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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

3.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

6.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 16(Suppl 1): 53, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455612

RESUMO

Decision making in health requires the use of sound evidence and context-specific information, guided by a priority setting methodology or framework. For noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevention and control, a decision-making methodology has been applied by the World Health Organization to delineate priorities, and options for cost-effective NCD interventions. A set of 14 interventions considered very cost-effective, affordable and feasible for implementation in various resource level settings were identified. Among them, tobacco control through taxation, bans on tobacco advertising, plain packaging, and smoke free public spaces stands out as perhaps the single most important interventions to tackle NCDs.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 998, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High sodium diets with inadequate potassium and high sodium-to-potassium ratios are a known determinant of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high prevalence of hypertension and mortality from CVD. Our objectives were to estimate sodium and potassium excretion, to compare estimated levels with recommended intakes and to identify the main food sources of sodium in Barbadian adults. METHODS: A sub-sample (n = 364; 25-64 years) was randomly selected from the representative population-based Health of the Nation cross-sectional study (n = 1234), in 2012-13. A single 24-h urine sample was collected from each participant, following a strictly applied protocol designed to reject incomplete samples, for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion (in mg), which were used as proxy estimates of dietary intake. In addition, sensitivity analyses based on estimated completeness of urine collection from urine creatinine values were undertaken. Multiple linear regression was used to examine differences in sodium and potassium excretion, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio, by age, sex and educational level. Two 24-h recalls were used to identify the main dietary sources of sodium. All analyses were weighted for the survey design. RESULTS: Mean sodium excretion was 2656 (2488-2824) mg/day, with 67% (62-73%) exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit of 2000 mg/d. Mean potassium excretion was 1469 (1395-1542) mg/d; < 0.5% met recommended minimum intake levels. Mean sodium-to-potassium ratio was 2.0 (1.9-2.1); not one participant had a ratio that met WHO recommendations. Higher potassium intake and lower sodium-to-potassium ratio were independently associated with age and tertiary education. Sensitivity analyses based on urine creatinine values did not notably alter these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this first nationally representative study with objective assessment of sodium and potassium excretion in a Caribbean population in over 20 years, levels of sodium intake were high, and potassium intake was low. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with the highest sodium-to-potassium ratios. These findings provide baseline values for planning future policy interventions for non-communicable disease prevention.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Adulto , Barbados/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/análise , Prevalência , Sódio na Dieta/análise
8.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 7(6): 485-490, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935125

RESUMO

Effective approaches to non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention require intersectoral action targeting health and engaging government, industry, and society. There is an ongoing vigorous exploration of the most effective and appropriate role of government in intersectoral partnerships. This debate is particularly pronounced with regards to the role of government in controlling unhealthy foods and promoting healthy food environments. Given that food environments are a key determinant of health, and the commercial sector is a key player in shaping such environments (eg, restaurants, grocery stores), the relationship between government and the commercial sector is of primary relevance. The principal controversy at the heart of this relationship pertains to the potential influence of commercial enterprises on public institutions. We propose that a clear distinction between the regulatory and catalyst roles of government is necessary when considering the nature of the relationship between government and the commercial food sector. We introduce a typology of three catalyst roles for government to foster healthy food environments with the commercial sector and suggest that a richer understanding of the contrasting roles of government is needed when considering approaches NCD prevention via healthy food environments.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústria Alimentícia , Governo , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Dieta Saudável , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Restaurantes
9.
Glob Heart ; 13(2): 65-72, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716847

