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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(5): e25895, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma is attributable to predisposing phenotypical factors, such as skin that easily sunburns and unprotected exposure to carcinogenic UV radiation. Reducing the proportion of young adults who get sunburned may reduce the incidence of melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer. Advances in technology have enabled the delivery of real-time UV light exposure and content-relevant health interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the feasibility of young adults performing the following tasks daily: wearing a UV dosimeter, receiving text messages and real-time UV-B doses on their smartphone, and responding to daily web-based surveys about sunburn and sun protection. METHODS: Young adults aged 18-39 years (n=42) were recruited in the United States in June 2020 via social media. Participants received the UV Guard sun protection system, which consisted of a UV dosimeter and a smartphone app. During 3 consecutive periods, intervention intensity increased as follows: real-time UV-B dose; UV-B dose and daily behavioral facilitation text messages; and UV-B dose, goal setting, and daily text messages to support self-efficacy and self-regulation. Data were self-reported through daily web-based surveys for 28 days, and UV-B doses were transmitted to cloud-based storage. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 22 years (IQR 20, 29), and all patients had sun-sensitive skin. Sunburns were experienced during the study by fewer subjects (n=18) than those in the preceding 28 days (n=30). In July and August, the face was the most commonly sunburned area among 13 body locations; 52% (22/42) of sunburns occurred before the study and 45% (19/42) occurred during the study. The mean daily UV-B dose decreased during the 3 periods; however, this was not statistically significant. Young adults were most often exercising outdoors from 2 to 6 PM, walking from 10 AM to 6 PM, and relaxing from noon to 2 PM. Sunburn was most often experienced during exercise (odds ratio [OR] 5.65, 95% CI 1.60-6.10) and relaxation (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.03-4.67) relative to those that did not exercise or relax in each category. The self-reported exit survey indicated that participants felt that they spent less time outdoors this summer compared to the last summer because of the COVID-19 pandemic and work. In addition, 38% (16/42) of the participants changed their use of sun protection based on their app-reported UV exposure, and 48% (20/42) shifted the time they went outside to periods with less-intense UV exposure. A total of 79% (33/42) of the participants were willing to continue using the UV Guard system outside of a research setting. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-concept research, young adults demonstrated that they used the UV Guard system; however, optimization was needed. Although some sun protection behaviors changed, sunburn was not prevented in all participants, especially during outdoor exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03344796; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03344796.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Queimadura Solar/tratamento farmacológico , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 313(8): 685-694, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185716

RESUMO

Despite knowledge of subsequent melanoma risk and the benefit of sun protection in risk reduction, melanoma survivors often do not engage in adequate sun protection and continue to sunburn at rates similar to individuals without a history of skin cancer. This novel intensive intervention provided a wearable UV sensor delivering real-time UV exposure with a smartphone and daily text messages. On days 1-10 (period 1), behavioral facilitation and outcome expectancies messages were provided. On day 10, participants reviewed and reflected on their daily UV exposure on the previous 10 days and set goals for improving sun protection. Then on days 11-21 (period 2) self-efficacy and self-regulation messages were provided. Sixty melanoma survivors were randomized (1:1) to receive structured or unstructured goal setting queries on day 10. Controlling for cloudy/rain conditions with less UV due to weather, there was a time effect with a significant decrease in UV exposure from periods 1-2 [period 1-2, F (59) = 22.60, p < 0.0001]. In this short-term study, melanoma survivors managed their daily UV exposure to stay below their maximum tolerated UV dose. ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Record NCT0334796, date of registration Nov 15, 2017.

4.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay2462, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853499

RESUMO

Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun and from artificial lighting systems represents a modifiable risk factor for a broad range of health conditions including skin cancer, skin aging, sleep and mood disorders, and retinal damage. Technologies for personalized EMR dosimetry could guide lifestyles toward behaviors that ensure healthy levels of exposure. Here, we report a millimeter-scale, ultralow-power digital dosimeter platform that provides continuous EMR dosimetry in an autonomous mode at one or multiple wavelengths simultaneously, with time-managed wireless, long-range communication to standard consumer devices. A single, small button cell battery supports a multiyear life span, enabled by the combined use of a light-powered, accumulation mode of detection and a light-adaptive, ultralow-power circuit design. Field studies demonstrate single- and multimodal dosimetry platforms of this type, with a focus on monitoring short-wavelength blue light from indoor lighting and display systems and ultraviolet/visible/infrared radiation from the sun.


