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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
2.
Respir Med ; 155: 133-140, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthmatics are at increased cardiovascular disease risk, which has been linked to beta2(ß2)-agonist use. Inhalation of ß2-agonists increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in healthy individuals, however the systemic impact of salbutamol in asthmatics using ß2-agonists regularly is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the systemic vascular responses to a clinical dose of salbutamol (Phase I) and following an acute increase in SNA (Phase II) in asthmatics and controls. METHODS: Fourteen controls and 14 asthmatics were recruited for Phase I. On separate days, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral arterial stiffness (pPWV) were evaluated at baseline and following either 400 µg inhaled salbutamol or a placebo inhaler. For Phase II, heart rate, blood pressure, vascular conductance, pPWV, and central (c)PWV were evaluated in response to a large increase in SNA brought on by cold-water hand immersion (i.e. cold-pressor test) or body-temperature water hand immersion (i.e. control) in 10 controls and 10 asthmatics. RESULTS: Following salbutamol, asthmatics demonstrated reduced FMD (-3.0%, p < 0.05) and increased pPWV (+0.7 m/s, p < 0.05); however, salbutamol had no effect in controls. The cold-pressor test resulted in similar increases in blood pressure, vascular flow rates and conductance, pPWV, and cPWV in both asthmatics and controls, suggesting similar neurovascular transduction in asthmatics and controls. CONCLUSION: Inhaled Salbutamol leads to increased arterial stiffness and reduced FMD in asthmatics. As asthmatics and controls had similar vascular responses to an increase in SNA, these findings suggest asthmatics have heightened sympathetic responses to ß2-agonists which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in asthma.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto Jovem
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