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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446513

RESUMO

Telomere biology disorders, largely characterized by telomere lengths below the first centile for age, are caused by variants in genes associated with telomere replication, structure, or function. One of these genes, ACD, which encodes the shelterin protein TPP1, is associated with both autosomal dominantly and autosomal recessively inherited telomere biology disorders. TPP1 recruits telomerase to telomeres and stimulates telomerase processivity. Several studies probing the effect of various synthetic or patient-derived variants have mapped specific residues and regions of TPP1 that are important for interaction with TERT, the catalytic component of telomerase. However, these studies have come to differing conclusions regarding ACD haploinsufficiency. Here, we report a proband with compound heterozygous novel variants in ACD (NM_001082486.1)-c.505_507delGAG, p.(Glu169del); and c.619delG, p.(Asp207Thrfs*22)-and a second proband with a heterozygous chromosomal deletion encompassing ACD: arr[hg19] 16q22.1(67,628,846-67,813,408)x1. Clinical data, including symptoms and telomere length within the pedigrees, suggested that loss of one ACD allele was insufficient to induce telomere shortening or confer clinical features. Further analyses of lymphoblastoid cell lines showed decreased nascent ACD RNA and steady-state mRNA, but normal TPP1 protein levels, in cells containing heterozygous ACD c.619delG, p.(Asp207Thrfs*22), or the ACD-encompassing chromosomal deletion compared to controls. Based on our results, we conclude that cells are able to compensate for loss of one ACD allele by activating a mechanism to maintain TPP1 protein levels, thus maintaining normal telomere length.

2.
J Cell Biochem ; 118(11): 3627-3634, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621436

RESUMO

Cell and gene therapy approaches are safer when they possess a system that enables the therapy to be rapidly halted. Human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced with an adenoviral vector containing the cDNA for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (AdBMP2) to induce bone formation. To make this method safer, a system to quickly kill these virally transduced cells was designed and evaluated. Cells were encapsulated inside poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-Da) hydrogels that are able to shield the cells from immunological destruction. The system involves an inducible caspase-9 (iCasp9) activated using a specific chemical inducer of dimerization (CID). Delivering AdBMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in PEG-Da hydrogel promoted ectopic ossification in vivo, and the iCasp9 system allowed direct control of the timing of apoptosis of the injected cells. The iCasp9-CID system enhances the safety of delivering AdBMP2-transduced cells, making it a more compelling therapeutic for bone repair and spine fusion. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3627-3634, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Transdução Genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/biossíntese , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
3.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 23(5-6): 177-184, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27967655

RESUMO

Gene therapy approaches have been difficult to implement due to pre-existing immunity against the virus used for delivery. To circumvent this problem, a cell-based approach was developed that avoided the use of free virus within the animal. However, even cells transduced in vitro with E1- to E3-deleted adenovirus encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (AdBMP2) resulted in the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Furthermore, when mice received an intramuscular injection of nonencoding adenovirus (AdEmpty)-transduced cells, AdBMP2-transduced cells were unable to launch bone formation when an intramuscular injection of these BMP2-producing cells was delivered 1 week later. This phenomenon was not observed in NOD/SCID mice, and could be overcome in C57BL/6 mice by encapsulating the adenovirus-transduced cells in a nondegradable hydrogel poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). Data collectively suggest that PEGDA hydrogel encapsulation of AdBMP2-transduced cells prevents pre-existing immunity from suppressing BMP2-induced bone formation.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/imunologia , Células Imobilizadas , Fibroblastos , Hidrogéis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Transdução Genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Células Imobilizadas/imunologia , Células Imobilizadas/transplante , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/transplante , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
4.
J Orthop Res ; 34(11): 1894-1904, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919547

RESUMO

Extremity amputation or traumatic injury can often lead to the formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). Studies to induce HO in rat muscle using cell-based gene therapy show that this process appears to be location dependent. In the present study, HO was induced in mice and rats through injection of immunologically matched cells transduced with either a replication-defective adenovirus possessing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) or an empty adenovirus vector (control). Injection in rat near the skeletal bone resulted in HO, whereas cells injected into the same muscle group but distal from the bone did not result in bone formation. When cells were injected in the same limb at both locations at the same time, HO was formed at both sites. Characterization of the bone formation in rats versus mice demonstrated that different sources of osteogenic progenitors were involved, which may account for the location dependent bone formation observed in the rat. Further experimentation has shown that a potential reason for this difference may be the inability of rat to activate matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), an essential protease in mice necessary for recruitment of progenitors. Inhibition of active MMP9 in mice led to a significant decrease in HO. The studies reported here provide insight into the mechanisms and pathways leading to bone formation in different animals and species. It appears that not all animal models are appropriate for testing HO therapies, and our studies also challenge the conventional wisdom that larger animal models are better for testing treatments affecting bone. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1894-1904, 2016.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/fisiologia , Ossificação Heterotópica , Adenoviridae , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos Nus , Ratos Wistar
5.
Mol Cell Biol ; 35(7): 1238-53, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25605336

RESUMO

The Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway appears to be important for the development, maintenance, aging, and pathology of mammalian skeletal muscle. Yet no gene targeting of Erk1/2 in muscle fibers in vivo has been reported to date. We combined a germ line Erk1 mutation with Cre-loxP Erk2 inactivation in skeletal muscle to produce, for the first time, mice lacking ERK1/2 selectively in skeletal myofibers. Animals lacking muscle ERK1/2 displayed stunted postnatal growth, muscle weakness, and a shorter life span. Their muscles examined in this study, sternomastoid and tibialis anterior, displayed fragmented neuromuscular synapses and a mixture of modest fiber atrophy and loss but failed to show major changes in fiber type composition or absence of cell surface dystrophin. Whereas the lack of only ERK1 had no effects on the phenotypes studied, the lack of myofiber ERK2 explained synaptic fragmentation in the sternomastoid but not the tibialis anterior and a decrease in the expression of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene mRNA in both muscles. A reduction in AChR protein was documented in line with the above mRNA results. Evidence of partial denervation was found in the sternomastoid but not the tibialis anterior. Thus, myofiber ERK1/2 are differentially required for the maintenance of myofibers and neuromuscular synapses in adult mice.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/enzimologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Junção Neuromuscular/patologia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo
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