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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Establishing effective external quality assessment (EQA) programmes is an important element in ensuring the quality of, and building capacity for, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) laboratory surveillance. OBJECTIVES: To understand the current coverage of, and challenges to participation in, EQAs in National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) across One Health (OH) sectors in Asia. METHODS: Current EQA coverage was evaluated through desktop review, online surveys and interviews of both EQA participants and providers. EQA coverage was mapped and summarized by laboratory type and 'readiness' level and identified challenges evaluated qualitatively. RESULTS: Of the 31 identified NRLs [16 Human Health (HH) and 15 Animal/Food Safety laboratories (A/FS)], 14 HH and 7 A/FS laboratories currently participated in international EQA schemes and several participated in two or more different schemes. Seven laboratories were currently not participating in any EQA scheme and two of these (one HH and one A/FS) do not currently perform microbiology; six HH NRLs provided national EQAs. Of the eight surveyed international EQA providers, three were based in Asia and all offered varying programmes in terms of pathogens, frequency and support mechanisms for reporting and follow-up. Only one provider currently served laboratories across all OH sectors. CONCLUSIONS: The current coverage of EQA programmes for AMR in Asia was heterogeneous across countries but especially across OH sectors. This updated overview of the coverage and challenges associated with participation in, and provision of, EQAs for AMR suggest the benefit and relevance of introducing one comprehensive and high-quality EQA programme across OH sectors in Asia.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19 , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 653595, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354678

RESUMO

The emergence and dissemination of resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae from different sources impose a global public health threat. Here, we characterized by whole-genome sequencing four Escherichia coli strains harboring the bla CTX-M-65 gene identified among 49 isolates from beef and pork collected at retail. The genomic content was determined using the Center for Genomic Epidemiology web tools. Additionally, the prediction and reconstruction of plasmids were conducted, the genetic platform of the bla CTX-M-65 genes was investigated, and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using 17 other genomes with the same sequence type and harboring the bla CTX-M-65 gene. All strains harbored bla CTX-M-65, bla OXA-1, and bla TEM-1B, and one also carried the bla SHV-12 gene. Other resistance genes, namely, qnrS2, aac(6')-Ib-c, dfrA14, sul2, tetA, and mphA, were present in all the genomes; the mcr-1.1 gene was identified in the colistin-resistant strains. They belong to sequence type 2179, phylogenetic group B1, and serotype O9:H9 and carried plasmids IncI, IncFIC(FII), and IncFIB. All strains share an identical genetic environment with IS903 and ISEcp1 flanking the bla CTX-M-65 gene. It seems likely that the bla CTX-M-65 gene is located in the chromosome in all isolates based on deep in silico analysis. Our findings showed that the strains are clonally related and belong to two sub-lineages. This study reports the emergence of CTX-M-65-producing E. coli in Portugal in food products of animal origin. The chromosomal location of the bla CTX-M-65 gene may ensure a stable spread of resistance in the absence of selective pressure.

5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(3): 1597-1609, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A plasmid-mediated mechanism of bacterial resistance to polymyxin is a serious threat to public health worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes and to conduct the molecular characterization of mcr-positive Escherichia coli strains isolated from Polish poultry. METHODS: In this study, 318 E. coli strains were characterized by the prevalence of mcr1-mcr5 genes, antimicrobial susceptibility testing by minimal inhibitory concentration method, the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes was screened by PCR, and the biofilm formation ability was tested using the crystal violet staining method. Genetic relatedness of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing method. RESULTS: Among the 318 E. coli isolates, 17 (5.35%) harbored the mcr-1 gene. High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (88.24%), and chloramphenicol (82.35%). All mcr-1-positive E. coli strains were multidrug-resistant, and as many as 88.24% of the isolates contained the blaTEM gene, tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2, and sul3) resistance genes. Additionally, 41.18% of multidrug-resistant, mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were moderate biofilm producers, while the rest of the strains showed weak biofilm production. Nine different sequence types were identified, and the dominant ST was ST93 (29.41%), followed by ST117 (17.65%), ST156 (11.76%), ST 8979 (11.76%), ST744 (5.88%), and ST10 (5.88%). Moreover, the new ST was identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a low occurrence of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains isolated from Polish poultry; however, all the isolated strains were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and were able to form biofilms at low or medium level.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13362, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172803