RESUMO

Four decades ago, U.S. life expectancy was within the same range as other high-income peer countries. However, during the past decades, the United States has fared worse in many key health domains resulting in shorter life expectancy and poorer health-a health disadvantage. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a panel of national and international health experts and stakeholders for a Think Tank meeting to explore the U.S. health disadvantage and to seek specific recommendations for implementation research opportunities for heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Recommendations for National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute consideration were made in several areas including understanding the drivers of the disadvantage, identifying potential solutions, creating strategic partnerships with common goals, and finally enhancing and fostering a research workforce for implementation research. Key recommendations included exploring why the United States is doing better for health indicators in a few areas compared with peer countries; targeting populations across the entire socioeconomic spectrum with interventions at all levels in order to prevent missing a substantial proportion of the disadvantage; assuring partnership have high-level goals that can create systemic change through collective impact; and finally, increasing opportunities for implementation research training to meet the current needs. Connecting with the research community at large and building on ongoing research efforts will be an important strategy. Broad partnerships and collaboration across the social, political, economic, and private sectors and all civil society will be critical-not only for implementation research but also for implementing the findings to have the desired population impact. Developing the relevant knowledge to tackle the U.S. health disadvantage is the necessary first step to improve U.S. health outcomes.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Longevidade/fisiologia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 648, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe hospital-based management of acute ischaemic stroke patients in 2010-2013 in Barbados, by comparing documented treatment given in the single tertiary public hospital with international guideline recommendations. METHODS: Evidence-based stroke management guidelines were identified through a systematic literature search. Comparisons were made between these guidelines and documented diagnostic practice (all strokes) and prescribed medication (ischaemic stroke only), using a combination of key informant interviews and national stroke registry data for 2010-2013. RESULTS: Several published international guidelines for the acute management of ischaemic stroke recommended patient management in a dedicated stroke unit or nearest hospital specialised in stroke care. Further, patients should receive clinical diagnosis, CT brain scan, specialist evaluation by a multidisciplinary team and, if eligible, thrombolysis with alteplase within 3-3.5 h of symptom onset. Subsequent secondary prophylaxis, with a platelet aggregation inhibitor and a statin was advised. Barbados had no stroke unit or stroke team, and no official protocol for acute stroke management during the study period. Most of the 1735 stroke patients were managed by emergency physicians at presentation; if admitted, they were managed on general medical wards. Most had a CT scan (1646; 94.9%). Of 1406 registered ischaemic stroke patients, only 6 (0.4%) had been thrombolysed, 521 (37.1%) received aspirin within 24 h of admission and 670 (47.7%) were prescribed aspirin on discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ischaemic stroke diagnosis was consistent with international recommendations, although this was less evident for treatment. While acknowledging the difficulty in implementing international guidelines in a low-resource setting, there is scope for improvement in acute ischaemic stroke management and/or its documentation in Barbados. A stroke unit was established in August 2013 and written clinical protocols for acute stroke care were in development at the time of the study; future registry data will evaluate their impact. Our findings have implications for other low-resource settings with high stroke burden.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Barbados , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 168(3): 703-712, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the performance of existing breast cancer risk prediction models among women of African ancestry. In replication studies of genetic variants, a change in direction of the risk association is a common phenomenon. Termed flip-flop, it means that a variant is risk factor in one population but protective in another, affecting the performance of risk prediction models. METHODS: We used data from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in the African diaspora (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants of African ancestry from Nigeria, USA, and Barbados. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed from the published odds ratios (ORs) of four sets of susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Discrimination capacity was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Flip-flop phenomenon was observed among 30~40% of variants across studies. Using the 34 variants with consistent directionality among previous studies, we constructed a PRS with AUC of 0.531 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.512-0.550), which is similar to the PRS using 93 variants and ORs from European ancestry populations (AUC = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.506-0.544). Additionally, we found the 34-variant PRS has good discriminative accuracy in women with family history of breast cancer (AUC = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.532-0.640). CONCLUSIONS: We found that PRS based on variants identified from prior GWASs conducted in women of European and Asian ancestries did not provide a comparable degree of risk stratification for women of African ancestry. Further large-scale fine-mapping studies in African ancestry populations are desirable to discover population-specific genetic risk variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Prognóstico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Glob Health ; 7(2): 020407, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. METHODS: A representative population-based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to <7mmol/L or HbA1c ≥5.7 to <6.5%. RESULTS: Complete data were available on 939 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was higher, but not significantly so, by HbA1c (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5, 6.8) vs FPG (3.5%, 2.4, 5.1). Overall 79 individuals had diabetes by either measure, but only 21 on both. The prevalence of prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis in this population would have major implications for clinical and public health policies and resources. Given the lack of robust evidence, particularly for prediabetes, on whether intervention in the individuals identified would improve outcomes, this approach to screening and diagnosis cannot be currently recommended for this population.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Barbados/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 59Suppl 1(Suppl 1): 1-2, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658443
14.
Salud Publica Mex ; 59Suppl 1(Suppl 1): 12-21, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658448

