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1.
EBioMedicine ; 46: 215-226, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Profiles of immunity developed in filovirus patients and survivors have begun to shed light on antigen-specific cellular immune responses that had been previously under-studied. However, our knowledge of the breadth and length of those responses and the viral targets which mediate long-term memory immunity still lags significantly behind. METHODS: We characterized antigen-specific immune responses in whole blood samples of fifteen years post-infected survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). We examined T cell and IgG responses against SUDV complete antigen and four SUDV proteins; glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and viral protein 30 (VP30), and 40 (VP40). FINDINGS: We found survivors-maintained antigen-specific CD4+ T cell memory immune responses mediated mainly by the viral protein NP. In contrast, activated CD8+ T cell responses were nearly absent in SUDV survivors, regardless of the stimulating antigen used. Analysis of anti-viral humoral immunity revealed antigen-specific IgG antibodies against SUDV and SUDV proteins. Survivor IgGs mediated live SUDV neutralization in vitro and FcγRI and FcγRIII antibody Fc-dependent responses, mainly via antibodies to the viral proteins GP and VP40. INTERPRETATION: We highlight the key role of several proteins, i.e., GP, NP, and VP40, to act as mediators of distinctive and sustained cellular memory immune responses in long-term SUDV survivors. We suggest that the inclusion of these viral proteins in vaccine development may best mimic survivor native memory immune responses with the potential of protecting against viral infection. FUNDS: This research was funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (CB4088) and by the National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AI111516. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

2.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(3): 204-212, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833785

RESUMO

The structural features that govern broad-spectrum activity of broadly neutralizing anti-ebolavirus antibodies (Abs) outside of the internal fusion loop epitope are currently unknown. Here we describe the structure of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal Ab (mAb), ADI-15946, which was identified in a human survivor of the 2013-2016 outbreak. The crystal structure of ADI-15946 in complex with cleaved Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GPCL) reveals that binding of the mAb structurally mimics the conserved interaction between the EBOV GP core and its glycan cap ß17-ß18 loop to inhibit infection. Both endosomal proteolysis of EBOV GP and binding of mAb FVM09 displace this loop, thereby increasing exposure of ADI-15946's conserved epitope and enhancing neutralization. Our work also mapped the paratope of ADI-15946, thereby explaining reduced activity against Sudan virus, which enabled rational, structure-guided engineering to enhance binding and neutralization of Sudan virus while retaining the parental activity against EBOV and Bundibugyo virus.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 49-58.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629918

RESUMO

Recent and ongoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) underscore the unpredictable nature of ebolavirus reemergence and the urgent need for antiviral treatments. Unfortunately, available experimental vaccines and immunotherapeutics are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against other ebolaviruses associated with EVD, including Sudan virus (SUDV) and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Here we show that MBP134AF, a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bNAbs), affords unprecedented effectiveness and potency as a therapeutic countermeasure to antigenically diverse ebolaviruses. MBP134AF could fully protect ferrets against lethal EBOV, SUDV, and BDBV infection, and a single 25-mg/kg dose was sufficient to protect NHPs against all three viruses. The development of MBP134AF provides a successful model for the rapid discovery and translational advancement of immunotherapeutics targeting emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Furões/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Macaca , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Primatas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 39-48.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629917

RESUMO

Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a promising therapeutic approach for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, all mAbs and mAb cocktails that have entered clinical development are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against outbreak-causing Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) and Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we advance MBP134, a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing human mAbs, ADI-15878 from an EVD survivor and ADI-23774 from the same survivor but specificity-matured for SUDV GP binding affinity, as a candidate pan-ebolavirus therapeutic. MBP134 potently neutralized all ebolaviruses and demonstrated greater protective efficacy than ADI-15878 alone in EBOV-challenged guinea pigs. A second-generation cocktail, MBP134AF, engineered to effectively harness natural killer (NK) cells afforded additional improvement relative to its precursor in protective efficacy against EBOV and SUDV in guinea pigs. MBP134AF is an optimized mAb cocktail suitable for evaluation as a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Cobaias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nature ; 563(7732): 559-563, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464266