RESUMO

The increasing occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in human and animal population has become a global public health problem that requires immediate intervention. We aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli among slaughterhouse workers. We conducted this cross-sectional study among 118 apparently healthy workers in the largest slaughterhouses in Abuja and Lagos from July to December 2020. E. coli was isolated from stool samples of slaughterhouse workers and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. Majority were males: 88.1% (n = 104), aged > 41 years: 28.8% (n = 34), married: 70.3% (n = 83), and were butchers: 53.4% (n = 63). Prevalence of MDR E. coli was 50% (n = 59), highest among butchers compared to slaughterhouse cleaners. Of 75 E. coli isolates identified, 25.3% (n = 19) were ESBL producers; 78.7% (n = 59) were MDR. Keeping animals (p = 0.01); eating at the slaughterhouse (p = 0.03) and collecting waste (p = 0.02) remained independent risk factors for acquiring MDR E. coli. Prevalence of resistant E. coli was highest among butchers and associated with keeping animals at home, eating at work, and waste-collection. Hand-hygiene and responsible use of antibiotics among slaughterhouse workers should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Matadouros , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 58, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents in animal production has led to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens. Transmission of AMR foodborne pathogens from reservoirs, particularly chickens to the human population does occur. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure was a risk factor for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) among poultry-workers. Here we determined the prevalence and genetic relatedness among MDR E. coli isolated from poultry-workers, chickens, and poultry environments in Abuja, Nigeria. This study was conducted to address the gaps identified by the Nigerian AMR situation analysis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among poultry-workers, chickens, and poultry farm/live bird market (LBM) environments. The isolates were tested phenotypically for their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, genotypically characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and in silico multilocus sequence types (MLST). We conducted a phylogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) analysis to determine relatedness and clonality among the isolates. RESULTS: A total of 115 (26.8%) out of 429 samples were positive for E. coli. Of these, 110 isolates were viable for phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The selection comprised 47 (42.7%) isolates from poultry-workers, 36 (32.7%) from chickens, and 27 (24.5%) from poultry-farm or LBM environments. Overall, 101 (91.8%) of the isolates were MDR conferring resistance to at least three drug classes. High frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (n = 102; 92.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (n = 93; 84.5%), streptomycin (n = 87; 79.1%) and ampicillin (n = 88; 80%). Two plasmid-mediated colistin genes-mcr-1.1 harboured on IncX4 plasmids were detected in environmental isolates. The most prevalent sequence types (ST) were ST-155 (n = 8), ST-48 (n = 8) and ST-10 (n = 6). Two isolates of human and environmental sources with a SNPs difference of 6161 originating from the same farm shared a novel ST. The isolates had similar AMR genes and plasmid replicons. CONCLUSION: MDR E.coli isolates were prevalent amongst poultry-workers, poultry, and the poultry farm/LBM environment. The emergence of MDR E. coli with novel ST in two isolates may be plasmid-mediated. Competent authorities should enforce AMR regulations to ensure prudent use of antimicrobials to limit the risk of transmission along the food chain.

