics, in the carotid artery. T3888P was associated with lower LRNC prevalence and smaller maximum vessel wall area. Further research in larger study populations is needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a) , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Neurology ; 97(11): e1063-e1074, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of silent vascular lesions, imaging negative ischemia, and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease with long-term progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions in patients with arterial disease. METHODS: Within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study, stroke status of participants at baseline was classified as no cerebrovascular disease (reference group, n = 829), symptomatic cerebrovascular disease (n = 206), silent vascular lesion (n = 157), and imaging-negative ischemia (n = 90) according to clinical and MRI findings. With the use of linear mixed models, changes in brain and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes at baseline and during 12 years of follow-up were studied in stroke classifications. Relative risks were estimated for new infarcts during follow-up associated with stroke classifications. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and medications. RESULTS: Symptomatic cerebrovascular disease associated with 0.35 SD (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.47) smaller brain volume and 0.61 SD (95% CI 0.48-0.74) larger WMH volume at baseline and increased risk for new infarcts during follow-up (risk ratio [RR] 2.89, 95% CI 2.00-4.16). Silent vascular lesions were associated with 0.15 SD (95% CI 0.01-0.88) smaller brain volume, 0.02 SD (95% CI 0.01-0.03) steeper brain atrophy slope, and 0.48 SD (95% CI 0.32-0.64) larger WMH volume at baseline, in addition to increased risk for lacunes (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.48-2.94). Individuals with imaging-negative ischemia had increased risk for cortical infarcts (RR 2.88, 95% CI 2.17-3.82). DISCUSSION: Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, silent vascular lesions, or imaging-negative ischemia have a different course of brain volume loss and cerebrovascular lesion development. These findings may have implications for future stroke risk and dementia and need further investigation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
10.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 41(11): 3127-3138, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187229

RESUMO

We determined the occurrence and association of cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) at 7 T MRI with risk factors, neuroimaging markers of small and large vessel disease, and cognitive functioning. Within the Medea-7T study, a diverse cohort of older persons with normal cognition, patients with vascular disease, and memory clinic patients, we included 386 participants (68 ± 9 years) with available 7 T and 1.5 T/3T brain MRI, and risk factor and neuropsychological data. CMIs were found in 10% of participants and were associated with older age (RR = 1.79 per +10 years, 95%CI 1.28-2.50), history of stroke or TIA (RR = 4.03, 95%CI 2.18-7.43), cortical infarcts (RR = 5.28, 95%CI 2.91-9.55), lacunes (RR = 5.66, 95%CI 2.85-11.27), cerebellar infarcts (RR = 2.73, 95%CI 1.27-5.84) and decreased cerebral blood flow (RR = 1.35 per -100 ml/min, 95%CI 1.00-1.83), after adjustment for age and sex. Furthermore, participants with >2 CMIs had 0.5 SD (95%CI 0.05-0.91) lower global cognitive performance, compared to participants without CMIs. Our results indicate that CMIs on 7 T MRI are observed in vascular and memory clinic patients with similar frequency, and are associated with older age, history of stroke or TIA, other brain infarcts, and poorer global cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Encefálico/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
11.
Neuroradiology ; 63(12): 2023-2033, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Predicting malignant progression of grade II gliomas would allow for earlier initiation of treatment. The hypothesis for this single-centre, case-control study was that the perfusion signal on ASL-MRI predicts such malignant progression in the following 12 months. METHODS: Consecutive patients with the following criteria were included: ≥ 18 years, grade II glioma (biopsied or resected) and an ASL-MRI 6-12 months prior to malignant progression (cases) or stable disease (controls). Malignant progression was defined either radiologically (new T1w-contrast enhancement) or histologically (neurosurgical tissue sampling). Three controls were matched with each case. Some patients served as their own control by using earlier imaging. The ASL-MRIs were reviewed by two neuroradiologists and classified as positive (hyper-intense or iso-intense compared to cortical grey matter) or negative (hypo-intense). In patients with epilepsy, a neurologist reviewed clinicoradiological data to exclude peri-ictal pseudoprogression. The statistical analysis included diagnostic test properties, a Cohen's Kappa interrater reliability coefficient and stratification for previous radiotherapy. RESULTS: Eleven cases (median age = 48, IQR = 43-50 years) and 33 controls (43, 27-50 years) were included. Malignant progression appeared at 37 months (median, IQR = 17-44) after first surgery. Thirty ASL-MRIs were assessed as negative and 14 as positive. None of the MRIs showed signs of peri-ictal pseudoprogression. ASL significantly predicted subsequent malignant progression (sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 82%; OR = 12; 95%-CI = 2.4-59.1; p = 0.002). The interrater reliability coefficient was 0.65. In stratified analysis, ASL-MRI predicted malignant progression both in patients with previous radiotherapy and in those without (Mantel-Haenszel test, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Perfusion imaging with ASL-MRI can predict malignant progression within 12 months in patients with grade II glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Meios de Contraste , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Marcadores de Spin , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(9): 3133-3138, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dolichoarteriopathies of the extracranial part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are associated with cerebrovascular events, yet information on their prevalence and risk factors remains limited. The aim of the present study therefore was to study the prevalence and risk factors of dolichoarteriopathies in a sample of patients with cerebrovascular symptoms from the Plaque At RISK (PARISK) study. METHODS: In a random sample of 100 patients from the PARISK study, multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) was performed as part of clinical workup. On MDCTA, we evaluated the extracranial trajectory of the ICA by measuring the length (in millimeters), the tortuosity index (TI; defined as the ICA length divided by the shortest possible distance from bifurcation to skull base), and dolichoarteriopathy type (tortuosity, coiling or kinking). Next, we investigated the association between cardiovascular risk factors and these measurements using linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) length of the ICA was 93 (± 14) mm, with a median (interquartile range) TI of 1.2 (1.1-1.3). The overall prevalence of dolichoarteriopathies was 69%, with tortuosity being the most common (72%), followed by coiling (20%), and kinking (8%). We found that age and obesity were associated with a higher TI: difference per 10-year increase in age: 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.08) and 0.16 (95% CI 0.07-0.25) for obesity. Obesity and hypercholesterolemia were associated with a more severe type of dolichoarteriopathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.07 [95% CI 1.04-4.12] and OR 2.17 [95% CI 1.02-4.63], respectively). CONCLUSION: Dolichoarteriopathies in the extracranial ICA are common in patients with cerebrovascular symptoms, and age, obesity and hypercholesterolemia may play an important role in the pathophysiology of these abnormalities.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Estenose das Carótidas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 637556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025551

