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Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135750, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841855


Heavy metals and other toxic elements are frequently detected in humans. Rare earth elements (REE) have arisen as a novel group of substances considered as emerging pollutants due to its dependence for high tech industry. We designed a study aimed to conduct the biomonitoring a total of 45 inorganic elements in the population of Andalusia (Spain). A total of 419 participants were recruited and their plasma samples analyzed. Concentration of elements, including elements in the ATSDR's priority pollutant list and REE were measured by ICP-MS in the blood plasma of participants. Arsenic, copper, lead, selenium, antimony, strontium, and bismuth were detected in ˃98% of subjects. Median values of arsenic, mercury and lead were 1.49, 1.46, and 5.86 ng/mL, respectively. These concentrations did not exceed reference values published by international agencies. We observed a positive correlation between age and plasma concentrations of arsenic, mercury, antimony and strontium. Sum of elements was lower in the group of subjects younger than 45 years old (P = 0.002). Positive correlations were observed between body mass index (BMI) and plasma concentrations of barium, cerium, osmium, tin, and ytterbium. 7 out of 26 REEs showed a percentage of detection ≥ 90%. Bismuth, yttrium, and cerium were quantified at the highest concentrations (median value = 7.7, 0.19, and 0.16 ng/mL, respectively). We found that plasma levels of 6 REEs were higher among males, and a positive correlation between REEs and age was detected. The present results suggest a potential interaction with the human physiology that deserves additional research. Given the high persistence of these elements in the environment, and the significant technological dependence on them, future studies are needed to elucidate the potential sources of exposure and possible adverse effects on health, especially in the most vulnerable populations.

Monitoramento Biológico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados , Metais Terras Raras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101868, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585334


The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of ethanol in individuals (277) subjected to a mandatory medico-legal autopsy in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2016-2017, comparing the results with data published in 2015. Blood and/or vitreous humor samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. 31.8% of the individuals were positive to ethanol. We observed a decrease in the prevalence of ethanol among males (p = 0.002). While the prevalence of ethanol was reduced, the concentration among those positive subjects has increased. 11.9% of the series died in a traffic accident and the percentage of positive to ethanol decreased in relation to 2015 (64.3, 25.0, and 35.3%). The number of suicides remains constant, although the age of the suiciders has been significantly reduced (p = 0.022). The results of this study indicate that ethanol is still heavily involved in non-natural deaths.

Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Etanol/análise , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Vítreo/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Food Chem Toxicol ; 92: 236-44, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106137


Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Culinária , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 19(1): 28-34, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26754263


BACKGROUND: Novel predictors of prognosis and treatment response for prostate cancer (PCa) are required to better individualize treatment. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes directly (XRCC5 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5) and XRCC6 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6)) or indirectly (PARP1 and major vault protein (MVP)) involved in non-homologous end joining were examined in 494 Spanish PCa patients. METHODS: A total of 22 SNPs were genotyped in a Biotrove OpenArray NT Cycler. Clinical tumor stage, diagnostic PSA serum levels and Gleason score at diagnosis were obtained for all participants. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined using the web-based environment SNPator. RESULTS: (XRCC6) rs2267437 appeared as a risk factor for developing more aggressive PCa tumors. Those patients carrying the GG genotype were at higher risk of developing bigger tumors (odds ratio (OR)=2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.29, P=0.004), present higher diagnostic PSA levels (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.19-3.78, P=0.011), higher Gleason score (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.68, P=0.044) and D'Amico higher risk tumors (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.24-4.58, P=0.009) than those patients carrying the CC/CG genotypes. Those patients carrying the (MVP) rs3815824 TT genotype were at higher risk of presenting higher diagnostic PSA levels (OR=4.74, 95% CI 1.40-16.07, P=0.013) than those patients carrying the CC genotype. When both SNPs were analyzed in combination, those patients carrying the risk genotypes were at higher risk of developing D'Amico higher risk tumors (OR=3.33, 95% CI 1.56-7.17, P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We believe that for the first time, genetic variants at XRCC6 and MVP genes are associated with risk of more aggressive disease, and would be taken into account when assessing the malignancy of PCa.

Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA Helicases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Autoantígeno Ku , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1 , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
J Agromedicine ; 21(1): 34-42, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26479327


The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and ß-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine pesticides and bladder cancer and reinforce the relevance of genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in bladder cancer.

Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo Genético , Espanha , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
Clin Transl Oncol ; 16(10): 849-58, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24981589


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer type worldwide. Also the 5-year survival rate of less than 50 % seems to be lower than other cancer types. There are some reasons behind this high mortality rate; one of them is the lack of knowledge about the biology and genomic instability behind the carcinogenic processes. These biological features could condition the failure of frontline treatment, in which case rescue treatment should be used, representing an overtreatment for the patients. For years many biological factors have been tested as prognostic and predictive factors in relation to treatment with a modest success. To find appropriate tests which could be used in the context of the individualized treatment decision, we have reviewed new biological markers, not only in tumor tissue, but also in normal tissue from head and neck carcinoma patients.

Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
Rev. toxicol ; 31(1): 39-46, ene.-jun. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-130642


La posibilidad de que las actividades ganaderas supongan una fuente de contaminación para los recursos hídricos ha sido una preocupación desde hace ya mucho tiempo, en particular en términos de contaminación por nutrientes (carga nitrogenada, fosfatos, salinidad, etc…). Pero desde hace varias décadas el incremento exponencial de la ganadería intensiva ha magnificado este problema, ya que ha aumentado el número de animales en reducido espacio y ha diversificado la cantidad de contaminantes potenciales (por ejemplo, antibióticos y otros medicamentos veterinarios). Según los datos disponibles, las prácticas generalmente aceptadas de gestión de residuos ganaderos, aún en las mejores condiciones, no garantizan una protección efectiva de los recursos hídricos. De esta manera se ha demostrado que las fuentes de agua cercanas a las actividades ganaderas resultan frecuentemente contaminadas con nutrientes excesivos (N, P, Cl-), patógenos microbianos, productos farmacéuticos, hormonas, metales pesados, desinfectantes, y otros contaminantes de los clasificados como emergentes. La exposición inadvertida a estos residuos procedentes de las instalaciones ganaderas a través de las aguas de consumo puede tener un impacto real sobre la salud humana y del medio ambiente. Por este motivo este tema constituye un problema de preocupación para las autoridades con responsabilidades en materia de Salud Pública. En esta revisión se identifican los principales riesgos de las operaciones de alimentación de animales confinados (CAFO) sobre la salubridad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas y se detallan cuáles son los efectos documentados sobre la salud humana y medioambiental que dichos residuos tienen (AU)

The possibility that livestock activities represent a source of contamination for water resources has been a concern, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution (nitrogen load, phosphates, salinity, etc...). But for decades, the exponential increase in intensive farming has magnified this problem as increased the number of animals in confined space and has diversified the number of potential contaminants (eg, antibiotics and other veterinary drugs). According to available data, generally accepted practices of livestock waste management, even in the best conditions, do not guarantee effective protection of water resources. Thus it has been proved that the sources of water near the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) are frequently contaminated with excessive nutrients (N, P, Cl-), microbial pathogens, pharmaceuticals, hormones, heavy metals, disinfectant by-products, and other pollutants that are classified as emerging contaminants. Inadvertent exposure to these residues from livestock facilities through drinking water can have a real impact on human health and the environment. Therefore this issue is a matter of concern for the authorities with responsibility for Public Health. In this review the principal risks of CAFO activities on the safety and quality of groundwater are identified and listed what are the documented effects on human and environmental health of such pollutants (AU)

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Qualidade da Água/normas , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluição de Águas Subterrâneas/análise , Poluição de Águas Subterrâneas/métodos , Poluição de Águas Subterrâneas/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , /veterinária , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados
Strahlenther Onkol ; 190(2): 210-6, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24362501