9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 126, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel Brucella strain closely related to Brucella (B.) melitensis biovar (bv) 3 was found in Croatian cattle during testing within a brucellosis eradication programme. CASE PRESENTATION: Standardised serological, brucellin skin test, bacteriological and molecular diagnostic screening for Brucella infection led to positive detection in one dairy cattle herd. Three isolates from that herd were identified to species level using the Bruce ladder method. Initially, two strains were typed as B. melitensis and one as B. abortus, but multiplex PCR based on IS711 and the Suis ladder showed that all of them to belong to B. melitensis, and the combination of whole-genome and multi-locus sequencing as well as Multi-Locus Variable numbers of tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA) highlighted a strong proximity within the phylogenetic branch of B. melitensis strains previously isolated from Croatia, Albania, Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two isolates were determined to be B. melitensis bv. 3, while the third showed a unique phylogenetic profile, growth profile on dyes and bacteriophage typing results. This isolate contained the 609-bp omp31 sequence, but not the 723-bp omp31 sequence present in the two isolates of B. melitensis bv. 3. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of a novel Brucella variant in this geographic region is predictable given the historic endemicity of brucellosis. The emergence of a new variant may reflect a combination of high prevalence among domestic ruminants and humans as well as weak eradication strategies. The zoonotic potential, reservoirs and transmission pathways of this and other Brucella variants should be explored.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucella/classificação , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Croácia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Filogenia
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(5): 1160-1167, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica ser. Typhi, continues to be a substantial health burden in developing countries. Little is known of the genotypic diversity of S. enterica ser. Typhi in Zimbabwe, but this is key for understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen and devising interventions for its control. OBJECTIVES: To report the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica ser. Typhi outbreak strains circulating from 2012 to 2019 in Zimbabwe, using comparative genomics. METHODS: A review of typhoid cases records from 2012 to 2019 in Zimbabwe was performed. The phylogenetic relationship of outbreak isolates from 2012 to 2019 and emergence of antibiotic resistance was investigated by whole-genome sequence analysis. RESULTS: A total 22 479 suspected typhoid cases, 760 confirmed cases were reported from 2012 to 2019 and 29 isolates were sequenced. The majority of the sequenced isolates were predicted to confer resistance to aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, phenicols, sulphonamides, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones (including qnrS detection). The qnrS1 gene was associated with an IncN (subtype PST3) plasmid in 79% of the isolates. Whole-genome SNP analysis, SNP-based haplotyping and resistance determinant analysis showed that 93% of the isolates belonged to a single clade represented by multidrug-resistant H58 lineage I (4.3.1.1), with a maximum pair-wise distance of 22 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided detailed genotypic characterization of the outbreak strain, identified as S. Typhi 4.3.1.1 (H58). The strain has reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin due to qnrS carried by an IncN (subtype PST3) plasmid resulting from ongoing evolution to full resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella typhi , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Células Clonais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Salmonella typhi/genética , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1899-1909, 2021 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-typhoidal Salmonella are major foodborne pathogens causing serious challenges to public health and food safety worldwide. This study aimed to determine the resistance, virulence genes, sequence type, using multi-locus sequence typing, plasmids and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Nigeria (S. Nigeria) from livestock in Ilorin, North central Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A total of 1,500 samples from pig (feces; n = 600) and poultry (feces, postmortem samples; n = 900) were collected and analyzed between 2014 to 2017. Presumptive Salmonella isolates were characterized by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: We recovered nine S. Nigeria serovars. All the isolates harbored a single point mutation parC(T57S) in addition to qnrB19 and the tetA gene. Furthermore, two plasmids, Col(pHAD28) and IncQ1 predicted to encode qnrB19 and tetA genes, respectively, were detected in all the strains. All the isolates belonged to a single sequence type (ST) 4911, the SNP-based phylogeny showed all the isolates to be highly related, in addition two clinical isolates from the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada, collected outside of this study, also fell into this cluster. Twenty virulence genes were identified from Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI), chromosomal and fimbriae loci. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the roles of pig and poultry in the emergence and spread of S. Nigeria serovar in Nigeria, sub-Sahara Africa. It also highlighted the importance of WGS in clinical and epidemiological surveillance. There is the need for collaborative research studies to investigate the public health importance of Salmonella enterica serovar Nigeria.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270717

