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1.
Toxicology ; 461: 152924, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474090

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound commonly used in the production of plastics for daily lives and industry. As BPA is well known for its adverse health effects, several alternative materials have been developed. This study comprehensively analyzed the toxicity of BPA and its three substitutes including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF) on aging, healthspan, and mitochondria using an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model animal and cultured mammalian fibroblast cells. C. elegans treated with 1 mM BPA exhibited abnormalities in the four tested parameters related to development and growth, including delayed development, decreased body growth, reduced reproduction, and abnormal tissue morphology. Exposure to the same concentration of each alternative including TMBPF, which has been proposed as a relatively safe BPA alternative, detrimentally affected at least three of these events. Moreover, all bisphenols (except BPS) remarkably shortened the organismal lifespan and increased age-related changes in neurons. Exposure to BPA and BPF resulted in mitochondrial abnormalities, such as reduced oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, the ATP levels were noticeably higher after treatment with all bisphenols. In mammalian fibroblast cells, exposure to increasing concentrations of all bisphenols (ranging from 50 µM to 500 µM) caused a severe decrease in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BPA increased ATP levels and decreased ROS but did not affect mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP). Notably, TMBPF was the only bisphenol that caused a significant increase in mitochondrial ROS and mPTP opening. These results suggest that the potentially harmful physiological effects of BPA alternatives should be considered.

2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535882

RESUMO

Several studies on the potential adverse effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) have reported conflicting results. The present study investigated the potential adverse effects of Al2O3NPs in Sprague-Dawley rats following 28-day repeated oral administration. In addition, we aimed to determine the target organ and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Al2O3NPs. Al2O3NPs was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There were no treatment-related adverse effects as indicated by the clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology at all the tested doses. Under the experimental conditions of the present study, 28-day repeated oral administration of Al2O3NPs at doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day did not induce any treatment-related systemic toxicity in male and female rats. The NOAEL of Al2O3NPs was set at 1000 mg/kg/day in both male and female rats and no target organs were identified.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576095

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are widely used in industrial and medicinal fields and in various consumer products, and their increasing use has led to an increase in the number of toxicity studies; however, studies investigating the underlying toxicity mechanism have been rare. In this study, we evaluated potential toxic effects of TiO2NPs exposure on lungs as well as the development of asthma through the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma. Furthermore, we also investigated the associated toxic mechanism. TiO2NPs caused pulmonary toxicity by exacerbating the inflammatory response, indicated by an increase in the number and level of inflammatory cells and mediators, respectively. OVA-induced asthma exposed mice to TiO2NPs led to significant increases in inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and airway hyperresponsiveness compared with those in non-exposed asthmatic mice. This was also accompanied by increased inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the lung tissues. Additionally, TiO2NPs decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and the expressions of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), phospho-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, Bcl2-associated X, and cleaved-caspase 3 were escalated in the lungs of asthmatic mice compared with those in non-exposed asthmatic mice. These responses were consistent with in vitro results obtained using human airway epithelial cells. TiO2NPs treated cells exhibited an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α with an elevation of TXNIP signaling compared to non-treated cells. Moreover, pathophysiological changes induced by TiO2NP treatment were significantly decreased by TXNIP knockdown in airway epithelial cells. Overall, TiO2NP exposure induced toxicological changes in the respiratory tract and exacerbated the development of asthma via activation of the TXNIP-apoptosis pathway. These results provide insights into the underlying mechanism of TiO2NP-mediated respiratory toxicity.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445559

RESUMO

Scutellarein (SCU) is a well-known flavone with a broad range of biological activities against several cancers. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major cancer type due to its poor prognosis even after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, which causes a variety of side effects in patients. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop effective biomarkers in the treatment of HCC in order to improve therapeutic outcomes using natural based agents. The current study used SCU as a treatment approach against HCC using the HepG2 cell line. Based on the cell viability assessment up to a 200 µM concentration of SCU, three low-toxic concentrations of (25, 50, and 100) µM were adopted for further investigation. SCU induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and inhibited cell migration and proliferation in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased PTEN expression by SCU led to the subsequent downregulation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins. In addition, SCU regulated the metastasis with EMT and migration-related proteins in HepG2 cells. In summary, SCU inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in HepG2 cells through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling by upregulation of PTEN, suggesting that SCU might be used as a potential agent for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068568

