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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(3): 1222-1241, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850421

RESUMO

Through the use of tunable vacuum ultraviolet light generated by the DESIRS VUV synchrotron beamline, a jet-stirred reactor was coupled for the first time to an advanced photoionization mass spectrometer based upon a double imaging PhotoElectron PhotoIon COincidence (i2PEPICO) scheme. This new coupling was used to investigate the low-temperature oxidation of n-pentane, a prototype molecule for gasoline or diesel fuels. Experiments were performed under quasi-atmospheric pressure (1.1 bar) with a residence time of 3 s for two equivalence ratios (1/3 and 0.5) with a fuel initial mole fraction of 0.01. The measured time-of-flight mass spectra are in good agreement with those previously obtained with other photoionization mass spectrometers and, like those previous ones, display several m/z peaks for which the related species assignation is ambiguous. This paper shows how the analysis of the coincident mass-tagged Threshold PhotoElectron Spectra (TPES) together with first principle computations, consisting of the determination of the adiabatic ionization energies and the spectra of some products, may assist products' identification. The results mostly confirm those previously obtained by photoionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, but also allow a more accurate estimation of the 1-pentene/2-pentene mole fraction ratio. Our data also indicate a higher formation of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone than what is predicted by current models, as well as the presence of products that were not previously taken into account, such as methoxyacetylene, methyl vinyl ketone or furanone. The formation of three, four and five membered ring cyclic ethers is confirmed along with linear ketones: 2- and 3-pentanone. A significant general trend in indicating higher amounts of ketones than are indicated by gas chromatography is noted. Finally, TPES of alkenylhydroperoxides are also provided for the first time and constrains on the isomers identification are provided.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(9): 1861-1876, 2017 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28190356

RESUMO

A wide range of hydroperoxides (C1-C3 alkyl hydroperoxides, C3-C7 alkenyl hydroperoxides, C7 ketohydroperoxides, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), as well as ketene and diones, have been quantified during the gas-phase oxidation of n-heptane. Some of these species, as well as C10 alkenyl hydroperoxides and ketohydroperoxides, were also measured during the oxidation of n-decane. These experiments were performed using an atmospheric-pressure jet-stirred reactor at temperatures from 500 to 1100 K and one of three analytical methods, time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with tunable synchrotron photoionization with a molecular beam sampling: time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with laser photoionization with a capillary tube sampling, continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with sonic probe sampling. The experimental temperature at which the maximum mole fraction is observed increases significantly for alkyl hydroperoxides, alkenyl hydroperoxides, and then more so again for hydrogen peroxide, compared to ketohydroperoxides. The influence of the equivalence ratio from 0.25 to 4 on the formation of these peroxides has been studied during n-heptane oxidation. The up-to-date detailed kinetic oxidation models for n-heptane and for n-decane found in the literature have been used to discuss the possible pathways by which these peroxides, ketene, and diones are formed. In general, the model predicts well the reactivity of the two fuels, as well as the formation of major intermediates.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(5): 668-82, 2016 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757618

RESUMO

The thermal decomposition of cyclopentene was studied in a jet-stirred reactor operated at constant pressure and temperature to provide new experimental information about the formation of the first aromatic rings from cyclic C5 species. Experiments were carried out at a residence time of 1 s, a pressure of 106.7 kPa, temperatures ranging from 773 to 1073 K and under diluted conditions (cyclopentene inlet mole fraction of 0.04). Species were quantified using three analytical methods: gas chromatography, synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (SVUV-PIMS), and single photon laser ionization mass spectrometry (SPI-MS). Several species could be quantified using both methods allowing comparison of experimental data obtained with the three apparatuses. Discrepancies observed in mole fraction profiles of some large aromatics suggest that the direct sampling in the gas phase (with a molecular beam or a capillary tube) provide more reliable results. The main reaction products are 1,3-cyclopentadiene and hydrogen. The formation of many unsaturated C2-C6 olefins, diolefins and alkynes was also observed but in smaller amounts. Benzene, toluene, styrene, indene, and naphthalene were detected from 923 K. SVUV-PIMS data allowed the identification of another C6H6 isomer which is 1,5-hexadien-3-yne rather than fulvene. The quantification of the cyclopentadienyl radical was obtained from SVUV-PIMS and SPI-MS data with some uncertainty induced by the possible contribution to the signal for m/z 65 of a fragment from the decomposition of a larger ion. This is the first time that a radical is quantified in a jet-stirred reactor using non-optical techniques. SPI-MS analyses allowed the detection of species likely being combination products of allyl and cyclopentadienyl radicals. A model was developed for the pyrolysis of cyclopentene. This model includes routes of formation of aromatics from the cyclopentadienyl radical. The comparison of experimental and computed data is overall satisfactory for primary reaction products whereas discrepancies are still observed for aromatics.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(28): 7905-23, 2015 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25870904