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A close relationship exists between immune response and tumor behavior. This study aimed to explore the associations between radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and clinical pathological variables. Furthermore, it assessed the role of RIA as a prognostic factor for survival in cervical carcinoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between February 1998 and October 2003, 58 consecutive patients with nonmetastatic, localized stage I-II cervical carcinoma who had been treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy were included in this study. Follow-up ended in January 2013. PBL subpopulations were isolated and irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy then incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and the ß value, a parameter defining RIA of lymphocytes, was calculated. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 111.92 ± 40.31 months. Patients with lower CD8 T lymphocyte ß values were at a higher risk of local relapse: Exp(B) = 5.137, confidence interval (CI) 95 % = 1.044-25.268, p = 0.044. Similar results were observed for regional relapse: Exp(B) = 8.008, CI 95 % = 1.702-37.679, p = 0.008 and disease relapse: Exp(B) = 6.766, CI 95 % = 1.889-24.238, p = 0.003. In multivariate analysis, only the CD8 T lymphocyte ß values were found to be of prognostic significance for local disease-free survival (LDFS, p = 0.049), regional disease-free survival (RDFS, p = 0.002), metastasis-free survival (MFS, p = 0.042), disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.001) and cause-specific survival (CSS p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: For the first time, RIA in CD8 T lymphocytes was demonstrated to be a predictive factor for survival in cervical carcinoma patients.

Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Braquiterapia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 15(8): 587-592, ago. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127473


Cervical carcinoma is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The programs developed for early detection have made that most patients are diagnosed in early stages. Treatment for those patients consists of conservative techniques as surgery or radical radiotherapy; however, the decision between those two therapies is still controversial. Even though in many cases this decision varies according to classical associated risk factors (i.e. tumor stage or age), in the clinical practice, a significant number of patients treated by surgery also receive post-surgery radiotherapy, with the consequent over-treatment and toxic effects. Since response to treatments is conditioned by individual factors, the use of new biological markers as novel predictive factors for both tumor and normal tissues could help clinicians to choose the best treatment schedule for each patient individually. Based on the experience of our institution, we have reviewed the new biological markers in cervical carcinoma patients treated by radiotherapy (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
Clin Transl Oncol ; 15(8): 587-92, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23430538


Cervical carcinoma is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The programs developed for early detection have made that most patients are diagnosed in early stages. Treatment for those patients consists of conservative techniques as surgery or radical radiotherapy; however, the decision between those two therapies is still controversial. Even though in many cases this decision varies according to classical associated risk factors (i.e. tumor stage or age), in the clinical practice, a significant number of patients treated by surgery also receive post-surgery radiotherapy, with the consequent over-treatment and toxic effects. Since response to treatments is conditioned by individual factors, the use of new biological markers as novel predictive factors for both tumor and normal tissues could help clinicians to choose the best treatment schedule for each patient individually. Based on the experience of our institution, we have reviewed the new biological markers in cervical carcinoma patients treated by radiotherapy.

Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
Strahlenther Onkol ; 188(12): 1139-45, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23111469


PURPOSE: Explore the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in cervical cancer and its relationship to hypoxia and the expression of p53, Ku70/80, and cyclin D1. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of PAI-1, cyclin D1, and p53, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in 43 consecutive patients suffering from localized cervical carcinoma. Oncoprotein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Tumor oxygenation was measured using a polarographic probe system, "pO2 histography." RESULTS: PAI expression was considered negative in 32.6% and overexpressed in 18.6% of cases. Cyclin D1 showed a median expression of 5.0 (range 0-70). We observed a positive association between PAI expression and altered p53 (p = 0.049) and cyclin D1 (p = 0.020). An inverse association was detected between PAI and Ku70/80 expression (p = 0.042). Cyclin D1 staining increased according to tumor volume (r = 0.314, p = 0.009). We did not observe a significant association between PAI and hypoxia or other clinicopathological parameters. CONCLUSION: The present results show that PAI-1 overexpression is associated with nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair down-regulation (low Ku70/80 expression) and with increased p53 and cyclin D1 expression, and they suggest that PAI-1 plays a role in the tumor behavior in cervical carcinoma.

Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Autoantígeno Ku , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
Rev. toxicol ; 29(1): 15-19, ene.-jun. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-111462


