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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Exp Dermatol ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602702

RESUMO

Tumour cell invasion is one of the key processes during cancer progression, leading to life-threatening metastatic lesions in melanoma. As methylation of cancer-related genes plays a fundamental role during tumorigenesis and may lead to cellular plasticity which promotes invasion, our aim was to identify novel epigenetic markers on selected invasive melanoma cells. Using Illumina BeadChip assays and Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 microarrays, we explored the DNA methylation landscape of selected invasive melanoma cells and examined the impact of DNA methylation on gene expression patterns. Our data revealed predominantly hypermethylated genes in the invasive cells affecting the neural crest differentiation pathway and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Integrative analysis of the methylation and gene expression profiles resulted in a cohort of hypermethylated genes (IL12RB2, LYPD6B, CHL1, SLC9A3, BAALC, FAM213A, SORCS1, GPR158, FBN1 and ADORA2B) with decreased expression. On the other hand, hypermethylation in the gene body of the EGFR and RBP4 genes was positively correlated with overexpression of the genes. We identified several methylation changes that can have role during melanoma progression, including hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the ARHGAP22 and NAV2 genes that are commonly altered in locally invasive primary melanomas as well as during metastasis. Interestingly, the down-regulation of the methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2 gene, which regulates DNA methylation, was associated with hypermethylated promoter region of the gene. This can probably lead to the observed global hypermethylation pattern of invasive cells, and might be one of the key changes during the development of malignant melanoma cells.

3.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111643, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557464

RESUMO

Human hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex process with many unresolved issues, including the cell of origin (differentiated and/or progenitor/stem cells) and the initial steps leading to tumor development. With the aim of providing new tools for studying hepatocellular carcinoma initiation and progression, we developed an innovative model based on primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) lentivirus-transduced with SV40LT+ST, HRASV12 with or without hTERT. The differentiation status of these transduced-PHHs was characterized by RNA sequencing (including lncRNAs), and the expression of some differentiation markers confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, their transformation capacity was assessed by colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity evaluated in immune-deficient mice. The co-expression of SV40LT+ST and HRASV12 in PHHs, in association or not with hTERT, led to the emergence of transformed clones. These clones exhibited a poorly differentiated cell phenotype with expression of stemness and mesenchymal-epithelial transition markers and gave rise to cancer stem cell subpopulations. In vivo, they resulted in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas with a reactivation of endogenous hTERT. These experiments demonstrate for the first time that non-cycling human mature hepatocytes can be permissive to in vitro transformation. This cellular tool provides the first comprehensive in vitro model for identifying genetic/epigenetic changes driving human hepatocarcinogenesis.

4.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(18): 9637-9657, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410472

RESUMO

Establishing causal relationship between epigenetic marks and gene transcription requires molecular tools, which can precisely modify specific genomic regions. Here, we present a modular and extensible CRISPR/dCas9-based toolbox for epigenetic editing and direct gene regulation. It features a system for expression of orthogonal dCas9 proteins fused to various effector domains and includes a multi-gRNA system for simultaneous targeting dCas9 orthologs to up to six loci. The C- and N-terminal dCas9 fusions with DNMT3A and TET1 catalytic domains were thoroughly characterized. We demonstrated simultaneous use of the DNMT3A-dSpCas9 and TET1-dSaCas9 fusions within the same cells and showed that imposed cytosine hyper- and hypo-methylation altered level of gene transcription if targeted CpG sites were functionally relevant. Dual epigenetic manipulation of the HNF1A and MGAT3 genes, involved in protein N-glycosylation, resulted in change of the glycan phenotype in BG1 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous targeting of the TET1-dSaCas9 and VPR-dSpCas9 fusions to the HNF1A regulatory region revealed strong and persistent synergistic effect on gene transcription, up to 30 days following cell transfection, suggesting involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in maintenance of the reactivated state. Also, modulation of dCas9 expression effectively reduced off-target effects while maintaining the desired effects on target regions.