Assuntos
Radiação Eletromagnética , Dosímetros de Radiação , Radiometria/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Humanos , Luz , Iluminação
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(470)2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518611

RESUMO

Exposure to electromagnetic radiation can have a profound impact on human health. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun causes skin cancer. Blue light affects the body's circadian melatonin rhythm. At the same time, electromagnetic radiation in controlled quantities has beneficial use. UV light treats various inflammatory skin conditions, and blue light phototherapy is the standard of care for neonatal jaundice. Although quantitative measurements of exposure in these contexts are important, current systems have limited applicability outside of laboratories because of an unfavorable set of factors in bulk, weight, cost, and accuracy. We present optical metrology approaches, optoelectronic designs, and wireless modes of operation that serve as the basis for miniature, low-cost, and battery-free devices for precise dosimetry at multiple wavelengths. These platforms use a system on a chip with near-field communication functionality, a radio frequency antenna, photodiodes, supercapacitors, and a transistor to exploit a continuous accumulation mechanism for measurement. Experimental and computational studies of the individual components, the collective systems, and the performance parameters highlight the operating principles and design considerations. Evaluations on human participants monitored solar UV exposure during outdoor activities, captured instantaneous and cumulative exposure during blue light phototherapy in neonatal intensive care units, and tracked light illumination for seasonal affective disorder phototherapy. Versatile applications of this dosimetry platform provide means for consumers and medical providers to modulate light exposure across the electromagnetic spectrum in a way that can both reduce risks in the context of excessive exposure and optimize benefits in the context of phototherapy.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Miniaturização/instrumentação , Fototerapia , Dosímetros de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação/instrumentação , Luz Solar , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Small ; 14(47): e1803192, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369049

RESUMO

Precise, quantitative measurements of the thermal properties of human skin can yield insights into thermoregulatory function, hydration, blood perfusion, wound healing, and other parameters of clinical interest. The need for wired power supply systems and data communication hardware limits, however, practical applicability of existing devices designed for measurements of this type. Here, a set of advanced materials, mechanics designs, integration schemes, and wireless circuits is reported as the basis for wireless, battery-free sensors that softly interface to the skin to enable precise measurements of its temperature and thermal transport properties. Calibration processes connect these parameters to the hydration state of the skin, the dynamics of near-surface flow through blood vessels and implanted catheters, and to recovery processes following trauma. Systematic engineering studies yield quantitative metrics in precision and reliability in real-world conditions. Evaluations on five human subjects demonstrate the capabilities in measurements of skin hydration and injury, including examples of continuous wear and monitoring over a period of 1 week, without disrupting natural daily activities.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(435)2018 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618561

RESUMO

Thin, soft, skin-like sensors capable of precise, continuous measurements of physiological health have broad potential relevance to clinical health care. Use of sensors distributed over a wide area for full-body, spatiotemporal mapping of physiological processes would be a considerable advance for this field. We introduce materials, device designs, wireless power delivery and communication strategies, and overall system architectures for skin-like, battery-free sensors of temperature and pressure that can be used across the entire body. Combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensor operation and the modes for wireless addressing define the key features of these systems. Studies with human subjects in clinical sleep laboratories and in adjustable hospital beds demonstrate functionality of the sensors, with potential implications for monitoring of circadian cycles and mitigating risks for pressure-induced skin ulcers.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pressão , Pele , Temperatura , Termografia
8.
Adv Funct Mater ; 27(1)2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798658

RESUMO

Development of unconventional technologies for wireless collection, storage and analysis of quantitative, clinically relevant information on physiological status is of growing interest. Soft, biocompatible systems are widely regarded as important because they facilitate mounting on external (e.g. skin) and internal (e.g. heart, brain) surfaces of the body. Ultra-miniaturized, lightweight and battery-free devices have the potential to establish complementary options in bio-integration, where chronic interfaces (i.e. months) are possible on hard surfaces such as the fingernails and the teeth, with negligible risk for irritation or discomfort. Here we report materials and device concepts for flexible platforms that incorporate advanced optoelectronic functionality for applications in wireless capture and transmission of photoplethysmograms, including quantitative information on blood oxygenation, heart rate and heart rate variability. Specifically, reflectance pulse oximetry in conjunction with near-field communication (NFC) capabilities enables operation in thin, miniaturized flexible devices. Studies of the material aspects associated with the body interface, together with investigations of the radio frequency characteristics, the optoelectronic data acquisition approaches and the analysis methods capture all of the relevant engineering considerations. Demonstrations of operation on various locations of the body and quantitative comparisons to clinical gold standards establish the versatility and the measurement accuracy of these systems, respectively.

9.
Neuron ; 93(3): 509-521.e3, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132830

RESUMO

In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Optogenética/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos , Opsinas
10.
Sci Adv ; 2(8): e1600418, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493994

RESUMO

Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have "skin-like" properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Eletrônica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele , Tecnologia sem Fio , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Eletrônica/métodos , Epiderme/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Dosímetros de Radiação , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
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