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1.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(8): 191456, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061521

RESUMO

Humans have a deeply rooted sense of fairness, but its emotional foundation in early ontogeny remains poorly understood. Here, we asked if and when 4- to 10-year-old children show negative social emotions, such as shame or guilt, in response to advantageous unfairness expressed through a lowered body posture (measured using a Kinect depth sensor imaging camera). We found that older, but not younger children, showed more negative emotions, i.e. a reduced upper body posture, after unintentionally disadvantaging a peer on (4,1) trials than in response to fair (1,1) outcomes between themselves and others. Younger children, in contrast, expressed more negative emotions in response to the fair (1,1) split than in response to advantageous inequity. No systematic pattern of children's emotional responses was found in a non-social context, in which children divided resources between themselves and a non-social container. Supporting individual difference analyses showed that older children in the social context expressed negative emotions in response to advantageous inequity without directly acting on this negative emotional response by rejecting an advantageously unfair offer proposed by an experimenter at the end of the study. These findings shed new light on the emotional foundation of the human sense of fairness and suggest that children's negative emotional response to advantageous unfairness developmentally precedes their rejection of advantageously unfair resource distributions.

2.
Infant Behav Dev ; 68: 101727, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667276

RESUMO

The understanding of developing social brain functions during infancy relies on research that has focused on studying how infants engage in first-person social interactions or view individual agents and their actions. Behavioral research suggests that observing and learning from third-party social interactions plays a foundational role in early social and moral development. However, the brain systems involved in observing third-party social interactions during infancy are unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that brain systems in prefrontal and temporal cortex, previously identified in adults and children, begin to specialize in third-party social interaction processing during infancy. Infants (N = 62), ranging from 6 to 13 months in age, had their brain responses measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing third-party social interactions and two control conditions, infants viewing two individual actions and infants viewing inverted social interactions. The results show that infants preferentially engage brain regions localized within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex when viewing third-party social interactions. These findings suggest that brain systems processing third-party social interaction begin to develop early in human ontogeny and may thus play a foundational role in supporting the interpretation of and learning from social interactions.


Assuntos
Interação Social , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266539, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442984

RESUMO

Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt and shame, motivate the adherence to social norms, including to norms for prosociality. The relevance of an observing audience to the expression of negative self-conscious emotions remains poorly understood. Here, in two studies, we investigated the influence of being observed on 4- to 5-year-old children's (N = 161) emotional response after failing to help someone in need and after failing to complete their own goal. As an index of children's emotional response, we recorded the change in children's upper body posture using a motion depth sensor imaging camera. Failing to help others lowered children's upper body posture regardless of whether children were observed by an audience or not. Children's emotional response was similar when they failed to help and when they failed to complete their own goal. In Study 2, 5-year-olds showed a greater decrease in upper body posture than 4-year-olds. Our findings suggest that being observed is not a necessary condition for young children to express a negative self-conscious emotion after failing to help or after failing to complete their own goal. We conclude that 5-year-olds, more so that 4-year-olds, show negative emotions when they fail to adhere to social norms for prosociality.


Assuntos
Culpa , Vergonha , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Motivação
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 218: 105377, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150938

RESUMO

To make a fair request, requesters should consider the perspective of the requestee and contrast his or her needs with their own needs. Making an unjustified request (e.g., requesting something we do not need but the requestee does need) can induce some negative feelings such as guilt. Here, we investigated whether making unjustified requests resulted in negative emotions in 3- and 5-year-old children. Participants (N = 83; 34 girls) requested resources that they did or did not need from an experimenter who either did or did not need them. Both age groups were slower and more hesitant to make an unjustified request (children did not need the sticker, but the experimenter did) and also showed lowered body posture when making an unjustified request compared with when making a justified request (children needed the sticker, but the experimenter did not). Three-year-olds showed more pronounced changes in their posture, whereas 5-year-olds' emotional expression was overall more blunted. Rather, older children relied more on verbal indirect utterances (e.g., "You've got lovely stickers"), as opposed to direct requests (e.g., "Can I have that sticker?"), when making unjustified requests. These results suggest that preschool children already apply impartial normative standards to their requests for help, account for the fairness of their requests, and consider the needs of others when requesting.