RESUMO

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was studied using a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of conditions: temperatures from 500 to 1100 K; equivalence ratios of 0.25, 1, and 2; residence time of 2 s; pressure of 106.7 kPa (close to the atmospheric pressure); and an inlet fuel mole fraction of 0.02 (with high dilution in helium). Reaction products were quantified using two analysis methods: gas chromatography and continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). cw-CRDS enabled the quantification of formaldehyde, which is one of the major products from DME oxidation, as well as that of hydrogen peroxide, which is an important branching agent in low-temperature oxidation chemistry. Experimental data were compared with data computed using models from the literature with important deviations being observed for the reactivity at low-temperature. A new detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of DME was developed in this study. Kinetic parameters used in this model were taken from literature or calculated in the present work using quantum calculations. This new model enables a better prediction of the reactivity in the low-temperature region. Under the present JSR conditions, error bars on predictions were given. Simulations were also successfully compared with experimental flow reactor, jet-stirred reactor, shock tube, rapid compression machine, and flame data from literature. The kinetic analysis of the model enabled the highlighting of some specificities of the oxidation chemistry of DME: (1) the early reactivity which is observed at very low-temperature (e.g., compared to propane) is explained by the absence of inhibiting reaction of the radical directly obtained from the fuel (by H atom abstraction) with oxygen yielding an olefin + HO2·; (2) the low-temperature reactivity is driven by the relative importance of the second addition to O2 (promoting the reactivity through branching chain) and the competitive decomposition reactions with an inhibiting effect.


Assuntos
Éteres Metílicos/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Alcenos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Simulação por Computador , Formaldeído/química , Hélio/química , Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética , Modelos Anatômicos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Pressão , Teoria Quântica , Análise Espectral , Água/química
5.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(28): 7462-80, 2015 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25822578

RESUMO

Two experimental studies have been carried out on the oxidation of 2-methyl-2-butene, one measuring ignition delay times behind reflected shock waves in a stainless steel shock tube, and the other measuring fuel, intermediate, and product species mole fractions in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR). The shock tube ignition experiments were carried out at three different pressures, approximately 1.7, 11.2, and 31 atm, and at each pressure, fuel-lean (ϕ = 0.5), stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0), and fuel-rich (ϕ = 2.0) mixtures were examined, with each fuel/oxygen mixture diluted in 99% Ar, for initial postshock temperatures between 1330 and 1730 K. The JSR experiments were performed at nearly atmospheric pressure (800 Torr), with stoichiometric fuel/oxygen mixtures with 0.01 mole fraction of 2M2B fuel, a residence time in the reactor of 1.5 s, and mole fractions of 36 different chemical species were measured over a temperature range from 600 to 1150 K. These JSR experiments represent the first such study reporting detailed species measurements for an unsaturated, branched hydrocarbon fuel larger than iso-butene. A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism was developed to study the important reaction pathways in these experiments, with particular attention on the role played by allylic C-H bonds and allylic pentenyl radicals. The results show that, at high temperatures, this olefinic fuel reacts rapidly, similar to related alkane fuels, but the pronounced thermal stability of the allylic pentenyl species inhibits low temperature reactivity, so 2M2B does not produce "cool flames" or negative temperature coefficient behavior. The connections between olefin hydrocarbon fuels, resulting allylic fuel radicals, the resulting lack of low-temperature reactivity, and the gasoline engine concept of octane sensitivity are discussed.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(30): 5573-94, 2014 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25007100