RESUMO

Iridin is a natural flavonoid found in Belamcanda chinensis documented for its broad spectrum of biological activities like antioxidant, antitumor, and antiproliferative effects. In the present study, we have investigated the antitumor potential of iridin in AGS gastric cancer cells. Iridin treatment decreases AGS cell growth and promotes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by attenuating the expression of Cdc25C, CDK1, and Cyclin B1 proteins. Iridin-treatment also triggered apoptotic cell death in AGS cells, which was verified by cleaved Caspase-3 (Cl- Caspase-3) and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein expression. Further apoptotic cell death was confirmed by increased apoptotic cell death fraction shown in allophycocyanin (APC)/Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Iridin also increased the expression of extrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins like Fas, FasL, and cleaved Caspase-8 in AGS cells. On the contrary, iridin-treated AGS cells did not show variations in proteins related to an intrinsic apoptotic pathway such as Bax and Bcl-xL. Besides, Iridin showed inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathways by downregulation of (p-PI3K, p-AKT) proteins in AGS cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that iridin has anticancer potential by inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway. It could be a basis for further drug design in gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809895

RESUMO

By activity-guided fractionation based on inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), six fistularin compounds (1-6) were isolated from the marine sponge Ecionemia acervus (order Astrophorida). Based on stereochemical structure determination using Mosher's method, fistularin-3 was assigned as a new stereoisomer. On the basis of the stereochemistry of fistularin-3, the stereochemical homogeneity of all six compounds was established by comparing carbon and proton chemical shifts. For fistularin-1 (1) and -2 (2), quantum calculations were performed to confirm their stereochemistry. In a co-culture system of human epithelial Caco-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages, all six isolated compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activities. These bioactive fistularins inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma. Inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and MAPK phosphorylation were downregulated in response to the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Among the compounds tested, fistularin-1 (1) and 19-deoxyfistularin-3 (4) showed the highest activity. These findings suggest the potential use of the marine sponge E. acervus and its metabolites as pharmaceuticals for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases including inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Poríferos/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Isoxazóis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1 , Tirosina/isolamento & purificação , Tirosina/farmacologia
7.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419162

RESUMO

Rearranged during transfection (RET), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is activated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. Chromosomal rearrangement or point mutations in RET are observed in patients with papillary thyroid and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Oncogenic alteration of RET results in constitutive activation of RET activity. Therefore, inhibiting RET activity has become a target in thyroid cancer therapy. Here, the anti-tumor activity of a novel RET inhibitor was characterized in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. The indirubin derivative LDD-2633 was tested for RET kinase inhibitory activity. In vitro, LDD-2633 showed potent inhibition of RET kinase activity, with an IC50 of 4.42 nM. The growth of TT thyroid carcinoma cells harboring an RET mutation was suppressed by LDD-2633 treatment via the proliferation suppression and the induction of apoptosis. The effects of LDD-2633 on the RET signaling pathway were examined; LDD-2633 inhibited the phosphorylation of the RET protein and the downstream molecules Shc and ERK1/2. Oral administration of 20 or 40 mg/kg of LDD-2633 induced dose-dependent suppression of TT cell xenograft tumor growth. The in vivo and in vitro experimental results supported the potential use of LDD-2633 as an anticancer drug for thyroid cancers.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114438