RESUMO

The relevance of intracranial vessel wall lesions detected with MRI is not fully established. In this study (trial identification number: NTR2119; www.trialregister.nl), 7T MRI was used to investigate if a higher vessel wall lesion burden is associated with more cerebral parenchymal changes in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). MR images of 82 patients were assessed for the number of vessel wall lesions of the large intracranial arteries and for cerebral parenchymal changes, including the presence and number of cortical, small subcortical, and deep gray matter infarcts; lacunes of presumed vascular origin; cortical microinfarcts; and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Regression analyses showed that a higher vessel wall lesion burden was associated with the presence of small subcortical infarcts, lacunes of presumed vascular origin, and deep gray matter infarcts (relative risk 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03-1.35) and presence of moderate-to-severe periventricular WMHs (1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.42), which are all manifestations of small vessel disease (SVD). The burden of enhancing vessel wall lesions was associated with the number of cortical microinfarcts only (1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.11). These results suggest an interrelationship between large vessel wall lesion burden and cerebral parenchymal manifestations often linked to SVD or, alternatively, that vascular changes occur in both large and small intracranial arteries simultaneously.

14.
Neuroinformatics ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019208

RESUMO

4D phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) allows for the visualization and quantification of the cerebral blood flow. A drawback of software that is used to quantify the cerebral blood flow is that it oftentimes assumes a static arterial luminal area over the cardiac cycle. Quantifying the lumen area pulsatility index (aPI), i.e. the change in lumen area due to an increase in distending pressure over the cardiac cycle, can provide insight in the stiffness of the arteries. Arterial stiffness has received increased attention as a predictor in the development of cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we introduce software that allows for measurement of the aPI as well as the blood flow velocity pulsatility index (vPI) from 4D PC-MRI. The internal carotid arteries of seven volunteers were imaged using 7 T MRI. The aPI and vPI measurements from 4D PC-MRI were validated against measurements from 2D PC-MRI at two levels of the internal carotid arteries (C3 and C7). The aPI and vPI computed from 4D PC-MRI were comparable to those measured from 2D PC-MRI (aPI: mean difference: 0.03 (limits of agreement: -0.14 - 0.23); vPI: 0.03 (-0.17-0.23)). The measured blood flow rate for the C3 and C7 segments was similar, indicating that our proposed software correctly captures the variation in arterial lumen area and blood flow velocity that exists along the distal end of the carotid artery. Our software may potentially aid in identifying changes in arterial stiffness of the intracranial arteries caused by pathological changes to the vessel wall.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7714, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833297