RESUMO

The low-temperature oxidation of the five hexane isomers (n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane) was studied in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at atmospheric pressure under stoichiometric conditions between 550 and 1000 K. The evolution of reactant and product mole fraction profiles were recorded as a function of the temperature using two analytical methods: gas chromatography and synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (SVUV-PIMS). Experimental data obtained with both methods were in good agreement for the five fuels. These data were used to compare the reactivity and the nature of the reaction products and their distribution. At low temperature (below 800 K), n-hexane was the most reactive isomer. The two methyl-pentane isomers have about the same reactivity, which was lower than that of n-hexane. 2,2-Dimethylbutane was less reactive than the two methyl-pentane isomers, and 2,3-dimethylbutane was the least reactive isomer. These observations are in good agreement with research octane numbers given in the literature. Cyclic ethers with rings including 3, 4, 5, and 6 atoms have been identified and quantified for the five fuels. While the cyclic ether distribution was notably more detailed than in other literature of JSR studies of branched alkane oxidation, some oxiranes were missing among the cyclic ethers expected from methyl-pentanes. Using SVUV-PIMS, the formation of C2-C3 monocarboxylic acids, ketohydroperoxides, and species with two carbonyl groups have also been observed, supporting their possible formation from branched reactants. This is in line with what was previously experimentally demonstrated from linear fuels. Possible structures and ways of decomposition of the most probable ketohydroperoxides were discussed. Above 800 K, all five isomers have about the same reactivity, with a larger formation from branched alkanes of some unsaturated species, such as allene and propyne, which are known to be soot precursors.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(4): 673-83, 2014 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24400665

RESUMO

The experimental study of the oxidation of the three linear isomers of hexene was performed in a quartz isothermal jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1100 K including the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) zone, at quasi-atmospheric pressure (1.07 bar), at a residence time of 2 s and with dilute stoichiometric mixtures. The fuel and reaction product mole fractions were measured using online gas chromatography. In the case of 1-hexene, the JSR has also been coupled through a molecular-beam sampling system to a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. A difference of reactivity between the three fuels, which varies with the temperature range has been observed and is discussed according to the changes in the possible reaction pathways when the double bond is displaced. An enhanced importance of the reactions via the Waddington mechanism and of those of allylic radicals with HO2 radicals can be noted for 2- and 3-hexenes compared to 1-hexene.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(50): 20014-7, 2013 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24277836

RESUMO

•OH and •HO2 radicals are known to be the key species in the development of ignition. A direct measurement of these radicals under low-temperature oxidation conditions (T = 550-1,000 K) has been achieved by coupling a technique named fluorescence assay by gas expansion, an experimental technique designed for the quantification of these radicals in the free atmosphere, to a jet-stirred reactor, an experimental device designed for the study of low-temperature combustion chemistry. Calibration allows conversion of relative fluorescence signals to absolute mole fractions. Such radical mole fraction profiles will serve as a benchmark for testing chemical models developed to improve the understanding of combustion processes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidróxidos/análise , Peróxidos/análise , Fluorescência , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Combust Flame ; 160(11)2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24273333