RESUMO

Inflammation of the skin is the most common dermatological problem in human. The anti-inflammatory mediated responses of the skin cells provide a mechanism for combating these conditions. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is one of the proteins that has been shown to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects and mechanisms of AnxA1 in skin keratinocyte and fibroblast have not been reported yet. In the current study, we hypothesized that Ac2-26, AnxA1 mimetic peptide, ameliorates inflammation and wrinkle formation in human skin cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether Ac2-26 has anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle effects in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and fibroblast (Detroit 551) cells, respectively. Human HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ with or without Ac2-26, to identify the anti-inflammatory effect. Human Detroit 551 cells were treated with Ac2-26 to verify the anti-wrinkle effect. Initially, cell cytotoxicity was carried out in each cell line treated using Ac2-26 by MTT assay. Human MDA, IL-8, and procollagen secretion were detected by ELISA assay. The inflammatory chemokines were measured by qRT-PCR analysis. To demonstrate the mechanism, MAPK, NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and MMPs were analyzed by Western blotting. As a result, we identified that Ac2-26 significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated pro-inflammatory chemokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, MDC, TARC, and TNF-α, by inhibiting the activation of MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT pathway in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. In addition, we also identified that Ac2-26 significantly induced collagen synthesis by generating pro-collagen, and suppressed collagen degradation by inhibiting the collagenase MMP-1 and MMP-8 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Ac2-26 shows anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkling effect. These effects may lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic application for inflammation-related skin disease and wrinkle formation.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Pró-Colágeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Biomolecules ; 10(10)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092149

RESUMO

Turbinaria ornata is a tropical brown algae (seaweed) known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we analyzed T. ornata extract (TOE) using liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluated the in vivo efficacy of TOE against dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice. The bioactive fraction of TOE was administered orally daily for 6 weeks to mice under different treatments normal, colitis, and colitis + conventional drug (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA). Regarding clinical manifestation, the disease activity index and colon length of the colitis + TOE group were significantly reduced compared to those of the colitis group. The results of myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination showed similar results. Western blot analysis of colon tissues revealed that cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) were significantly decreased in the colitis + 5-ASA group, whereas forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) was increased. qPCR results showed changes in T cell subsets; the administration of TOE upregulated regulatory T cell (Treg) expression, although T helper 17 cell (Th17) expression did not change significantly. Interestingly, the colitis + TOE group showed high levels of both Th1 and Th2 transcription factors, but the secreted cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 remained unchanged and somewhat reduced. Additionally, TNF-α gene expression was significantly reduced in the colitis + TOE group. IL-6 mRNA levels were also decreased, although not significantly. Four compounds were structurally elucidated using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, and five compounds were fully identified or tentatively characterized using LC-QTOF-MS. In conclusion, TOE could alleviate chronic colitis via upregulation of Foxp3+ Treg cells and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which directly inhibits macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, leading to reduced colitis.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Feófitas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-17/genética , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815395

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential adverse effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) following a 4-week repeated oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, and 900 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. After administration of AlCl3 at 900 mg/kg/day, treatment-related systemic toxicity manifested as significant increases in salivation incidence, neutrophil percentage, reticulocytes, serum triglyceride, adrenal gland and liver weights, and single-hepatocyte necrosis, as well as significant decreases in body weight gain, food intake, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte percentage, serum total protein and albumin, and thymus weight in male rats; and significant increases in salivation incidence, serum triglyceride, and liver weight, as well as a significant decrease in lymphocyte percentage in female rats. At 300 mg/kg/day, a significant decrease in MCHC was found in male rats, but not in female rats. However, this finding was not toxicologically significant because the reduction was minimal and was not accompanied by changes in any other parameters. No treatment-related effects were observed in the 100 mg/kg/day group of both genders. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the target organs of AlCl3 were determined to be the blood, liver, and thymus in rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was found to be 300 mg/kg/day in rats of both genders.