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a complex subject, why one need to look at this phenomenon from a wider and holistic perspective. The extensive use of the same antimicrobial classes in human and veterinary medicine as well as horticulture is one of the main drivers for the AMR selection. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomics to investigate the AMR epidemiology in several animal species including farm animals, which are often exposed to antimicrobial treatment opposed to an unique set of wild animals that seems not to be subjected to antimicrobial pressure. The comparison of the domestic and wild animals allowed to investigate the possible anthropogenic impact on AMR spread. Inclusion of animals with different feeding behaviors (carnivores, omnivores) enabled to further assess which AMR genes that thrives within the food chain. We tested fecal samples not only of intensively produced chickens, turkeys, and pigs, but also of wild animals such as wild boars, red foxes, and rodents. A multi-directional approach mapping obtained sequences to several databases provided insight into the occurrence of the different AMR genes. The method applied enabled also analysis of other factors that may influence AMR of intestinal microbiome such as diet. Our findings confirmed higher levels of AMR in farm animals than in wildlife. The results also revealed the potential of wildlife in the AMR dissemination. Particularly in red foxes, we found evidence of several AMR genes conferring resistance to critically important antimicrobials like quinolones and cephalosporins. In contrast, the lowest abundance of AMR was observed in rodents originating from natural environment with presumed limited exposure to antimicrobials. Shotgun metagenomics enabled us to demonstrate that discrepancies between AMR profiles found in the intestinal microbiome of various animals probably resulted from the different antimicrobial exposure, habitats, and behavior of the tested animal species.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Raposas/microbiologia , Plasmídeos , Polônia , Roedores/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia
13.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255715

RESUMO

An inter-laboratory proficiency test was organized to assess the ability of participants to perform shotgun metagenomic sequencing of cold smoked salmon, experimentally spiked with a mock community composed of six bacteria, one parasite, one yeast, one DNA, and two RNA viruses. Each participant applied its in-house wet-lab workflow(s) to obtain the metagenomic dataset(s), which were then collected and analyzed using MG-RAST. A total of 27 datasets were analyzed. Sample pre-processing, DNA extraction protocol, library preparation kit, and sequencing platform, influenced the abundance of specific microorganisms of the mock community. Our results highlight that despite differences in wet-lab protocols, the reads corresponding to the mock community members spiked in the cold smoked salmon, were both detected and quantified in terms of relative abundance, in the metagenomic datasets, proving the suitability of shotgun metagenomic sequencing as a genomic tool to detect microorganisms belonging to different domains in the same food matrix. The implementation of standardized wet-lab protocols would highly facilitate the comparability of shotgun metagenomic sequencing dataset across laboratories and sectors. Moreover, there is a need for clearly defining a sequencing reads threshold, to consider pathogens as detected or undetected in a food sample.

14.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187247

RESUMO

The application of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies (WGS) data remain an increasingly discussed but vastly unexplored resource in the public health domain of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This is due to challenges including high dimensionality of WGS data and heterogeneity of microbial growth phenotype data. This study provides an innovative approach for modeling the impact of population heterogeneity in microbial phenotypic stress response and integrates this into predictive models inputting a high-dimensional WGS data for increased precision exposure assessment using an example of Listeria monocytogenes. Finite mixture models were used to distinguish the number of sub-populations for each of the stress phenotypes, acid, cold, salt and desiccation. Machine learning predictive models were selected from six algorithms by inputting WGS data to predict the sub-population membership of new strains with unknown stress response data. An example QMRA was conducted for cultured milk products using the strains of unknown stress phenotype to illustrate the significance of the findings of this study. Increased resistance to stress conditions leads to increased growth, the likelihood of higher exposure and probability of illness. Neglecting within-species genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in microbial stress response may over or underestimate microbial exposure and eventual risk during QMRA.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 575377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250869