RESUMO

The pyrolytic and oxidative behaviour of the biofuel 2,5-dimethylfuran (25DMF) has been studied in a range of experimental facilities in order to investigate the relatively unexplored combustion chemistry of the title species and to provide combustor relevant experimental data. The pyrolysis of 25DMF has been re-investigated in a shock tube using the single-pulse method for mixtures of 3% 25DMF in argon, at temperatures from 1200-1350 K, pressures from 2-2.5 atm and residence times of approximately 2 ms. Ignition delay times for mixtures of 0.75% 25DMF in argon have been measured at atmospheric pressure, temperatures of 1350-1800 K at equivalence ratios (ϕ) of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 along with auto-ignition measurements for stoichiometric fuel in air mixtures of 25DMF at 20 and 80 bar, from 820-1210 K. This is supplemented with an oxidative speciation study of 25DMF in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) from 770-1220 K, at 10.0 atm, residence times of 0.7 s and at ϕ = 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Laminar burning velocities for 25DMF-air mixtures have been measured using the heat-flux method at unburnt gas temperatures of 298 and 358 K, at atmospheric pressure from ϕ = 0.6-1.6. These laminar burning velocity measurements highlight inconsistencies in the current literature data and provide a validation target for kinetic mechanisms. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism containing 2768 reactions and 545 species has been simultaneously developed to describe the combustion of 25DMF under the experimental conditions described above. Numerical modelling results based on the mechanism can accurately reproduce the majority of experimental data. At high temperatures, a hydrogen atom transfer reaction is found to be the dominant unimolecular decomposition pathway of 25DMF. The reactions of hydrogen atom with the fuel are also found to be important in predicting pyrolysis and ignition delay time experiments. Numerous proposals are made on the mechanism and kinetics of the previously unexplored intermediate temperature combustion pathways of 25DMF. Hydroxyl radical addition to the furan ring is highlighted as an important fuel consuming reaction, leading to the formation of methyl vinyl ketone and acetyl radical. The chemically activated recombination of HȮ2 or CH3Ȯ2 with the 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical, forming a 5-methyl-2-furylmethanoxy radical and ȮH or CH3Ȯ radical is also found to exhibit significant control over ignition delay times, as well as being important reactions in the prediction of species profiles in a JSR. Kinetics for the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the alkyl side-chain of the fuel by molecular oxygen and HȮ2 radical are found to be sensitive in the estimation of ignition delay times for fuel-air mixtures from temperatures of 820-1200 K. At intermediate temperatures, the resonantly stabilised 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical is found to predominantly undergo bimolecular reactions, and as a result sub-mechanisms for 5-methyl-2-formylfuran and 5-methyl-2-ethylfuran, and their derivatives, have also been developed with consumption pathways proposed. This study is the first to attempt to simulate the combustion of these species in any detail, although future refinements are likely necessary. The current study illustrates both quantitatively and qualitatively the complex chemical behavior of what is a high potential biofuel. Whilst the current work is the most comprehensive study on the oxidation of 25DMF in the literature to date, the mechanism cannot accurately reproduce laminar burning velocity measurements over a suitable range of unburnt gas temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios, although discrepancies in the experimental literature data are highlighted. Resolving this issue should remain a focus of future work.

10.
Combust Flame ; 160(11): 2319-2332, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24124264

RESUMO

The experimental study of the oxidation of cyclohexane has been performed in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1100 K (low- and intermediate temperature zones including the negative temperature-coefficient area), at a residence time of 2 s and for dilute mixtures with equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2. Experiments were carried out at quasi-atmospheric pressure (1.07 bar). The fuel and reaction product mole fractions were measured using online gas chromatography. A total of 34 reaction products have been detected and quantified in this study. Typical reaction products formed in the low-temperature oxidation of cyclohexane include cyclic ethers (1,2-epoxycyclohexane and 1,4-epoxycyclohexane), 5-hexenal (formed from the rapid decomposition of 1,3-epoxycyclohexane), cyclohexanone, and cyclohexene, as well as benzene and phenol. Cyclohexane displays high low-temperature reactivity with well-marked negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior at equivalence ratios 0.5 and 1. The fuel-rich system (ϕ = 2) is much less reactive in the same region and exhibits no NTC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first jet-stirred reactor study to report NTC in cyclohexane oxidation. Laminar burning velocities were also measured by the heated burner method at initial gas temperatures of 298, 358, and 398 K and at 1 atm. The laminar burning velocity values peak at ϕ = 1.1 and are measured as 40 and 63.1 cm/s for Ti = 298 and 398 K, respectively. An updated detailed chemical kinetic model including low-temperature pathways was used to simulate the present (jet-stirred reactor and laminar burning velocity) and literature experimental (laminar burning velocity, rapid compression machine, and shock tube ignition delay times) data. Reasonable agreement is observed with most of the products observed in our reactor, as well as the literature experimental data considered in this paper.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(45): 19686-98, 2013 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24135810