RESUMO

The zoonotic transmission of hantaviruses from their rodent hosts to humans in North and South America is associated with a severe and frequently fatal respiratory disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)1,2. No specific antiviral treatments for HPS are available, and no molecular determinants of in vivo susceptibility to hantavirus infection and HPS are known. Here we identify the human asthma-associated gene protocadherin-1 (PCDH1)3-6 as an essential determinant of entry and infection in pulmonary endothelial cells by two hantaviruses that cause HPS, Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In vitro, we show that the surface glycoproteins of ANDV and SNV directly recognize the outermost extracellular repeat domain of PCDH1-a member of the cadherin superfamily7,8-to exploit PCDH1 for entry. In vivo, genetic ablation of PCDH1 renders Syrian golden hamsters highly resistant to a usually lethal ANDV challenge. Targeting PCDH1 could provide strategies to reduce infection and disease caused by New World hantaviruses.

6.
Cell ; 174(4): 938-952.e13, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096313

RESUMO

Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model. Neutralization and induction of multiple immune effector functions (IEFs) correlated most strongly with protection. Neutralization predominantly occurred via epitopes maintained on endosomally cleaved GP, whereas maximal IEF mapped to epitopes farthest from the viral membrane. Unexpectedly, sGP cross-reactivity did not significantly influence in vivo protection. This comprehensive dataset provides a rubric to evaluate novel antibodies and vaccine responses and a roadmap for therapeutic development for EBOV and related viruses.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 24(2): 221-233.e5, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092199

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic highlighted the need for effective vaccines and therapeutics to limit and prevent outbreaks. Host antibodies against EBOV are critical for controlling disease, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can protect from infection. However, antibodies mediate an array of antiviral functions including neutralization as well as engagement of Fc-domain receptors on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis or NK cell-mediated killing of infected cells. Thus, to understand the antibody features mediating EBOV protection, we examined specific Fc features associated with protection using a library of EBOV-specific mAbs. Neutralization was strongly associated with therapeutic protection against EBOV. However, several neutralizing mAbs failed to protect, while several non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing mAbs could protect. Antibody-mediated effector functions, including phagocytosis and NK cell activation, were associated with protection, particularly for antibodies with moderate neutralizing activity. This framework identifies functional correlates that can inform therapeutic and vaccine design strategies against EBOV and other pathogens.

8.
Viruses ; 10(6)2018 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861435

RESUMO

Sudan virus (SUDV) and Ebola viruses (EBOV) are both members of the Ebolavirus genus and have been sources of epidemics and outbreaks for several decades. We present here the generation and characterization of cross-reactive antibodies to both SUDV and EBOV, which were produced in a cell-free system and protective against SUDV in mice. A non-human primate, cynomolgus macaque, was immunized with viral-replicon particles expressing the glycoprotein of SUDV-Boniface (8A). Two separate antibody fragment phage display libraries were constructed after four immunogen injections. Both libraries were screened first against the SUDV and a second library was cross-selected against EBOV-Kikwit. Sequencing of 288 selected clones from the two distinct libraries identified 58 clones with distinct VH and VL sequences. Many of these clones were cross-reactive to EBOV and SUDV and able to neutralize SUDV. Three of these recombinant antibodies (X10B1, X10F3, and X10H2) were produced in the scFv-Fc format utilizing a cell-free production system. Mice that were challenged with SUDV-Boniface receiving 100µg of the X10B1/X10H2 scFv-Fc combination 6 and 48-h post-exposure demonstrated partial protection individually and complete protection as a combination. The data herein suggests these antibodies may be promising candidates for further therapeutic development.