11.
Anim Reprod ; 17(2): e20200013, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714461

RESUMO

Although ovarian aging is a key cause of decreased ovarian function and oocyte quality, it remains a problem in infertility treatment. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate whether Paeonia lactiflora (PL), a herb improves ovarian function and oocyte quality using aged female mice. C57BL/6 female mice aged 8 months were treated orally every day with PL of 26.5 mg/kg (n=7) and 53 mg/kg (n=7) of body weight for 4 weeks using an oral zoned needle. The control group (n=7) was treated with normal saline. Ovaries and serum were collected for the H&E stain and the evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, respectively. In the second experiment, female mice were orally administered with PL (26.5 mg/kg: n=12, 53 mg/kg: n=12, control: n=12) and then superovulated with PMSG and hCG, and mated with male mice. Zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Ovaries were provided for examination of expressions of genes associated with angiogenesis (VEGF and visfatin), anti-aging (Sirt1 and Sirt2), and follicular development (c-Kit, BMP-15, and GDF-9). PL significantly increased numbers of surviving follicles (primordial, primary, secondary, and antral), numbers of zygotes retrieved, embryo development rate, and ovarian expression of VEGF, visfatin, c-Kit, BMP-15, and GDF-9 at both doses. However, ovarian expression of Sirt1 and Sirt2 was increased at 53.0 mg/kg of PL. ROS levels were not affected by PL. These results suggest that PL may possess beneficial effects regarding ovarian function and oocyte quality, possibly by activation of ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development.

12.
Oncol Rep ; 44(3): 939-958, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705238

RESUMO

Scutellarein (SCU), a flavone that belongs to the flavonoid family and abundantly present in Scutellaria baicalensis a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, has been reported to exhibit anticancer effects in several cancer cell lines including gastric cancer (GC). Although our previous study documented the mechanisms of Scutellarein­induced cytotoxic effects, the literature shows that the proteomic changes that are associated with the cellular response to SCU have been poorly understood. To avoid adverse side­effects and significant toxicity of chemotherapy in patients who react poorly, biomarkers anticipating therapeutic responses are imperative. In the present study, we utilized a comparative proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with Scutellarein (SCU)­induced cell death in GC cells (AGS and SNU484), by integrating two­dimensional gel electrophoresis (2­DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and bioinformatics to analyze the proteins. Proteomic analysis between SCU­treated and DMSO (control) samples successfully identified 41 (AGS) and 31 (SNU484) proteins by MALDI­TOF/MS analysis and protein database search. Comparative proteomics analysis between AGS and SNU484 cells treated with SCU revealed a total of 7 protein identities commonly expressed and western blot analysis validated a subset of identified critical proteins, which were consistent with those of the 2­DE outcome. Molecular docking studies also confirmed the binding affinity of SCU towards these critical proteins. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5­bisphosphate 3­kinase catalytic subunit ß isoform (PIK3CB) protein expression was accompanied by a distinct group of cellular functions, including cell growth, and proliferation. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), is one of the oncogenic molecules that have been shown to promote tumor growth and resistance to apoptosis and senescence­inducing therapies. In the present study, both PIK3CB and CIP2A proteins were downregulated in SCU­treated cells, which boosts our previous results of SCU to induce apoptosis and inhibits GC cell growth by regulating these critical proteins. The comparative proteomic analysis has yielded candidate biomarkers of response to SCU treatment in GC cell models and further validation of these biomarkers will help the future clinical development of SCU as a novel therapeutic drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Autoantígenos/análise , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/análise , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/análise , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481550

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of A. melanocarpa on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats. Moreover, the bioactive constituents in the extract were determined using LC/MS and HPLC analyses. The dried fruits of A. melanocarpa were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under different extract conditions (temperature, 30 C or 100 C; extract solvent, 60% or 100% ethanol) to yield four extracts (T1~T4). Of the four A. melanocarpa extracts, T1 extracted under the condition of 100% ethanol/low temperature (30 C) exhibited the greatest inhibitory activity on TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. The administration of T1 (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) for six weeks attenuated TP-induced prostate enlargement and reduced the levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-reductase in both serum and prostate tissue. The suppression of PCNA mRNA expression in prostate tissue was remarkable in T1-treated rats. In LC/MS analysis, the levels of main anthocyanins and phenolics were significantly higher in T1 than in the other extracts. Furthermore, the quantitative study showed that the contents of cyanidin-3-glucose and cyanidin-3-xylose in T1 exhibited 1.27~1.67 and 1.10~1.26 folds higher compared to those in the other extracts. These findings demonstrated that A. melanocarpa extract containing anthocyanins as bioactive constituents attenuated the development of testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia, and suggested that this extract has therapeutic potential to treat prostate enlargement and BPH.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/sangue , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Temperatura
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 195: 112205, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272419