RESUMO

The gas-phase oxidation of n-butane has been studied in an atmospheric jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at temperatures up to 950 K. For the first time, continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) in the near-infrared has been used, together with gas chromatography (GC), to analyze the products formed during its oxidation. In addition to the quantification of formaldehyde and water, which is always difficult by GC, cw-CRDS allowed as well the quantification of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A comparison of the obtained mole fraction temperature profiles with simulations using a detailed gas-phase mechanism shows a good agreement at temperatures below 750 K, but an overestimation of the overall reactivity above this temperature. Also, a strong overestimation was found for the H2O2 mole fraction at higher temperatures. In order to improve the agreement between model and experimental results, two modifications have been implemented to the model: (a) the rate constant for the decomposition of H2O2 (+M) ↔ 2OH (+M) has been updated to the value recently proposed by Troe (Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 594-601) and (b) a temperature dependent heterogeneous destruction of H2O2 on the hot reactor walls with assumed rate parameters has been added. The improvement (a) slows down the overall reactivity at higher temperatures, but has a negligible impact on the maximal H2O2 mole fraction. Improvement (b) has also a small impact on the overall reactivity at higher temperatures, but a large effect on the maximal H2O2 mole fraction. Both modifications lead to an improved agreement between model and experiment for the oxidation of n-butane in a JSR at temperatures above 750 K.

12.
Proc Combust Inst ; 34(1): 225-232, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23814505

RESUMO

An experimental ignition delay time study for the promising biofuel 2-methyl furan (2MF) was performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 for mixtures of 1% fuel in argon in the temperature range 1200-1800 K at atmospheric pressure. Laminar burning velocities were determined using the heat-flux method for mixtures of 2MF in air at equivalence ratios of 0.55-1.65, initial temperatures of 298-398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of 2059 reactions and 391 species has been constructed to describe the oxidation of 2MF and is used to simulate experiment. Accurate reproduction of the experimental data has been obtained over all conditions with the developed mechanism. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify important consumption pathways of the fuel and key kinetic parameters under these conditions. The reactions of hydrogen atom with the fuel are highlighted as important under all experimental conditions studied, with abstraction by the hydrogen atom promoting reactivity and hydrogen atom addition to the furan ring inhibiting reactivity. This work, to the authors knowledge, is the first to combine theoretical and experimental work to describe the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should also function as a sub-mechanism to describe the oxidation of 2,5-dimethyl furan whilst also providing key insights into the oxidation of this similar biofuel candidate.

13.
Proc Combust Inst ; 34(1): 297-305, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23762017

RESUMO

The oxidation of two blends, benzene/n-decane and toluene/n-decane, was studied in a jet-stirred reactor with gas chromatography analysis (temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, atmospheric pressure, stoichiometric mixtures). The studied hydrocarbon mixtures contained 75% of aromatics in order to highlight the chemistry of the low-temperature oxidation of these two aromatic compounds which have a very low reactivity compared to large alkanes. The difference of behavior between the two aromatic reactants is highly pronounced concerning the formation of derived aromatic products below 800 K. In the case of benzene, only phenol could be quantified. In the case of toluene, significant amounts of benzaldehyde, benzene, and cresols were also formed, as well as several heavy aromatic products such as bibenzyl, phenylbenzylether, methylphenylbenzylether, and ethylphenylphenol. A comparison with results obtained with neat n-decane showed that the reactivity of the alkane is inhibited by the presence of benzene and, to a larger extent, toluene. An improved model for the oxidation of toluene was developed based on recent theoretical studies of the elementary steps involved in the low-temperature chemistry of this molecule. Simulations using this model were successfully compared with the obtained experimental results.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(50): 12214-28, 2012 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23181456

RESUMO

The low-temperature oxidation of propane was investigated using a jet-stirred reactor at atmospheric pressure and two methods of analysis: gas chromatography and synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (SVUV-PIMS) with direct sampling through a molecular jet. The second method allowed the identification of products, such as molecules with hydroperoxy functions, which are not stable enough to be detected by gas chromatography. Mole fractions of the reactants and reaction products were measured as a function of the temperature (530-730 K), with a particular attention to reaction products involved in the low temperature oxidation, such as cyclic ethers, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and hydroperoxides. A new model has been obtained from an automatically generated one, which was used as a starting point, with a large number of re-estimated thermochemical and kinetic data. The kinetic data of the most sensitive reactions, i.e., isomerizations of alkylperoxy radicals and the subsequent decompositions, have been calculated at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The model allows a satisfactory prediction of the experimental data. A flow rate analysis has allowed highlighting the important reaction channels.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(29): 11944-7, 2012 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22746212

RESUMO

The first reliable quantification of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formed during the low-temperature oxidation of an organic compound has been achieved thanks to a new system that couples a jet stirred reactor to a detection by continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) in the near-infrared. The quantification of this key compound for hydrocarbon low-temperature oxidation regime has been obtained under conditions close to those actually observed before the autoignition. The studied hydrocarbon was n-butane, the smallest alkane which has an oxidation behavior close to that of the species present in gasoline and diesel fuels.

