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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16430, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385527

RESUMO

Until there is an effective implementation of COVID-19 vaccination program, a robust testing strategy, along with prevention measures, will continue to be the most viable way to control disease spread. Such a strategy should rely on disparate diagnostic tests to prevent a slowdown in testing due to lack of materials and reagents imposed by supply chain problems, which happened at the beginning of the pandemic. In this study, we have established a single-tube test based on RT-LAMP that enables the visual detection of less than 100 viral genome copies of SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min. We benchmarked the assay against the gold standard test for COVID-19 diagnosis, RT-PCR, using 177 nasopharyngeal RNA samples. For viral loads above 100 copies, the RT-LAMP assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.1%. Additionally, we set up a RNA extraction-free RT-LAMP test capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 directly from saliva samples, albeit with lower sensitivity. The saliva was self-collected and the collection tube remained closed until inactivation, thereby ensuring the protection of the testing personnel. As expected, RNA extraction from saliva samples increased the sensitivity of the test. To lower the costs associated with RNA extraction, we performed this step using an alternative protocol that uses plasmid DNA extraction columns. We also produced the enzymes needed for the assay and established an in-house-made RT-LAMP test independent of specific distribution channels. Finally, we developed a new colorimetric method that allowed the detection of LAMP products by the visualization of an evident color shift, regardless of the reaction pH.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Colorimetria/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Virusdisease ; 29(3): 355-361, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159371

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a spherical and non-enveloped virus belonging to the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family with a single stranded circular DNA genome. This virus, already detected worldwide, has been associated to several diseases and was implicated as the etiological agent of a disease named postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Several methods have been described for the detection of PCV2, being real-time PCR the most simple and reliable. As far as we know, all the real-time PCR systems described until now are based on ORF2 gene, that exhibit the highest variability. This paper reports the development and validation of a real-time PCR targeted to ORF1 and based on a TaqMan probe for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2 DNA in swine samples. Due to the lack of PCV1 samples, the ability of the test to discriminate between PCV1 and PCV2 positive samples was evaluated in silico. Estimations of 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity were obtained based on the qPCR results with panel of 81 swine samples (known PCV2-positive (n = 50); known PCV2-negative (n = 17); samples positive to other common swine viral pathogens (n = 13) and one sample from a BFDV-positive parrot (n = 1)). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation obtained with three positive samples of different viral charges in five replicates or in five independent assays were below the acceptance threshold. The limit of detection determined with a recombinant plasmid containing the amplicon, led to conclude that this assay can detect at least three plasmid copies.

3.
Vet Microbiol ; 212: 75-79, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173592

RESUMO

West Nile fever (WNF) is an emergent disease in Europe, under surveillance in the European Union. Following a 5-year period of apparent silence (autumn 2010 to summer 2015), West Nile virus (WNV) reemerged in the South of Portugal, in July 2015. Here we present data from the onset, geographic location within mainland Portugal, and outcome of clinical cases of WNV infection in horses in 2015 and 2016. During the transmission seasons of 2015 and 2016, twenty-seven horses, most symptomatic (n=20) were found positive to IgM, pr-E immunoglobulins and VNT, leading to the subsequent report to Animal Disease Notification System of the European Commission (ADNS) by the Portuguese National Authority for Animal Health. Outbreaks occurred in the middle summer (August) and early/mid autumn (October/November) of 2015 and 2016, in the southern regions of the country (Alentejo and Algarve). Compared with the previous WNV transmission seasons of 2004 and 2010, a higher number of cases were reported in 2015 and 2016. The results of our study contribute to increase information concerning the geographic areas affected and time period for WNV transmission risk in Portugal.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Geografia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
4.
Virus Genes ; 53(6): 922-926, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639220

RESUMO

We report the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in the Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Viral circulation was confirmed by RT-qPCR and vp60 sequencing. Epidemiological data revealed the outbreak initiated in October 2016 in Porto Santo affecting wild and domestic rabbits. It was then detected three months later on the island of Madeira. Five haplotypes were identified and a genetic overall similarity of 99.54 to 99.89% was observed between the two viral populations. Unique single nucleotide polymorphisms were recognised in the Madeira archipelago strains, two of which resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 480 and 570 in the VP60 protein. Phylogenetic investigation by Maximum Likelihood showed all the vp60 sequences from the Madeira archipelago group together with high bootstraps. The analysis also showed that the Madeira archipelago strains are closely related to the strains detected in the south of mainland Portugal in 2016, suggesting a possible introduction from the mainland. The epidemiological data and high genetic similarity indicate a common source for the Porto Santo and Madeira RHDV2 outbreaks. Human activity related to hunting was most probably at the origin of the Madeira outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Portugal , Coelhos
5.
J Virol Methods ; 236: 47-53, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27421625