RESUMO

FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) is expressed on acute leukemia cells and is implicated in the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Despite recent achievements in the development of FLT3-targeted small-molecule drugs, there are still unmet medical needs related to kinase selectivity and the progression of some mutant forms of FLT3. Herein, we describe the discovery of novel orally available type 1 FLT3 inhibitors from structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies for the optimization of indirubin derivatives with biological and pharmacokinetic profiles as potential therapeutic agents for AML. The SAR exploration provided important structural insights into the key substituents for potent inhibitory activities of FLT3 and in MV4-11 cells. The profile of the most optimized inhibitor (36) showed IC50 values of 0.87 and 0.32 nM against FLT3 and FLT3/D835Y, respectively, along with potent inhibition against MV4-11 and FLT3/D835Y expressed MOLM14 cells with a GI50 value of 1.0 and 1.87 nM, respectively. With the high oral bioavailability of 42.6%, compound 36 displayed significant in vivo antitumor activity by oral administration of 20 mg/kg once daily dosing schedule for 21 days in a mouse xenograft model. The molecular docking study of 36 in the homology model of the DFG-in conformation of FLT3 resulted in a reasonable binding mode in type 1 kinases similar to the reported type 1 FLT3 inhibitors Crenolanib and Gilteritinib.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/química , Oximas/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Oximas/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/química , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
15.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191530

RESUMO

The toxicity of cadmium (Cd) occurs through accumulation in the environment. The precise mechanism underlying Cd toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we studied the effects of Cd on MM55.K cells and investigated the mechanisms underlying Cd-induced cell death. CdCl2 significantly elevated apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, and caspase-dependent cell death. Moreover, immunoblotting results revealed that CdCl2 down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptotic protein such as survivin and Bcl-2 which led to the activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP in MM55.K cells. Besides, CdCl2 caused the up-regulation of ROS-related proteins such as HO-1 and ER stress-related proteins such as GRP78 and CHOP in MM55.K cells. CdCl2 toxicity resulted in the down-regulation of the AKT pathway that leads to the up-regulation of phosphorylated JNK and p38 in MM55.K cells. Thus, CdCl2 induce toxicity by AKT/MAPK regulation and causing ROS production, ER stress, ΔΨm loss, and apoptotic cell death in normal mouse renal cells.

16.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 112: 104618, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087352

RESUMO

Silica dioxide nanoparticles (SiONPs) are mainly used in the rubber industry; however, they are a major air pollutant in Asia. Thus, extensive research on this issue is required. In this study, we investigated the effects of SiONPs on asthma aggravation and elucidated the underlying mechanism using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model and in NCI-H292 cells. Mice exposed to SiONPs showed markedly increased Penh values, inflammatory cell counts, and inflammatory cytokine levels compared to OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Exposure to SiONPs also induced additional airway inflammation and mucus secretion with increases in protein expression levels of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and interleukin (IL)-1ß compared to those in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Treatment of SiONPs in NCI-H292 cells also significantly increased mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines accompanied with elevation in the levels of TXNIP, NLRP3 inflammasome, and IL-1ß proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, exposure to SiONPs aggravated asthma development, which is closely related to inflammasome activation. Our results provide useful information about the toxicological effects of SiONPs on asthma exacerbation and suggest the need to avoid SiONP exposure especially in individuals with respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/química
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717394