16.
Chem Phys Lett ; 534: 1-7, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23710075

RESUMO

We present the coupling of a jet-stirred reactor to detection by cw-CRDS in the near infrared and first results obtained during the oxidation of methane. The mixture is rapidly expanded from the jet-stirred reactor into a 80 cm-long cw-CRDS cell maintained at a the pressure around 1.33 kPa, thus freezing the reaction and decreasing pressure broadening of the absorption lines. Some stable species (CH4, H2O and CH2O) have been quantified through their well structured spectra around 1506 nm, while H2O2 and HO2 radicals could not be detected.

17.
Energy (Oxf) ; 43(1): 140-145, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23710107

RESUMO

This study presents new adiabatic laminar burning velocities of diethyl ether in air, measured on a flat-flame burner using the heat flux method. The experimental pressure was 1 atm and temperatures of the fresh gas mixture ranged from 298 to 398 K. Flame velocities were recorded at equivalence ratios from 0.55 to 1.60, for which stabilization of the flame was possible. The maximum laminar burning velocity was found at an equivalence ratio of 1.10 or 1.15 at different temperatures. These results are compared with experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The data reported in this study deviate significantly from previous experimental results and are well-predicted by a previously reported chemical kinetic mechanism.

18.
Combust Flame ; 159(12): 3455-3471, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23712100

RESUMO

The low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane, one of the reference species for the octane rating of gasoline, was investigated using a jet-stirred reactor and two methods of analysis: gas chromatography and synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photo-ionization mass spectrometry (SVUV-PIMS) with direct sampling through a molecular jet. The second method allowed the identification of products, such as molecules with hydroperoxy functions, which are not stable enough to be detected using gas chromatography. Mole fractions of the reactants and reaction products were measured as a function of temperature (500-1100K), at a residence time of 2s, at a pressure of 800 torr (1.06 bar) and at stoichiometric conditions. The fuel was diluted in an inert gas (fuel inlet mole fraction of 0.005). Attention was paid to the formation of reaction products involved in the low temperature oxidation of n-heptane, such as olefins, cyclic ethers, aldehydes, ketones, species with two carbonyl groups (diones) and ketohydroperoxides. Diones and ketohydroperoxides are important intermediates in the low temperature oxidation of n-alkanes but their formation have rarely been reported. Significant amounts of organic acids (acetic and propanoic acids) were also observed at low temperature. The comparison of experimental data and profiles computed using an automatically generated detailed kinetic model is overall satisfactory. A route for the formation of acetic and propanoic acids was proposed. Quantum calculations were performed to refine the consumption routes of ketohydroperoxides towards diones.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 40(9): 4762-82, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21597604

RESUMO

In the context of limiting the environmental impact of transportation, this critical review discusses new directions which are being followed in the development of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels. In the first part, the performance of current models, especially in terms of the prediction of pollutant formation, is evaluated. In the next parts, recent methods and ways to improve these models are described. An emphasis is given on the development of detailed models based on elementary reactions, on the production of the related thermochemical and kinetic parameters, and on the experimental techniques available to produce the data necessary to evaluate model predictions under well defined conditions (212 references).

20.
Proc Combust Inst ; 33(1): 325-331, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23700382

RESUMO

The formation of hydroperoxides postulated in all the kinetic models for the low temperature oxidation of alkanes have been experimentally proved thanks to a new type of apparatus associating a quartz jet-stirred reactor through a molecular-beam sampling system to a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. This apparatus has been used to investigate the low-temperature oxidation of n-butane and has allowed demonstrating the formation of different types of alkylhydroperoxides, namely methylhydroperoxide, ethylhydroperoxide and butylhydroperoxide, and of C4 alkylhydroperoxides including a carbonyl function (ketohydroperoxides). In addition, the formation of products deriving from these ketohydroperoxides, such as C4 molecules including either two carbonyl groups or one carbonyl and one alcohol functions, has been observed. Simulations using a detailed kinetic model have been performed to support some of the assumptions made in this work.

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