9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 22(5): 688-696.e5, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120745

RESUMO

Arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans. Old World arenavirus glycoproteins (GPs) mainly engage α-dystroglycan as a cell-surface receptor, while New World arenaviruses hijack transferrin receptor. However, the Lujo virus (LUJV) GP does not cluster with New or Old World arenaviruses. Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus containing LUJV GP as its sole attachment and fusion protein (VSV-LUJV), we demonstrate that infection is independent of known arenavirus receptor genes. A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identified the transmembrane protein neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and tetraspanin CD63 as factors for LUJV GP-mediated infection. LUJV GP binds the N-terminal domain of NRP2, while CD63 stimulates pH-activated LUJV GP-mediated membrane fusion. Overexpression of NRP2 or its N-terminal domain enhances VSV-LUJV infection, and cells lacking NRP2 are deficient in wild-type LUJV infection. These findings uncover this distinct set of host cell entry factors in LUJV infection and are attractive focus points for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Lujo virus/fisiologia , Neuropilina-2/metabolismo , Tetraspanina 30/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Proteínas de Transporte , Linhagem Celular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lujo virus/genética , Lujo virus/patogenicidade , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
J Exp Med ; 214(9): 2563-2572, 2017 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724616

RESUMO

Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized. We report that immune responses in MARV survivors share characteristics with EBOV and SUDV infections but have some distinct differences. MARV survivors developed multivariate CD4+ T cell responses but limited CD8+ T cell responses, more in keeping with SUDV survivors than EBOV survivors. In stark contrast to SUDV survivors, rare neutralizing antibody responses in MARV survivors diminished rapidly after the outbreak. These results warrant serious consideration for any vaccine or therapeutic that seeks to be broadly protective, as different filoviruses may require different immune responses to achieve immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/imunologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Masculino , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobreviventes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Virol ; 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615211

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner. The prime/boost regimen provided significantly better protection than a single dose. As N-linked glycans are thought to shield conserved regions of the EBOV GP receptor binding domain (RBD) thereby blocking epitopes within the RBD, we also tested if VSVΔG bearing EBOV GPs that lack GP1 N-linked glycans provided effective immunity against challenge with ma-EBOV or a more distantly related virus, Sudan virus. Using a prime/boost strategy, high doses of GP/VSVΔG partially or fully denuded of N-linked glycans on GP1 protected mice against ma-EBOV challenge, but these mutants were no more effective than WT GP/VSVΔG and did not provide cross protection against Sudan virus. As reported for other EBOV vaccine platforms, protection conferred correlated with the quantity of EBOV GP-specific Ig produced, but not the production of neutralizing antibodies. Our results show that EBOV GP/VSVΔG pseudovirions serve as a successful vaccination platform in a rodent model of Ebola virus disease and GP1 N-glycan loss does not influence immunogenicity or vaccination success.IMPORTANCE The West African Ebola virus epidemic was the largest to date with more than 28,000 people infected. No FDA-approved vaccines are yet available, but in a trial vaccination strategy in West Africa, recombinant, infectious VSV encoding the Ebola virus glycoprotein effectively prevented virus-associated disease. VSVΔG pseudovirion vaccines may prove as efficacious and have better safety, but have not been tested to date. Thus, we test the efficacy of VSVΔG pseudovirions bearing Ebola virus glycoprotein as a vaccine platform. We found that wild-type Ebola virus glycoprotein, in the context of this platform, provides robust protection of EBOV challenged mice. Further, we found removal of the heavy glycan shield surrounding conserved regions of the glycoprotein does not enhance vaccine efficacy.

12.
Cell ; 169(5): 878-890.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525755

RESUMO

Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes. Only a few somatic hypermutations are required for broad antiviral activity, and germline-approximating variants display enhanced GPCL recognition, suggesting that such antibodies could be elicited more efficiently with suitably optimized GP immunogens. Our findings inform the development of both broadly effective immunotherapeutics and vaccines against filoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Células Vero
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(385)2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404864

RESUMO

The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
14.
Cell Rep ; 19(2): 413-424, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402862

RESUMO

Drug combinations are synergistic when their combined efficacy exceeds the sum of the individual actions, but they rarely include ineffective drugs that become effective only in combination. We identified several "enabling pairs" of neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-ebolavirus monoclonal antibodies, whose combination exhibited new functional profiles, including transforming a non-neutralizing antibody to a neutralizer. Sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies 2G4 or m8C4 enabled non-neutralizing antibody FVM09 (IC50 >1 µM) to exhibit potent neutralization (IC50 1-10 nM). While FVM09 or m8C4 alone failed to protect Ebola-virus-infected mice, a combination of the two antibodies provided 100% protection. Furthermore, non-neutralizers FVM09 and FVM02 exponentially enhanced the potency of two neutralizing antibodies against both Ebola and Sudan viruses. We identified a hotspot for the binding of these enabling antibody pairs near the interface of the glycan cap and GP2. Enabling cooperativity may be an underappreciated phenomenon for viruses, with implications for the design and development of immunotherapeutics and vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos
15.
Science ; 354(6310): 350-354, 2016 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27608667