Assuntos
Emoções , Instituições Acadêmicas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Dev Sci ; : e13253, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191158

RESUMO

We investigated children's positive emotions as an indicator of their underlying prosocial motivation. In Study 1, 2-, and 5-year-old children (N = 64) could either help an individual or watch as another person provided help. Following the helping event and using depth sensor imaging, we measured children's positive emotions through changes in postural elevation. For 2-year-olds, helping the individual and watching another person help was equally rewarding; 5-year-olds showed greater postural elevation after actively helping. In Study 2, 5-year-olds' (N = 59) positive emotions following helping were greater when an audience was watching. Together, these results suggest that 2-year-old children have an intrinsic concern that individuals be helped whereas 5-year-old children have an additional, strategic motivation to improve their reputation by helping.

6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105255, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388641

RESUMO

Past research documents a bilingual advantage in the domain of executive functions (EFs). However, controversial debates have questioned the robustness of those behavioral differences. The current study aimed to better understand the underlying cognitive prerequisites in bilingual students as compared with monolingual students and focused on two processes: the role of verbal processes, on the one hand, and mental effort during task execution, on the other. The use of self-regulatory speech has been found to be related to performance in tasks requiring EFs. For bilinguals who have grown up with two language systems from an early age, those relations are not fully understood. Furthermore, results from neuroimaging studies have shown that bilinguals might exhibit less mental effort in EF tasks. We investigated both processes in German-speaking monolingual elementary school students (n = 33; Mage = 8.78 years) and German-Russian bilingual elementary school students (n = 34; Mage = 8.88 years) solving a planning task. Results showed that monolinguals were impaired by a verbal secondary task in comparison with a motor control condition, whereas bilinguals performed in both tasks at an equal level, indicating a differential role of self-regulatory speech in both language groups. Analyses of changes in pupil diameter revealed less mental effort during task execution for bilingual children as compared with monolingual children. The current study adds to the existing literature by supplying further evidence for cognitive differences between monolingual and bilingual children.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
7.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 837-850, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424003

RESUMO

In direct interactions with others, 9-month-old infants' learning about objects is facilitated when the interaction partner addresses the infant through eye contact before looking toward an object. In this study we investigated whether similar factors promote infants' observational learning from third-party interactions. In Experiment 1, 9-month-old typically developing infants from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds from urban Germany (N = 32, 13 female) were presented with four types of videos showing one object and two adults. The scenarios varied systematically regarding the eye contact between the adults (eye contact or no eye contact), and the adults' object-directed gaze (looking toward or away from the object). To assess infants' encoding performance we measured their looking times when seeing the familiarized object subsequently next to a novel object, interpreting an enhanced novelty preference as reversely indicating greater encoding of the familiarized object. Infants showed an increased novelty preference, but only after observing a joint attentional setting during which two adults attended to the familiarized object together (following eye contact). In Experiment 2, we found an identical pattern of results in a matched first-party design in which 9-month-old infants (N = 32, 16 female) were directly addressed by one single adult on screen. Infants' encoding was only enhanced when the adult made eye contact with the infant before looking at an object. Together, this suggests that the capacity to learn through observing others' interactions emerges already in the first postnatal year, and that it may depend on similar factors as infants' learning through direct social engagement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento do Lactente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente
8.
Child Dev ; 92(6): 2577-2594, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292588

RESUMO

This study examined 7-to-13.5-month-old middle-class Western infants' visual orienting to third-party interactions in parallel with their social attention behavior during own social interactions (Leipzig, Germany). In Experiment 1, 9.5- to-11-month-olds (n = 20) looked longer than 7- to-8.5-month-olds (n = 20) at videos showing two adults interacting with one another when simultaneously presented with a scene showing two adults acting individually. Moreover, older infants showed higher social engagement (including joint attention) during parent-infant free play. Experiment 2 replicated this age-related increase in both measures and showed that it follows continuous trajectories from 7 to 13.5 months (n = 50). This suggests that infants' attentional orienting to others' interactions coincides with parallel developments in their social attention behavior during own social interactions.