RESUMO

Metagenomics-based high-throughput sequencing (HTS) enables comprehensive detection of all species comprised in a sample with a single assay and is becoming a standard method for outbreak investigation. However, unlike real-time PCR or serological assays, HTS datasets generated for pathogen detection do not easily provide yes/no answers. Rather, results of the taxonomic read assignment need to be assessed by trained personnel to gain information thereof. Proficiency tests are important instruments of validation, harmonization, and standardization. Within the European Union funded project COMPARE [COllaborative Management Platform for detection and Analyses of (Re-) emerging and foodborne outbreaks in Europe], we conducted a proficiency test to scrutinize the ability to assess diagnostic metagenomics data. An artificial dataset resembling shotgun sequencing of RNA from a sample of contaminated trout was provided to 12 participants with the request to provide a table with per-read taxonomic assignments at species level and a report with a summary and assessment of their findings, considering different categories like pathogen, background, or contaminations. Analysis of the read assignment tables showed that the software used reliably classified the reads taxonomically overall. However, usage of incomplete reference databases or inappropriate data pre-processing caused difficulties. From the combination of the participants' reports with their read assignments, we conclude that, although most species were detected, a number of important taxa were not or not correctly categorized. This implies that knowledge of and awareness for potentially dangerous species and contaminations need to be improved, hence, capacity building for the interpretation of diagnostic metagenomics datasets is necessary.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983012

RESUMO

Salmonella Weltevreden is increasingly reported from aquatic environments, seafood, and patients in several Southeast Asian countries. Using genome-wide analysis, we characterized S. Weltevreden isolated from cultured shrimp and tilapia from Vietnam and China to study their genetic characteristics and relatedness to clinical isolates of S. Weltevreden ST-365. The phylogenetic analysis revealed up to 312 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference between tilapia isolates, whereas isolates from shrimp were genetically more closely related. Epidemiologically unrelated isolates from Vietnam were closely related to isolates from China, e.g., 20 SNPs differences between strains 28V and 75C. In comparison with strains from other parts of the world, our environmental isolates predominantly clustered within the continental South Asia lineage, constituted mostly of strains from human stool with as low as seven SNPs difference, e.g., 30V versus Cont_ERR495254. All sequenced isolates were MLST type ST-365 and contained the major virulence-related genes encoded by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1-5. Ten of the isolates harbored the IncFII(S) plasmid similar to the virulence genes-mediated plasmid pSPCV of S. Paratyphi C, and one isolate had the IncQ1 plasmid on the same contig with strA/B, sul2, and tetA resistance genes similar to the IncQ1 type, pNUC of S. Typhimurium. A pangenomic analysis yielded 7891 genes including a core genome of 4892 genes, with a closely related accessory genome content between clinical and environmental isolates (Benjamini p > 0.05). In a search for differences that could explain the higher prevalence of S. Weltevreden in aquatic samples, genomes were compared with those of other Salmonella enterica serovars. S. Weltevreden revealed specific regions harboring glpX (Fructose-1;6-bisphosphatase; class II), rfbC (dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3;5-epimerase), and cmtB (PTS Mannitol-specific cryptic phosphotransferase enzyme IIA component) involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis pathways. Our study builds grounds for future experiments to determine genes or pathways that are essential when S. Weltevreden are in aquatic environments and microbial interactions providing survival advantages to S. Weltevreden in such environments.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15026, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929164

RESUMO

It is important that antibiotics prescriptions are based on antimicrobial susceptibility data to ensure effective treatment outcomes. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing, bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) can facilitate a more reliable and faster alternative to traditional phenotyping for the detection and surveillance of AMR. This work proposes a machine learning approach that can predict the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for a given antibiotic, here ciprofloxacin, on the basis of both genome-wide mutation profiles and profiles of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes. We analysed 704 Escherichia coli genomes combined with their respective MIC measurements for ciprofloxacin originating from different countries. The four most important predictors found by the model, mutations in gyrA residues Ser83 and Asp87, a mutation in parC residue Ser80 and presence of the qnrS1 gene, have been experimentally validated before. Using only these four predictors in a linear regression model, 65% and 93% of the test samples' MIC were correctly predicted within a two- and a four-fold dilution range, respectively. The presented work does not treat machine learning as a black box model concept, but also identifies the genomic features that determine susceptibility. The recent progress in WGS technology in combination with machine learning analysis approaches indicates that in the near future WGS of bacteria might become cheaper and faster than a MIC measurement.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genes Bacterianos , Aprendizado de Máquina , DNA Girase/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
18.
Microb Genom ; 6(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255760