RESUMO

The performance of current machine learning methods to detect heterogeneous pathology is limited by the quantity and quality of pathology in medical images. A possible solution is anomaly detection; an approach that can detect all abnormalities by learning how 'normal' tissue looks like. In this work, we propose an anomaly detection method using a neural network architecture for the detection of chronic brain infarcts on brain MR images. The neural network was trained to learn the visual appearance of normal appearing brains of 697 patients. We evaluated its performance on the detection of chronic brain infarcts in 225 patients, which were previously labeled. Our proposed method detected 374 chronic brain infarcts (68% of the total amount of brain infarcts) which represented 97.5% of the total infarct volume. Additionally, 26 new brain infarcts were identified that were originally missed by the radiologist during radiological reading. Our proposed method also detected white matter hyperintensities, anomalous calcifications, and imaging artefacts. This work shows that anomaly detection is a powerful approach for the detection of multiple brain abnormalities, and can potentially be used to improve the radiological workflow efficiency by guiding radiologists to brain anomalies which otherwise remain unnoticed.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Idoso , Artefatos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(6): 881-887, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommending rapid revascularisation of symptomatic carotid stenosis are largely based on data from clinical trials performed at a time when best medical therapy was potentially less effective than today. The risk of stroke and its predictors among patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis awaiting revascularisation in recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and in medical arms of earlier RCTs was assessed. METHODS: The pooled data of individual patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis randomised to stenting (CAS) or endarterectomy (CEA) in four recent RCTs, and of patients randomised to medical therapy in three earlier RCTs comparing CEA vs. medical therapy, were compared. The primary outcome event was any stroke occurring between randomisation and treatment by CAS or CEA, or within 120 days after randomisation. RESULTS: A total of 4 754 patients from recent trials and 1 227 from earlier trials were included. In recent trials, patients were randomised a median of 18 (IQR 7, 50) days after the qualifying event (QE). Twenty-three suffered a stroke while waiting for revascularisation (cumulative 120 day risk 1.97%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75 - 3.17). Shorter time from QE until randomisation increased stroke risk after randomisation (χ2 = 6.58, p = .011). Sixty-one patients had a stroke within 120 days of randomisation in the medical arms of earlier trials (cumulative risk 5%, 95% CI 3.8 - 6.2). Stroke risk was lower in recent than earlier trials when adjusted for time between QE and randomisation, age, severity of QE, and degree of carotid stenosis (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 - 0.88, p = .019). CONCLUSION: Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis enrolled in recent large RCTs had a lower risk of stroke after randomisation than historical controls. The added benefit of carotid revascularisation to modern medical care needs to be revisited in future studies. Until then, adhering to current recommendations for early revascularisation of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis considered to require invasive treatment is advisable.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , AVC Isquêmico , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Revascularização Cerebral/tendências , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Stents , Listas de Espera
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 18-26, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is caused by variants in the ABCC6 gene. It results in calcification in the skin, peripheral arteries and the eyes, but has considerable phenotypic variability. We investigated the association between the ABCC6 genotype and calcification and clinical phenotypes in these different organs. METHODS: ABCC6 sequencing was performed in 289 PXE patients. Genotypes were grouped as two truncating, mixed, or two non-truncating variants. Arterial calcification mass was quantified on whole body, low dose CT scans; and peripheral arterial disease was measured with the ankle brachial index after treadmill test. The presence of pseudoxanthoma in the skin was systematically scored. Ophthalmological phenotypes were the length of angioid streaks as a measure of Bruchs membrane calcification, the presence of choroidal neovascularizations, severity of macular atrophy and visual acuity. Regression models were built to test the age and sex adjusted genotype-phenotype association. RESULTS: 158 patients (median age 51 years) had two truncating variants, 96 (median age 54 years) a mixed genotype, 18 (median age 47 years) had two non-truncating variants. The mixed genotype was associated with lower peripheral (ß: 0.39, 95%CI:-0.62;-0.17) and total (ß: 0.28, 95%CI:-0.47;-0.10) arterial calcification mass scores, and lower prevalence of choroidal neovascularizations (OR: 0.41 95%CI:0.20; 0.83) compared to two truncating variants. No association with pseudoxanthomas was found. CONCLUSIONS: PXE patients with a mixed genotype have less severe arterial and ophthalmological phenotypes than patients with two truncating variants in the ABCC6 gene. Research into environmental and genetic modifiers might provide further insights into the unexplained phenotypic variability.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Pseudoxantoma Elástico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Fenótipo , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/diagnóstico , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/genética
18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 101: 247-255, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647523