Se determinó la presencia de residuos de rodenticidas anticoagulantes por cromatografía de líquidos acoplada a espectrometría de masas de triple cuadrupolo en el hígado de 61 aves rapaces muertas provenientes del Centro de Recuperación de Fauna Silvestre de Tafira (Gran Canaria), pertenecientes a 5 especies de las 11 presentes en el archipiélago canario. Se encontraron residuos en 42 animales (69%) si bien en sólo 1 de ellos se consideró la intoxicación por rodenticidas como causa primaria de muerte, según los datos clínicos, analíticos y de necropsia. De las rapaces estudiadas, fueron las especies Tyto alba y Accipiter nisus las que más frecuentemente presentaron residuos de anticoagulantes (85% y 89% respectivamente). Se detectaron residuos de 5 anticoagulantes, todos ellos de segunda generación, siendo la bromadiolona las más frecuentemente detectada, seguida del brodifacoum y del difenacoum. Un elevado número de las muestras positivas (63%) presentó más de un residuo de anticoagulantes en su hígado, habiéndose encontrado mezclas de hasta 4 productos diferentes. Llamó la atención que la mayoría de los animales que ingresaron en el centro de recuperación por politraumatismo por colisión presentaba residuos de uno o varios anticoagulantes, así como que rapaces que se alimentan principalmente de pájaros también presentaron frecuentemente residuos de estos compuestos. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que el elevado uso de rodenticidas anticoagulantes en el medio natural implica su incorporación a la cadena trófica, viéndose afectadas especies de fauna silvestre en las que estos productos podrían producir efectos adversos. Esto implica que la aplicación de rodenticidas anticoagulantes en espacios abiertos supone una amenaza para el estado de conservación de la biodiversidad de las Islas Canarias (AU)

Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) levels were studied in liver of 61 dead raptors of five of the eleven species of the Canary Islands. The animals were delivered to our laboratory from the Centro de Recuperación de Fauna Silvestre de Tafira (Gran Canaria). Anticoagulant residues were detected in 42 (69%) of the studied animals, but only 1 may have died by AR poisoning according to the clinical information, necropsy findings and toxicological analysis. Of the studied raptors Tyto alba and Accipiter nisus were the species with more frequency and higher levels of anticoagulants (85% and 89%). Residues of 5 anticoagulants were detected, all of them of second generation, being the most frequently detected bromadiolone, brodifacoum and difenacoum. A large number of samples (63%) presented more than one residue of anticoagulants in their livers, and we have found as much as 4 different residues in one animal. It was remarkable that most of the animals that had suffered polytraumatism by collision presented residues of anticoagulants, and that species such as the hawk that mainly eat birds frequently presented anticoagulant residues. The results of this study suggest that the high use of anticoagulant rodenticides in the natural environment involves their incorporation into the food chain, and this can affect wildlife species in which these products may cause side effects. This means that the application of anticoagulant rodenticides in open spaces poses a threat to the conservation status of biodiversity in the Canary Islands (AU)

Animais , Aves/classificação , Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Classificação e Identificação por Toxicidade , Medidas de Toxicidade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos Perigosos/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade
Rev. toxicol ; 29(1): 45-50, ene.-jun. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-111467


En el presente estudio se ha evaluado el grado de contaminación por contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en 193 ejemplares de tortuga boba (Caretta caretta) varadas en las Islas Canarias entre 2007-2011. La cuantificación en plasma de los niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs), bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs) se realizó mediante GC-MS. Todas las muestras analizadas presentaron niveles cuantificables de alguno de los COPs incluidos en el estudio. El grupo de COPs que presentó mayores niveles fue el de los PAHs (alcanzando la carga total de PAHs 6,45 ng/ml), siendo el fenantreno el hidrocarburo más frecuentemente detectado y a concentraciones más altas, lo que indica el origen petrogénico de estos contaminantes. La contaminación por PCBs alcanzó niveles menores (3,84 ng/ml), predominando el grupo de los hexaclorobifenilos (PCB-153 y PCB- 138 principalmente). Los niveles de contaminación por POCs fueron también bajos alcanzando valores de 1,67 ng/ml, siendo el principal metabolito del DDT, el p,p´-DDE el compuesto más frecuentemente detectado (89,6%) y a más altas concentraciones (0,68 ng/ml). Fue evidente una asociación inversa entre el tamaño de las tortugas y la carga de PCBs y PAHs. Asimismo existieron niveles más altos de contaminación por COPs en los años 2009 y 2010. Este trabajo evalúa por vez primera la presencia de PAHs en sangre de tortugas varadas y nuestros resultados parecen indicar que esta metodología y esta especie animal pueden ser muy útiles para monitorizar la presencia de contaminación por derivados del petróleo en el medio acuático (AU)