RESUMO

Objective:: To provide baseline information on tobacco use among adolescents in the Caribbean for the period before country-level implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Materials and methods:: Using Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS) between 2000 and 2008, we report baseline prevalence, 5-year change, and disparities in tobacco use (ever smoked, currently smoke) among adolescents. Results:: The Caribbean prevalence of ever-smoked fell from 33.3 to 29.0% with nine of 14 countries reporting a 5-year decrease, and the prevalence of current smokers fell from 12.1 to 11.7% with eight of 14 countries reporting a 5-year decrease. Between-country disparities in the prevalence of ever smoked decreased, while between-country disparities in currently smoked saw little change. Conclusions:: This regional summary of tobacco use provides baseline estimates of adolescent smoking, and cross-country smoking disparities for the period before MPOWER implementation. Subsequent GYTS survey rounds can be used to monitor program success.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 41: 1, 2017 Jun 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614461

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Morbidade
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 4: 28, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic disparities in health have emerged as an important area in public health, but studies from Afro-Caribbean populations are uncommon. In this study, we report on educational health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity), among Jamaican adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008. Trained research staff administered questionnaires and obtained measurements of blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose and cholesterol. CVD risk factors were defined by internationally accepted cut-points. Educational level was classified as primary or lower, junior secondary, full secondary, and post-secondary. Educational disparities were assessed using age-adjusted or age-specific prevalence ratios and prevalence differences obtained from Poisson regression models. Post-secondary education was used as the reference category for all comparisons. Analyses were weighted for complex survey design to yield nationally representative estimates. RESULTS: The sample included 678 men and 1,553 women with mean age of 39.4 years. The effect of education on CVD risk factors differed between men and women and by age group among women. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher among men with less education, with prevalence differences ranging from 6.9 to 7.4 percentage points (p < 0.05 for each group). Prevalence ratios for diabetes among men ranged from 3.3 to 3.5 but were not statistically significant. Age-specific prevalence of hypertension was generally higher among the less educated women, with statistically significant prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 45.6 percentage points and prevalence ratios ranging from 2.5 to 4.3. Similarly, estimates for obesity and hypercholesterolemia suggested that prevalence was higher among the less educated younger women (25-39 years) and among more educated older women (40-59 and 60-74 years). There were no statistically significant associations for diabetes among women, or for hypertension, high cholesterol, or obesity among men. CONCLUSION: Educational health disparities were demonstrated for diabetes mellitus among men, and for obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia among women in Jamaica. Prevalence of diabetes was higher among less educated men, while among younger women the prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity was higher among those with less education.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(7): 1016-1026, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377418

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry.Methods: We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT).Results: Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (3p24, 12p11, 14q13, 16q12/FTO, 16q23, 19p13), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (11q13, 16q12/TOX3), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality.Conclusions: Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.Impact: The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1016-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
18.
Washington, D.C; OPS; 2017-04.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33994

RESUMO

[Prefacio]. Las dimensiones económicas de las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), obra complementaria de Prioridades para el control de enfermedades (DPC3 por sus siglas en inglés) , explora el impacto y la relación entre las ENT y el desarrollo y crecimiento económico en los países de ALC. En los artículos que la component se examina la compleja interacción entre las ENT, el gasto sanitario y las inversiones económicas en las áreas de salud, pobreza e inequidades, utilizando para ello la información y los datos de investigación más recientes relativos a la región de ALC. Existen pruebas categóricas de que las ENT constituyen un problema de gran importancia cuya frecuencia va en aumento en los países de ingresos bajos y de ingresos medianos, y de que consumen proporciones cada vez mayors de los presupuestos destinados a la atención de salud. Las ENT no son simplemente la consecuencia indirecta del aumento de los ingresos y de la reducción paulatina de las enfermedades infecciosas, sino que también figuran entre las principales causas de discapacidad y mala salud y son la causa principal de muerte prevenible y prematura en las Américas. Las ENT generan cuantiosos gastos de bolsillo en salud tanto en los individuos como en las familias, así como enormes desembolsos en salud en los presupuestos nacionales. Durante los últimos 20 años, muchos países de ALC han tenido un crecimiento económico sin precedentes; y a pesar de la reciente crisis económica mundial, los indicadores económicos y de salud han mejorado en términos generales, especialmente en el plano nacional. Sin embargo, las ENT siguen poniendo en riesgo el crecimiento económico y el potencial de desarrollo de muchas naciones, sobre todo de aquellas de ingresos bajos y medianos que enfrentan un aumento más marcado de la carga de ENT como resultado del rápido crecimiento y envejecimiento de sus poblaciones. Estas enfermedades propician la inequidad; menoscaban los logros económicos de las personas, las comunidades y las sociedades, y obstaculizan el desarrollo de manera sostensible. Es imprescindible conocer más a fondo las repercusiones económicas de las ENT y mitigar sus consecuencias nocivas para las sociedades [...] En la presente obra también se aprovechan las evidencias previas y se evalúan las investigaciones empíricas más recientes con la finalidad de influir en la formulación de políticas, la preparación de programas y la asignación de recursos en torno a las ENT en los planos regional y nacional. Esta publicación también recomienda medidas específicas y hace un llamado a la participación de toda la sociedad en el manejo de las ENT como un problema económico urgente y un obstáculo al desarrollo. Con estos objetivos en mente se redactó Las dimensiones económicas de las enfermedades no transmisibles en América Latina y el Caribe, fruto de la labor de asesores técnicos de la OPS y de muchos otros expertos en el tema. La obra está dirigida a un auditorio variado que comprende desde académicos y profesionales de la salud hasta formuladores de políticas y directores de programas, así como medios de comunicación, legisladores y público en general. En la preparación de este libro, la OPS colaboró con el Banco Mundial, el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México y la Disease Control Priorities Network (Red de prioridades en la lucha contra las enfermedades), del Departamento de Salud Global de la Universidad de Washington. Asimismo, la OPS contrató a destacados investigadores de toda la región ALC. Cada artículo se escribió por separado, en función de los conocimientos y las experiencia de los distintos autores.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Economia da Saúde , América
19.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34004

RESUMO

La hipertensión arterial es el principal factor de riesgo corregible de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y, a nivel mundial, afecta a más de mil millones de personas y causa más de diez millones de muertes evitables cada año. Aunque puede diagnosticarse y tratarse de forma satisfactoria, solo una de cada siete personas hipertensas tiene la presión arterial controlada. A fin de abordar este reto, se ha puesto en marcha el Proyecto de Prevención y Tratamiento Estandarizado de la Hipertensión Arterial con el propósito de mejorar el control de la hipertensión, particularmente en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos. Este proyecto consiste en aplicar un enfoque de fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud que promueva el tratamiento estandarizado de la hipertensión arterial por medio de intervenciones basadas en la evidencia, como el uso de protocolos estandarizados de tratamiento y de un conjunto básico de medicamentos, junto con mecanismos optimizados de compra para aumentar su disponibilidad y asequibilidad, el uso de registros clínicos para el seguimiento y la evaluación de cohortes de pacientes, el empoderamiento de los pacientes, el trabajo en equipo (delegación de tareas), y la participación de la comunidad. Si se dispone de voluntad política y se establecen alianzas fuertes, este enfoque permite sentar las bases para reducir la hipertensión arterial y la morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas a las enfermedades cardiovasculares.


Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems– strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morbidade , Mortalidade
20.
Glob Heart ; 12(4): 341-348, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27452772

RESUMO

Almost three-quarters (74%) of all the noncommunicable disease burden is found within low- and middle-income countries. In September 2014, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute held a Global Health Think Tank meeting to obtain expert advice and recommendations for addressing compelling scientific questions for late stage (T4) research-research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions-to inform and guide the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's global health research and training efforts. Major themes emerged in two broad categories: 1) developing research capacity; and 2) efficiently defining compelling scientific questions within the local context. Compelling scientific questions included how to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and sustainable interventions using alternative health delivery models that leverage existing human capital, technologies and therapeutics, and entrepreneurial strategies. These broad themes provide perspectives that inform an overarching strategy needed to reduce the heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders disease burden and global health disparities.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias como Assunto , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
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