RESUMO

The underlying structural correlates of predisposition to postoperative delirium remain largely unknown. A combined analysis of preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers could improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of delirium. Therefore, we aimed to identify different MRI brain phenotypes in older patients scheduled for major elective surgery, and to assess the relation between these phenotypes and postoperative delirium. Markers of neurodegenerative and neurovascular brain changes were determined from MRI brain scans in older patients (n = 161, mean age 71, standard deviation 5 years), of whom 24 (15%) developed delirium. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. We found six distinct groups of patients with different MRI brain phenotypes. Logistic regression analysis showed a higher odds of developing postoperative delirium in individuals with multi-burden pathology (n = 15 (9%), odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 3.8 (1.1-13.0)). In conclusion, these results indicate that different MRI brain phenotypes are related to a different risk of developing delirium after major elective surgery. MRI brain phenotypes could assist in an improved understanding of the structural correlates of predisposition to postoperative delirium.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/genética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico por imagem , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fenótipo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Delírio/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Período Pré-Operatório , Risco
19.
Neurology ; 96(17): e2172-e2183, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether white matter hyperintensity (WMH) markers on MRI are associated with long-term risk of mortality and ischemic stroke. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with manifest arterial disease enrolled in the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study. We obtained WMH markers (volume, type, and shape) from brain MRI scans performed at baseline using an automated algorithm. During follow-up, occurrence of death and ischemic stroke was recorded. Using Cox regression, we investigated associations of WMH markers with risk of mortality and ischemic stroke, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: We included 999 patients (59 ± 10 years; 79% male) with a median follow-up of 12.5 years (range 0.2-16.0 years). A greater periventricular or confluent WMH volume was independently associated with a greater risk of vascular death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.47) for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed WMH volume and ischemic stroke (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86). A confluent WMH type was independently associated with a greater risk of vascular (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.11) and nonvascular death (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.73) and ischemic stroke (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36-5.87). A more irregular shape of periventricular or confluent WMH, as expressed by an increase in concavity index, was independently associated with a greater risk of vascular (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.38 per SD increase) and nonvascular death (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.42) and ischemic stroke (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.55). CONCLUSIONS: WMH volume, type, and shape are associated with long-term risk of mortality and ischemic stroke in patients with manifest arterial disease.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Leucoaraiose/mortalidade , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Leucoaraiose/complicações , Leucoaraiose/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
20.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(1): 131-142, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL) has been proposed for renal perfusion imaging to mitigate planning challenges and effects of arterial transit time (ATT) uncertainties. In VSASL, label generation may shift in the vascular tree as a function of cutoff velocity. Here, we investigate label dynamics and especially the ATT of renal VSASL and compared it with a spatially selective pulsed arterial spin labeling technique, flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR). METHODS: Arterial spin labeling data were acquired in 7 subjects, using free-breathing dual VSASL and FAIR with five postlabeling delays: 400, 800, 1200, 2000, and 2600 ms. The VSASL measurements were acquired with cutoff velocities of 5, 10, and 15 cm/s, with anterior-posterior velocity-encoding direction. Cortical perfusion-weighted signal, temporal SNR, quantified renal blood flow, and arterial transit time were reported. RESULTS: In contrast to FAIR, renal VSASL already showed fairly high signal at the earliest postlabeling delays, for all cutoff velocities. The highest VSASL signal and temporal SNR was obtained with a cutoff velocity of 10 cm/s at postlabeling delay = 800 ms, which was earlier than for FAIR at 1200 ms. Fitted ATT on VSASL was ≤ 0 ms, indicating ATT insensitivity, which was shorter than for FAIR (189 ± 79 ms, P < .05). Finally, the average cortical renal blood flow measured with cutoff velocities of 5 cm/s (398 ± 84 mL/min/100 g) and 10 cm/s (472 ± 160 mL/min/100 g) were similar to renal blood flow measured with FAIR (441 ± 84 mL/min/100 g) (P > .05) with good correlations on subject level. CONCLUSION: Velocity-selective arterial spin labeling in the kidney reduces ATT sensitivity compared with the recommended pulsed arterial spin labeling method, as well as if cutoff velocity is increased to reduce spurious labeling due to motion. Thus, VSASL has potential as a method for time-efficient, single-time-point, free-breathing renal perfusion measurements, despite lower tSNR than FAIR.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artérias , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Marcadores de Spin
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