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Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140123


Electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based sensing systems rely on light emissions from luminophores, which are generated by high-energy electron transfer reactions between electrogenerated species on an electrode. ECL systems have been widely used in the detection and monitoring of diverse, disease-related biomarkers due to their high selectivity and fast response times, as well as their spatial and temporal control of luminance, high controllability, and a wide detection range. This review focuses on the recent strategic and technological advances in ECL-based biomarker detection systems. We introduce several sensing systems for medical applications that are classified according to the reactions that drive ECL signal emissions. We also provide recent examples of sensing strategies and technologies based on factors that enhance sensitivity and multiplexing abilities as well as simplify sensing procedures. This review also discusses the potential strategies and technologies for the development of ECL systems with an enhanced detection ability.

Técnicas Biossensoriais , Medições Luminescentes , Biomarcadores , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Fotometria
Sci Adv ; 7(19)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952528


Modern Homo sapiens engage in substantial ecosystem modification, but it is difficult to detect the origins or early consequences of these behaviors. Archaeological, geochronological, geomorphological, and paleoenvironmental data from northern Malawi document a changing relationship between forager presence, ecosystem organization, and alluvial fan formation in the Late Pleistocene. Dense concentrations of Middle Stone Age artifacts and alluvial fan systems formed after ca. 92 thousand years ago, within a paleoecological context with no analog in the preceding half-million-year record. Archaeological data and principal coordinates analysis indicate that early anthropogenic fire relaxed seasonal constraints on ignitions, influencing vegetation composition and erosion. This operated in tandem with climate-driven changes in precipitation to culminate in an ecological transition to an early, pre-agricultural anthropogenic landscape.