Assuntos
Atenção , Interação Social , Adulto , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Comportamento Social
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13169, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162979

RESUMO

Social emotions are key to everyday social life and therefore shaped by cultural values in their expression. Prior research has focused on facial expressions of emotions. What is less clear, however, is the extent to which cultural values shape other modalities of emotional expression. In the present study, we applied a novel paradigm using depth sensor imaging technology to capture changes in participants' body posture in real time. We aimed to (1) identify the nuances in the postural expression that are thought to characterize social emotions and (2) assess how individual differences in cultural values impact the postural expression of emotions. Participants in two separate studies were 132 undergraduate college students whose upper-body postural expansion was recorded after they recalled emotion episodes. Positive emotions elevated participants' upper-body posture whereas negative emotions resulted in lowered upper-body posture. The effects on changes in upper-body posture were moderated by participants' self-ratings of the vertical and horizontal dimensions of individualism and collectivism. The findings provide initial evidence of the nuances in the way cultural values influence the postural expression of emotions.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções Manifestas , Cinésica , Valores Sociais , Sistemas Computacionais , Feminino , Marcha , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724998

RESUMO

Adults under time pressure share with others generously, but with more time they act more selfishly. In the current study, we investigated whether young children already operate in this same way, and, if so, whether this changes over the preschool and early school age years. We tested 144 children in three age groups (3-, 5-, and 7-year olds) in a one-shot dictator game: Children were given nine stickers and had the possibility to share stickers with another child who was absent. Children in the Time Pressure condition were instructed to share quickly, whereas children in the Delay condition were instructed to take time and consider their decision carefully. Across ages, children in the Time Pressure condition shared significantly more stickers than children in the Delay condition. Moreover, the longer children waited, the less they shared. Thus, children, like adults, are more prosocial when acting spontaneously than after considering their decision more carefully.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Infancy ; 26(3): 409-422, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624924

RESUMO

Infants are attentive to third-party interactions, but the underlying mechanisms of this preference remain understudied. This study examined whether 13-month-old infants (N = 32) selectively learn cue-target associations guiding them to videos depicting a social interaction scene. In a visual learning task, two geometrical shapes were repeatedly paired with two kinds of target videos: two adults interacting with one another (social interaction) or the same adults acting individually (non-interactive control). Infants performed faster saccadic latencies and more predictive gaze shifts toward the cued target region during social interaction trials. These findings suggest that social interaction targets can serve as primary reinforcers in an associative learning task, supporting the view that infants find it intrinsically valuable to observe others' interactions.


Assuntos
Atenção , Interação Social , Adulto , Condicionamento Clássico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem
12.
Child Dev ; 92(4): e635-e652, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511648

RESUMO

Two- and 3-year-old children (N = 96) were tested in an object-choice task with video presentations of peer and adult partners. An immersive, semi-interactive procedure enabled both the close matching of adult and peer conditions and the combination of participants' choice behavior with looking time measures. Children were more likely to use information provided by adults. As the effect was more pronounced in the younger age-group, the observed bias may fade during toddlerhood. As there were no differences in children's propensity to follow peer and adult gestures with their gaze, these findings provide some of the earliest evidence to date that young children take an interlocutor's age into account when judging ostensively communicated testimony.


Assuntos
Gestos , Grupo Associado , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
13.
J Comp Psychol ; 135(2): 196-207, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315411

RESUMO

Chimpanzees help conspecifics achieve their goals in instrumental situations, but neither their immediate motivation nor the evolutionary basis of their motivation is clear. In the current study, we gave chimpanzees the opportunity to instrumentally help a conspecific to obtain food. Following recent studies with human children, we measured their pupil diameter at various points in the process. Like young children, chimpanzees' pupil diameter decreased soon after they had helped. However, unlike children, chimpanzees' pupils remained more dilated upon watching a third party provide the needed help instead of them. Our interpretation is that chimpanzees are motivated to help others, and the evolutionary basis is direct or indirect reciprocity, as providing help oneself sets the conditions for a payback. This is in contrast to young children whose goal is to see others being helped-by whomever-presumably because their helping is not based on reciprocity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Motivação , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Evolução Biológica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Alimentos , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242071, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211711

RESUMO

Children seek and like to engage in collaborative activities with their peers. This social motivation is hypothesized to facilitate their emerging social-cognitive skills and vice versa. Current evidence on the ontogeny of social motivation and its' links to social cognition, however, is subject to a sampling bias toward participants from urban Western populations. Here, we show both cross-cultural variation and homogeneity in three- to eight-year-old children's expressed positive emotions during and explicit preferences for peer collaboration across three diverse populations (urban German, rural Hai||om/Namibia, rural Ovambo/Namibia; n = 240). Children expressed more positive emotions during collaboration as compared to individual activity, but the extent varied across populations. Children's preferences for collaboration differed markedly between populations and across ages: While German children across all ages sought collaboration, Hai||om children preferred to act individually throughout childhood. Ovambo children preferred individual play increasingly with age. Across populations, positive emotions expressed selectively during collaboration, predicted children's social-cognitive skills. These findings provide evidence that culture shapes young children's social motivation for dyadic peer collaboration. At the same time, the positive relation of social motivation and social cognition in early ontogeny appears cross-culturally constant.


Assuntos
Motivação , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Características Culturais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia , População Rural , População Urbana
15.
Front Psychol ; 11: 548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425839

RESUMO

From a young age, children understand and enforce moral norms, which are aimed at preserving the rights and welfare of others. Children also distinguish moral norms from other types of norms such as conventional norms, which serve to ensure coordination within social groups or institutions. However, far less is known about the mechanisms driving this differentiation. This article investigates the role of internal arousal in distinguishing moral from conventional norms. In a between-subjects design, 3-year-olds (n = 32), 4-year-olds (n = 34), and undergraduate students (n = 64) watched a video of either a moral norm violation (e.g., destroying another person's artwork) or a conventional norm violation (e.g., playing a game wrong). Participants of all age groups showed differential physiological arousal (pupil dilation) to moral and conventional norm violations. Participants of all age groups also attended significantly more to the victim of the moral transgression than the bystander in the conventional transgression. Further, this differential attention to the victim/bystander positively correlated with the change in participants' phasic pupil dilation to the norm violation. This is the first evidence that differences in internal arousal co-occur with (and possibly contribute to) the distinction that even young children draw between moral and conventional norms.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155213

RESUMO

During their preschool years, children from urban, Western populations increasingly use deception and mistrust to regulate social interactions with others who have opposing interests. The ontogeny of these behaviors in rural, non-Western populations remains understudied. This study assessed deception and mistrust within peer interactions among 4- to 8-year-old Hai||om children from rural Namibia (N = 64). Participants engaged in a dyadic game in which their self-interests were either aligned (cooperation condition) or opposed (competition condition) to those of their coplayers. Similar to previous evidence taken from Western participants, children mistrusted their coplayers during competition, but not during cooperation. Rates of actual deception were low in both conditions, which contrasts previous findings among Western populations. On an individual level, those children who deceived were also more likely to mistrust their peers. These results reveal novel insights on the ontogenetic primacy of mistrust over deception in young children's peer interactions in a rural, non-Western community.


Assuntos
Decepção , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Confiança , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia/etnologia
17.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 193: 104796, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987592

RESUMO

Children from Western industrialized populations tend to copy actions modeled by an adult with high fidelity even if these actions are functionally irrelevant. This so-called overimitation has been argued to be an important driver of cumulative cultural learning. However, cross-cultural and developmental evidence on overimitation is controversial, likely due to diverging task demands regarding children's attention and memory capabilities. Here, children from a recent hunter-gatherer population (Hai||om in Namibia) were compared with urban Western children (Germany) using an overimitation procedure with minimal cognitive task demands. Although the proportion of children engaging in any overimitation was similar across the two populations, German overimitators copied irrelevant actions more persistently across tasks. These results suggest that the influence of culture on children's overimitation may be one of degree, not kind.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Comportamento Imitativo , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia/etnologia
18.
Dev Sci ; 23(3): e12922, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710758

RESUMO

Humans, including young children, are strongly motivated to help others, even paying a cost to do so. Humans' nearest primate relatives, great apes, are likewise motivated to help others, raising the question of whether the motivations of humans and apes are the same. Here we compared the underlying motivation to help in human children and chimpanzees. Both species understood the situation and helped a conspecific in a straightforward situation. However, when helpers knew that what the other was requesting would not actually help her, only children gave her what she needed instead of giving her what she requested. These results suggest that both chimpanzees and human children help others but the underlying motivation for why they help differs. In comparison to chimpanzees, young children help in a paternalistic manner. The evolutionary hypothesis is that uniquely human socio-ecologies based on interdependent cooperation gave rise to uniquely human prosocial motivations to help others paternalistically.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Motivação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Hominidae , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pan troglodytes
19.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(4): 589-605, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883039

RESUMO

From an early age children help others yet the underlying mechanisms of children's prosocial attention remain understudied. Comparing the attentional and physiological mechanisms of prosocial attention of typically developing and atypically developing children contributes to our understanding of the ontogeny of prosocial development. We presented typically developing (TD) children and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), who often have difficulty developing prosocial behaviour, with scenarios in which an adult needed a dropped object to finish a task but was subsequently not helped by a second adult. In a perceptually matched non-social control scenario, children saw self-propelled objects move and drop without any adult present in the scene. Results showed a dissociation between arousal (pupil dilation) and the anticipation of the individual's need (gaze patterns), such that only TD children looked longer at the correct solution to the adult's need prior to the resolution of the situation. In contrast, following the resolution of the scene, both groups showed greater arousal when the adult was not helped compared to when the non-social situation remained unresolved. For the ASD group, this effect was greatest for children with higher developmental quotients. These results suggest that, despite similarities in prosocial attention between TD and ASD children, previously documented reduced prosocial behaviour in children with ASD may be in part due to a specific impairment in anticipating prosocial behaviour.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Dev Sci ; 23(3): e12915, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618505

RESUMO

The overall pattern of vocabulary development is relatively similar across children learning different languages. However, there are considerable differences in the words known to individual children. Historically, this variability has been explained in terms of differences in the input. Here, we examine the alternate possibility that children's individual interest in specific natural categories shapes the words they are likely to learn - a child who is more interested in animals will learn a new animal name easier relative to a new vehicle name. Two-year-old German-learning children (N = 39) were exposed to four novel word-object associations for objects from four different categories. Prior to the word learning task, we measured their interest in the categories that the objects belonged to. Our measure was pupillary change following exposure to familiar objects from these four categories, with increased pupillary change interpreted as increased interest in that category. Children showed more robust learning of word-object associations from categories they were more interested in relative to categories they were less interested in. We further found that interest in the novel objects themselves influenced learning, with distinct influences of both category interest and object interest on learning. These results suggest that children's interest in different natural categories shapes their word learning. This provides evidence for the strikingly intuitive possibility that a child who is more interested in animals will learn novel animal names easier than a child who is more interested in vehicles.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia
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