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging threat to modern medicine. Improved diagnostics and surveillance of resistant bacteria require the development of next-generation analysis tools and collaboration between international partners. Here, we present the 'AMR Data Hub', an online infrastructure for storage and sharing of structured phenotypic AMR data linked to bacterial whole-genome sequences. Leveraging infrastructure built by the European COMPARE Consortium and structured around the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), the AMR Data Hub already provides an extensive data collection of more than 2500 isolates with linked genome and AMR data. Representing these data in standardized formats, we provide tools for the validation and submission of new data and services supporting search, browse and retrieval. The current collection was created through a collaboration by several partners from the European COMPARE Consortium, demonstrating the capacities and utility of the AMR Data Hub and its associated tools. We anticipate growth of content and offer the hub as a basis for future research into methods to explore and predict AMR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Internet , Fenótipo
19.
Microb Genom ; 6(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271142

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis is one of the five serovars most frequently causing human salmonellosis in Europe, mainly associated with poultry. A clone harbouring a conjugative plasmid of emerging S. Infantis (pESI)-like megaplasmid, carrying multidrug resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) genes, has spread in the Italian broiler chicken industry also causing human illness. This work is aimed at elucidating the molecular epidemiology of S. Infantis and pESI-like in Europe using whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, and to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. Infantis clones and pESI-like from animals, meat, feed and humans provided by institutions of nine European countries. Two genotyping approaches were used: chromosome or plasmid SNP-based analysis and the minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm based on core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). The European S. Infantis population appeared heterogeneous, with different genetic clusters defined at core-genome level. However, pESI-like variants present in 64.1 % of the isolates were more genetically homogeneous and capable of infecting different clonal lineages in most of the countries. Two different pESI-like with ESBL genes (n=82) were observed: bla CTX-M-1-positive in European isolates and bla CTX-M-65-positive in American isolates (study outgroup). Both variants had toxin-antitoxin systems, resistance genes towards tetracyclines, trimethoprim, sulphonamides and aminoglycosides, heavy metals (merA) and disinfectants (qacEΔ). Worryingly, 66 % of the total isolates studied presented different gyrA chromosomal point mutations associated with (fluoro)quinolone resistance (MIC range 0.125-0.5 mg/L), while 18 % displayed transferable macrolide resistance mediated by mph, mef and erm(B) genes. Proper intervention strategies are needed to prevent further dissemination/transmission of MDR S. Infantis and pESI-like along the food chain in Europe.


Assuntos
Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Plasmídeos/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Conjugação Genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3033, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080241

RESUMO

Knowledge about the difference in the global distribution of pathogens and non-pathogens is limited. Here, we investigate it using a multi-sample metagenomics phylogeny approach based on short-read metagenomic sequencing of sewage from 79 sites around the world. For each metagenomic sample, bacterial template genomes were identified in a non-redundant database of whole genome sequences. Reads were mapped to the templates identified in each sample. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for each template identified in multiple samples. The countries from which the samples were taken were grouped according to different definitions of world regions. For each tree, the tendency for regional clustering was determined. Phylogenetic trees representing 95 unique bacterial templates were created covering 4 to 71 samples. Varying degrees of regional clustering could be observed. The clustering was most pronounced for environmental bacterial species and human commensals, and less for colonizing opportunistic pathogens, opportunistic pathogens and pathogens. No pattern of significant difference in clustering between any of the organism classifications and country groupings according to income were observed. Our study suggests that while the same bacterial species might be found globally, there is a geographical regional selection or barrier to spread for individual clones of environmental and human commensal bacteria, whereas this is to a lesser degree the case for strains and clones of human pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doença , Geografia , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Moldes Genéticos
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