RESUMO

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease usually asymptomatic in wild birds that can spread to domestic poultry and cause large-scale outbreaks. Some of the AI viruses (AIV) can cross the species barrier and induce fatal disease to humans, a matter of great concern worldwide. Early detection of AIV is of major importance for disease control, since prompt implementation of adequate measures can prevent spread of the virus and therefore further outbreaks. This paper reports the development and validation of a blocking ELISA using a monoclonal antibody against a conserved structural protein for the serologic diagnosis of all AI virus subtypes from domestic bird species, allowing the quick, easily automated and low-cost screening of a high number of farms. The test will be of great value not only for surveillance, but also for monitoring the efficiency of vaccination programs. Cut-off values were established in 20% of inhibition for turkey sera and in 50% of inhibition for chicken and duck sera. Estimations of 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity were obtained based on the results of known AI positive (n=130) and negative (n=208) sera, including serum samples from birds infected with other common avian viral pathogens (n=7). ROC analysis showed an area under curve (AUC) of 1.0 for chicken, duck and turkey sera, indicating that the blocking ELISA was able to perfectly discriminate between negative and positive samples of any of the poultry species tested. Inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were above the acceptance threshold. Furthermore, the ELISA titers were similar to the known hemagglutination inhibition titers of three positive reference sera indicating sensitivity comparable with the golden standard HI method. The method here described is an economically attractive alternative to the commercial ELISAs currently available.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Turquia
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 27: 149-55, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062641

RESUMO

The genetic relationships between 10 rabbit hemorrhagic disease strains collected in Portugal between 2006 and 2013, originated in the mainland and Azorean islands, were investigated based on the vp60 gene variability. A genetic diversity ranging from 2% to 13% was determined among the 10-vp60 complete sequences revealing a significant level of genetic heterogeneity between same strains. Phylogenetic Bayesian analysis showed that the Portuguese RHDV strains fell within different genogroups, namely G1, G5 and G6. Interestingly, all strains obtained from Azores, where RHDV was first detected in 1988, belong to G5 genogroup. G5 strains, that were not identified in the continent so far, seem to be the dominant group in these Atlantic islands. G1-related strains belonging to the Iberian group 3 (n=3) and G6 (RHDVa) strains (n=2) were identified among the samples originated in mainland which were collected between 2006 and 2008. Although the presence of G1 and G6 in Portugal had been shown before, our data refines the time of circulation of these strains until at least 2008. In summary, this study revises the epidemiological information of RHDV in Portugal since it reports for the first time the presence of G5 strains in Azores and demonstrates the circulation of G1 and G6 strains in mainland Portugal until the late 2000s.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/classificação , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Animais , Açores/epidemiologia , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Geografia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Portugal/epidemiologia , Coelhos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1143: 33-59, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24715281

RESUMO

Immune response against an encoded antigenic protein can be elicited by including targeting sequences to DNA vaccines that promote protein sorting to processing pathways, related with antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Candidate DNA vaccines coding for neuraminidase 3 of the avian influenza virus were designed to encode different sequences that direct the protein to specific cellular compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum (i.e., adenovirus E1A), lysosomes (i.e., LAMP), and the combination of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome (i.e., E1A-LAMP). The DNA vaccine prototypes were engineered by biomolecular techniques and subsequently produced in E. coli cells. The biological activity of the vaccines was tested firstly in vitro, in Chinese hamster ovary cells, through flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then, an essential in vivo study was performed in chickens, in order to evaluate the efficacy of DNA prototype vaccines, by measuring the antibody production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Assuntos
Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/genética , Antígenos/imunologia , Células CHO , Galinhas , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/imunologia
8.
J Virol Methods ; 196: 219-24, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24300832

RESUMO

The myxoma virus (MYXV) causes severe infections in European rabbits that may reach mortality rates up to 100% depending on the viral strain. The typical symptoms and lesions induced by the virus are usually enough to permit the correct clinical diagnosis. However, in peracute forms the infection may be accompanied by unspecific symptoms. Sudden death may also occur without evident clinical signs of myxomatosis. Likewise, a clinical diagnosis of atypical forms of myxomatosis (amyxomatous) is often complicated and delayed due to the scarceness of skin lesions. As the disease control often depends on an early and unequivocal diagnosis of MYXV, laboratorial methods play a relevant role in the confirmation of MYXV infection. This study describes the development and validation of a novel, high accurate real time polymerase chain reaction assay (rtPCR) for the detection of MYXV. Primers were designed to amplify a 125-bp within the gene M000.5L/R, which is duplicated in the termini of the genome and is unique among Leporipoxvirus. The assay was negative for SFV and other poxviruses and was able to detect 2.6 copies of MYXV DNA proving the effectiveness, specificity and sensitivity of this diagnosis tool. The rtPCR has been applied successfully in INIAV laboratory for routine diagnosis of myxomatosis since 2005.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Myxoma virus/isolamento & purificação , Mixomatose Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Genes Virais , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Coelhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59399, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23527182

RESUMO

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Carnívoros/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Herpestidae/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie
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