This study assessed the degree of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in 193 specimens of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) stranded in the Canary Islands between 2007-2011. Quantification of plasma levels of organochlorine pesticides (POCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed by GC-MS. All samples tested showed measurable levels of several of the POPs included in the study. PAHs was the group that showed the highest levels (total burden of PAHs = 6.45 ng/ml), being phenanthrene the compound most frequently detected and at higher concentrations, indicating the petrogenic origin of these contaminants. PCBs contamination reached lower levels (3.84 ng/ml), dominating the group of hexachlorobiphenyls (PCB-153 and PCB-138 in particular). The pollution levels were also low in the subgroup of POCs, reaching values of 1.67 ng/ml, and being the main metabolite of DDT, p, p'-DDE the compound most frequently detected (89.6%) and at highest concentrations (0.68 ng/ml). There was a clear inverse association between the size of the turtles and the burden of PCBs and PAHs. There were also higher levels of POPs in 2009 and 2010 than in the other years. This study evaluates for the first time the presence of PAHs in stranded turtles blood and our results suggest that this methodology and this animal species can be very useful for monitoring the presence of petroleum derivatives contamination in the aquatic environment (AU)

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Orgânicos , Resíduos de Alimentos , Inseticidas Organoclorados/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas Organoclorados/prevenção & controle , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Compostos Policíclicos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
Chemosphere ; 88(3): 307-15, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22472097


The population of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands has been studied in depth regarding its levels of contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Foodstuffs of animal origin, such as milk, are prominent contributors to the body burden of these contaminants. As this population presents one of the highest milk-intake in Spain and Europe, we evaluated the level of OCs and PCBs in 26 commercially available brands of milk (16 conventional and 10 organic brands) present in the market of these Islands, in order to estimate the relevance of milk as a source of these chemicals for the Canary population. Our findings showed that hexachlorobenzene, trans-chlordane, and PCB153 were present in almost all the samples with independence of the type of milk. For both types of milks, the concentration of OCs was very low, showing organic milks lower levels than conventional ones. As a consequence, the estimated daily intake for OCs was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by International Agencies. The levels of PCBs in milk were also found to be very low, but, in this case, the situation was the opposite: there were higher levels of PCBs in organic than in conventional brands of milk. Unexpectedly, levels of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) reached values higher than 25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat in percentile 75 for both types of milk indicating the existence of a number of brands of milk highly contaminated by these toxicants. Consequently, the population who consume the most contaminated milk brands could have estimated daily intakes well above the recommended TDI (2 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)b.w.d(-1)) established by European Union Authorities. These results are of concern if we consider the well known adverse health effects exerted by dioxin-like compounds.

Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite/química , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Dioxinas/análise , Humanos , Espanha
Oncol Rep ; 22(6): 1425-33, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19885596


Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The disease has important genetic and environmental components, most of them are still unknown. An important role of gene polymorphisms related to the risk of developing BC has been reported. However, the results have been controversial. We investigated the association of TSER, MTHFR C677T, p53 codon 72 and MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphisms with breast carcinoma in women from Canary Islands (Spain). Blood samples collected from 135 patients with BC and 304 healthy controls all of them Caucasian, were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, a structured questionnaire including patient history and risk factors in relation to BC development was filled out. Allelic frequencies of these genetic variations were: TSER, (2) 0.55 and (3) 0.45 in cases, 0.49 and 0.51 respectively in controls (P=0.240); MTHFR C677T, (C) 0.63 and (T) 0.37 in cases, 0.60 and 0.40 respectively in controls (P=0.568); p53 Arg72Pro, (Arg) 0.74 and (Pro) 0.26 in cases and controls (P=0.910); MDR1 C3435T, (C) 0.52 and (T) 0.48 in cases, 0.55 and 0.45 respectively in controls (P=0.523). We did not observe any gene polymorphism as a risk factor to develop BC. A statistical association was observed between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and family history of breast cancer in both groups, as well as between MDR1 C3435T and smoking habits in cases (P<0.05). Gene polymorphisms vary by regions. The present study contributes to the characterization of the genetic pattern of the Canary population.

Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Códon , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/biossíntese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Timidilato Sintase/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(supl.1): 18-27, 2009. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-74270


El cáncer de mama es una enfermedad con un alto impactoen nuestra sociedad. La incidencia y prevalencia de esta patologíaes cada vez mayor. En su desarrollo intervienen factoresgenéticos, epigenéticos y ambientales. Aún hoy se desconocenla totalidad de procesos involucrados en el desarrollo, promocióny progresión del tumor mamario. Por todo ello, los esfuerzosen investigación dentro de este campo son cada díamayores. El objetivo no es sólo entender el comportamientotumoral. Además se busca poder predecir el pronóstico, la respuestaa los tratamientos quimioterápicos y aumentar lo máximolos ratios de supervivencia. En la última década se ha desarrolladoy perfeccionado la tecnología de DNA microarray,que permite realizar estudios genéticos y genómicos a gran escala.La aplicación de esta técnica al campo de la oncología hagenerado muchos conocimientos y suscitado mucha expectación.En esta revisión hemos hecho una aproximación técnicaa la metodología de DNA microarray: sus principios básicos,en qué consiste, cómo interpretar los resultados, así como lasdiferentes estrategias que se pueden aplicar para visualizar,agrupar y comprender la inmensa cantidad de información generadacon este tipo de experimentos. Este trabajo incluye unestudio detallado de las aplicaciones que tiene el DNA microarrayen el cáncer de mama: estudios para mejorar el diagnóstico,para conocer mejor el pronóstico, para predecir la respuestaa los tratamientos, para identificar dianas terapéuticasy para generar test de diagnóstico clínico. Todas estas estrategiasbuscan llevar la metodología de DNA microarray del laboratorioa la práctica clínica rutinaria(AU)

Breast cancer is a disease with a profound impact in our society.Incidence and prevalence of this pathology increaseevery year. In the breast cancer developmet genetic, epigeneticand environmental factors are involved. Many details of theentire process of initiation, promotion and tumoral progressionare still unknown, and additional efforts are required. Themain objective is not only to understand the tumour behaviourbut also predict the prognosis, the response to quimiotherapictreatments and increase the survival ratios are importantgoals. In the last ten years DNA microarray technology hasbeen developed and improved. This is a high through puttechnology that permits genetic and genomic studies on alarge scale. The implementation of DNA microarray in oncologyhas been generated a big amount of knowledge as well asa great expectancy. In this review we have carried out a technicalapproximation to DNA microarray methodology: basicprinciples, how to interpret the results as well as the differentstrategies available for visualize, cluster and understand thevast amount of information generated with this kind of experiments.We have described in detail the applications of DNAmicroarray to breast cancer: studies for improve the diagnosis,to predict the prognosis and the response to quimiotherapy,to identify therapeutic targets and for to generate predictivetest useful in the clinical practice. All these strategies are oftranslational meaning, trying to carry the DNA microarrayfrom the laboratory to the daily clinical routine(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Biologia Molecular/tendências , DNA/análise , Expressão Gênica/genética
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 320(2): 695-705, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17108234


Estrogens cause intrahepatic cholestasis in susceptible women during pregnancy, after administration of oral contraceptives, or during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE) is a synthetic estrogen widely used to cause experimental cholestasis in rodents with the aim of examining molecular mechanisms involved in this disease. EE actions on the liver are thought to be mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and pituitary hormones. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing metabolic changes induced by EE in livers from hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and hypothyroid rats. Microarray studies revealed that the number of genes regulated by EE was increased almost 4-fold in HYPOX rat livers compared with intact males. Little overlap was apparent between the effects of EE in intact and HYPOX rats, demonstrating that pituitary hormones play a critical role in the hepatic effects of EE. Consistently, hypophysectomy protects the liver against induction by EE of serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, two markers of cholestasis and hepatotoxicity and modulates the effects of EE on several genes involved in bile acid homeostasis (e.g., FXR, SHP, BSEP, and Cyp8b1). Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of action of EE through binding and negative regulation of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription. In summary, pituitary- and ERalpha-independent mechanisms contribute to development of EE-induced changes in liver transcriptome. Such mechanisms may be relevant when this model of EE-induced cholestasis is evaluated. The observation that the pharmacological effects of estrogen in liver differ in the absence or presence of the pituitary could be clinically relevant, because different drugs that block actions of pituitary hormones are now available.

Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Hormônios Hipofisários/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hormônio do Crescimento/fisiologia , Hipofisectomia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley