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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 654: 1132-1145, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematically collected and comparable data on drinking water safety at city-scale is currently unavailable, despite the stated importance of water safety monitoring at scale under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We developed a rapid drinking water quality assessment methodology intended to be replicable across all cities and useful for monitoring towards achieving SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). METHODS: We collected drinking water samples at the point-of-consumption for basic microbial, physical and chemical water quality analysis and conducted household surveys on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene access from 80 households in the city of Cochabamba over 1 week. We categorized the household's water service level according to the SDG 6 framework. RESULTS: We estimated an average time requirement of 6.4 person-hours and a consumable cost of US $51 per household (n = 80). In this cross-sectional study, 71% of drinking water samples met World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological safety criteria, 96% met WHO chemical quality criteria, and all met WHO aesthetic quality criteria. However, only 18% of the households were categorized as having safely managed drinking water services. None met the criteria for having safely managed sanitation services; nonetheless, 81% had basic sanitation services and 78% had basic hygiene facilities. CONCLUSIONS: This method can generate basic water safety data for a city at a relatively low cost in terms of person-time and materials, yielding useful information for inter-city analyses. Because 29% of samples did not meet microbiological safety criteria, 22% of the households did not have access to handwashing facilities and none had safe sanitation services, we concluded that Cochabamba did not meet normative SDG 6 targets when surveyed. Our study further suggests that water quality at point-of-use more accurately characterizes drinking water safety than infrastructure type.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolívia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Higiene , População Rural , Saneamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Qualidade da Água/normas
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 53(1/2): 63-71, mar.-jun 2005. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-455487

RESUMO

We indirectly evaluated the selective pressures on dispersal and establishment of Campsiandra angustifolia, a common water-dispersed tree from the Peruvian Amazon, analyzing the variation in the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures in a total of 535 seeds from 13 trees located at three different habitats. The seeds differed one order of magnitude in their total volume. However, independently of their size and the location of the maternal tree, the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures was relatively constant (~1) and showed a normal distribution with low skewness, indicating stabilizing selection. These results suggest that, in the habitats studied, dispersal and establishment processes may have similar importance to C.angustifolia. In species with seeds confined in pods, and therefore strongly space-limited, the relative volume of their seeds occupied by dispersal and establishment structures could be a better measure of the trade-off between these two processes than the variation in seed size


Evaluamos indirectamente las presiones selectivas sobre la dispersión y el establecimiento en Campsiandra angustifolia, un árbol de la Amazonía Peruana dispersado por agua, analizando variaciones de la relación entre el volumen ocupado por las estructuras de dispersión y de establecimiento en sus semillas. Medimos un total de 535 semillas de 13 árboles ubicados en tres hábitats diferentes, las cuales presentaron una gran variación en su volumen total. Independientemente del tamaño de la semilla y de la ubicación del árbol de origen, la relación entre el volumen asignado a estructuras de establecimiento y a estructuras de dispersión fue relativamente constante (~1) y presentó una distribución normal con baja asimetría, indicando selección estabilizante. Este resultado sugiere que los procesos de dispersión y establecimiento poseen una importancia relativa similar para C.angustifolia en los hábitats estudiados. En especies con semillas empaquetadas, el volumen relativo ocupado por estructuras relacionadas con la dispersión o el establecimiento podría ser una medida más adecuada de la solución de compromiso entre estos dos procesos que la variación del tamaño de la semilla


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Cotilédone/fisiologia , Desastres , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Relâmpago , Peru , Estações do Ano , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
3.
Rev Biol Trop ; 53(1-2): 63-71, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17354420

RESUMO

We indirectly evaluated the selective pressures on dispersal and establishment of Campsiandra angustifolia, a common water-dispersed tree from the Peruvian Amazon, analyzing the variation in the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures in a total of 535 seeds from 13 trees located at three different habitats. The seeds differed one order of magnitude in their total volume. However, independently of their size and the location of the maternal tree, the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures was relatively constant (approximately 1) and showed a normal distribution with low skewness, indicating stabilizing selection. These results suggest that, in the habitats studied, dispersal and establishment processes may have similar importance to C. agustifolia. In species with seeds confined in pods, and therefore strongly space-limited, the relative volume of their seeds occupied by dispersal and establishment structures could be a better measure of the trade-off between these two processes than the variation in seed size.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Cotilédone/fisiologia , Desastres , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Relâmpago , Peru , Estações do Ano , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
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