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific-antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope. Bispecific antibodies, but not parent mAbs, neutralized all known ebolaviruses by coopting viral particles themselves for endosomal delivery and conferred postexposure protection against multiple ebolaviruses in mice. Such "Trojan horse" bispecific antibodies have potential as broad antifilovirus immunotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endossomos/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Internalização do Vírus
16.
mSphere ; 1(2)2016 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27303731

RESUMO

Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to viper NPC1. This resistance to infection can be mapped to a single amino acid residue in viper NPC1 that renders it unable to bind to EBOV GP. The newly solved structure of EBOV GP bound to NPC1 confirms our findings, revealing that this residue dips into the GP receptor-binding pocket and is therefore critical to the binding interface. Consequently, this otherwise well-conserved residue in vertebrate species influences the ability of reptilian NPC1 proteins to bind to EBOV GP, thereby affecting viral host range in reptilian cells.

17.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2(3): 173-179, 2016 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347558

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus outbreak in western Africa highlights the need for novel therapeutics that target Ebola virus and other filoviruses. Filoviruses require processing by host cell-derived cysteine cathepsins for productive infection. Here we report the generation of a focused library of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors and subsequent screening to identify compounds with potent activity against viral entry and replication. Our top compounds show highly potent and broad-spectrum activity against cysteine cathepsins and were able to effectively block entry of Ebola and Marburg viruses. These agents are promising leads for development as antifilovirus therapeutics.

18.
Viruses ; 8(5)2016 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187443

RESUMO

Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Sobreviventes , Uganda
19.
Cell Rep ; 15(7): 1514-1526, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160900

RESUMO

Previous efforts to identify cross-neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding site (RBS) of ebolavirus glycoproteins have been unsuccessful, largely because the RBS is occluded on the viral surface. We report a monoclonal antibody (FVM04) that targets a uniquely exposed epitope within the RBS; cross-neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and, to a lesser extent, Bundibugyo viruses; and shows protection against EBOV and SUDV in mice and guinea pigs. The antibody cocktail ZMapp™ is remarkably effective against EBOV (Zaire) but does not cross-neutralize other ebolaviruses. By replacing one of the ZMapp™ components with FVM04, we retained the anti-EBOV efficacy while extending the breadth of protection to SUDV, thereby generating a cross-protective antibody cocktail. In addition, we report several mutations at the base of the ebolavirus glycoprotein that enhance the binding of FVM04 and other cross-reactive antibodies. These findings have important implications for pan-ebolavirus vaccine development and defining broadly protective antibody cocktails.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/ultraestrutura , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Coloração Negativa , Testes de Neutralização , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24897, 2016 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109916

RESUMO

Polyclonal antibodies, derived from humans or hyperimmunized animals, have been used prophylactically or therapeutically as countermeasures for a variety of infectious diseases. SAB Biotherapeutics has successfully developed a transchromosomic (Tc) bovine platform technology that can produce fully human immunoglobulins rapidly, and in substantial quantities, against a variety of disease targets. In this study, two Tc bovines expressing high levels of fully human IgG were hyperimmunized with a recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc bovines contained high titers of human IgG against EBOV GP as determined by GP specific ELISA, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and virus neutralization assays. Fully human polyclonal antibodies against EBOV were purified and evaluated in a mouse challenge model using mouse adapted Ebola virus (maEBOV). Intraperitoneal administration of the purified anti-EBOV IgG (100 mg/kg) to BALB/c mice one day after lethal challenge with maEBOV resulted in 90% protection; whereas 100% of the control animals succumbed. The results show that hyperimmunization of Tc bovines with EBOV GP can elicit protective and potent neutralizing fully human IgG antibodies rapidly and in commercially viable quantities.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Resultado do Tratamento
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