RESUMO

The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The prevalence of IBD has been increasing worldwide, and has sometimes led to irreversible impairment of gastrointestinal structure and function. In the present study, we successfully isolated a new phylloketal derivative, deacetylphylloketal (1) along with four known compounds from the sponge genus Phyllospongia. The anti-inflammatory properties of deacetylphylloketal (1) and phyllohemiketal A (2) were evaluated using an in vitro co-culture system that resembles the intestinal epithelial environment. A co-culture system was established that consisted of human epithelial Caco-2 cells and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophage cells. The treatment of co-cultured THP-1 cells with compounds 1 or 2 significantly suppressed the production and/or gene expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were down-regulated in response to inhibition of NF-kB translocation into the nucleus in cells. In addition, we observed that 1 and 2 markedly promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent increase in the expression of heme oxygernase (HO)-1. These findings suggest the potential use of sponge genus Phyllospongia and its metabolites as a pharmaceutical aid in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases including IBD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Poríferos/química , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sesterterpenos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781269

RESUMO

The use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration is progressively being accepted. Proteomic profiling of cultured ADSCs by mass spectrometry (MS) is a valuable tool to determine the identity of the proteins involved in multiple pathways, which make these ADSCs unique. In the current study, Nano-LC-MS/MS analysis was implemented on the membrane-free stem cell component (MFSCC), and the MS analysis revealed the presence of 252 proteins, that are involved in several biological functions, like metabolic process, biological regulation, developmental process, cell proliferation, and many more. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses of the identified proteins in MFSCC found them to be involved in versatile pathways, like integrin pathway and wound healing response-related pathways. In addition, we also investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of MFSCC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells. The cell cytotoxicity of MFSCC was measured using MTT and LDH assays, the production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured by the Griess assay, and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) were examined by western blot analysis. The results showed that MFSCC concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3 µg/mL did not show any significant cytotoxicity in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with MFSCC of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells significantly suppressed the production of NO and the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins related to inflammation. The present findings lead to a better understanding of the therapeutic potential of MFSCC and strongly promote it for the future clinical development of novel non-cell-based stem cell therapeutics.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575035

RESUMO

Membrane-free stem cell components (MFSCC) from basal adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are unknown for the treatment strategies in osteoarthritis (OA). OA has been considered to be associated with inflammatory damage and cartilage degradation. In this study, we intended to investigate the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammation and cartilage protection effect of MFSCC in vitro (rat primary chondrocytes) and in vivo (rat OA model). The MFSCC treatment significantly inhibited interleukin-1α (IL-1α) stimulated inflammation and cartilage degradation. The MFSCC considerably reduced the levels of inflammatory factors such as iNOS, COX-2, NO, and PGE2 and was suppressed NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways in IL-1α-stimulated rat chondrocytes. Additionally, biomarkers of OA such as MMP-9, COMP, and CTX-II decreased in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat OA model by MFSCC treatment. In conclusion, the MFSCC was established to suppress IL-1α induced inflammation and cartilage degradation in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide new insight for understanding OA therapy using membrane-free stem cell approaches.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Hialina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/patologia , Ratos
20.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540496

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are autoimmune diseases characterized by chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Debromohymenialdisine is an active pyrrole alkaloid that is well known to serve as a stable and effective inhibitor of Chk2. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of (10Z)-debromohymenialdisine (1) isolated from marine sponge Stylissa species using an intestinal in vitro model with a transwell co-culture system. The treatment with 1 attenuated the production and gene expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α in co-cultured THP-1 macrophages at a concentration range of 1-5 µM. The protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were down-regulated in response to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) translocation into the nucleus in cells. In addition, we observed that 1 markedly promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequent increase of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. These findings suggest the potential use of 1 as a pharmaceutical lead in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases including IBD.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Azepinas/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Intestinos/patologia , Poríferos/química , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Azepinas/química , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pirróis/química , Células THP-1
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