6.
Epigenomics ; 11(10): 1117-1119, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339344
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 66, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that estrogens and other hormonal factors influence breast cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that a woman's total lifetime estrogen exposure accumulates changes in DNA methylation, detectable in the blood, which could be used in risk assessment for breast cancer. METHODS: An estimated lifetime estrogen exposure (ELEE) model was defined using epidemiological data from EPIC-Italy (n = 31,864). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of ELEE was performed using existing Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip (HM450K) methylation data obtained from EPIC-Italy blood DNA samples (n = 216). A methylation index (MI) of ELEE based on 31 CpG sites was developed using HM450K data from EPIC-Italy and the Generations Study and evaluated for association with breast cancer risk in an independent dataset from the Generations Study (n = 440 incident breast cancer cases matched to 440 healthy controls) using targeted bisulfite sequencing. Lastly, a meta-analysis was conducted including three additional cohorts, consisting of 1187 case-control pairs. RESULTS: We observed an estimated 5% increase in breast cancer risk per 1-year longer ELEE (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.07, P = 3 × 10-12) in EPIC-Italy. The EWAS identified 694 CpG sites associated with ELEE (FDR Q < 0.05). We report a DNA methylation index (MI) associated with breast cancer risk that is validated in the Generations Study targeted bisulfite sequencing data (ORQ4_vs_Q1 = 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.93, P = 0.027) and in the meta-analysis (ORQ4_vs_Q1 = 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-2.00, P = 0.024); however, the correlation between the MI and ELEE was not validated across study cohorts. CONCLUSION: We have identified a blood DNA methylation signature associated with breast cancer risk in this study. Further investigation is required to confirm the interaction between estrogen exposure and DNA methylation in the blood.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 62, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental and genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. Several small blood-based DNA methylation studies have reported risk associations with methylation at individual CpGs and average methylation levels; however, these findings require validation in larger prospective cohort studies. To investigate the role of blood DNA methylation on breast cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four prospective cohort studies, including a total of 1663 incident cases and 1885 controls, the largest study of blood DNA methylation and breast cancer risk to date. METHODS: We assessed associations with methylation at 365,145 CpGs present in the HumanMethylation450 (HM450K) Beadchip, after excluding CpGs that did not pass quality controls in all studies. Each of the four cohorts estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each individual CpG and breast cancer risk. In addition, each study assessed the association between average methylation measures and breast cancer risk, adjusted and unadjusted for cell-type composition. Study-specific ORs were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights. Stratified analyses were conducted by age at diagnosis (< 50, ≥ 50), estrogen receptor (ER) status (+/-), and time since blood collection (< 5, 5-10, > 10 years). The false discovery rate (q value) was used to account for multiple testing. RESULTS: The average age at blood draw ranged from 52.2 to 62.2 years across the four cohorts. Median follow-up time ranged from 6.6 to 8.4 years. The methylation measured at individual CpGs was not associated with breast cancer risk (q value > 0.59). In addition, higher average methylation level was not associated with risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.05; P = 0.26; P for study heterogeneity = 0.86). We found no evidence of modification of this association by age at diagnosis (P = 0.17), ER status (P = 0.88), time since blood collection (P = 0.98), or CpG location (P = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that DNA methylation measured in the blood prior to breast cancer diagnosis in predominantly postmenopausal women is unlikely to be associated with substantial breast cancer risk on the HM450K array. Larger studies or with greater methylation coverage are needed to determine if associations exist between blood DNA methylation and breast cancer risk.

10.
J Virol ; 93(13)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996097

RESUMO

The histone modifier lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) plays a role in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and its expression appears to be deregulated in certain cancers of hematological and lymphoid origins. We have previously found that the KDM2B gene is differentially methylated in cell lines derived from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) compared with that in EBV-negative sporadic Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in eBL development has not been previously investigated. Oncogenic viruses have been shown to hijack the host cell epigenome to complete their life cycle and to promote the transformation process by perturbing cell chromatin organization. Here, we investigated whether EBV alters KDM2B levels to enable its life cycle and promote B-cell transformation. We show that infection of B cells with EBV leads to downregulation of KDM2B levels. We also show that LMP1, one of the main EBV transforming proteins, induces increased DNMT1 recruitment to the KDM2B gene and augments its methylation. By altering KDM2B levels and performing chromatin immunoprecipitation in EBV-infected B cells, we show that KDM2B is recruited to the EBV gene promoters and inhibits their expression. Furthermore, forced KDM2B expression in immortalized B cells led to altered mRNA levels of some differentiation-related genes. Our data show that EBV deregulates KDM2B levels through an epigenetic mechanism and provide evidence for a role of KDM2B in regulating virus and host cell gene expression, warranting further investigations to assess the role of KDM2B in the process of EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis.IMPORTANCE In Africa, Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endemic Burkitt lymphoma, a pediatric cancer. The molecular events leading to its development are poorly understood compared with those leading to sporadic Burkitt lymphoma. In a previous study, by analyzing the DNA methylation changes in endemic compared with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, we identified several differential methylated genomic positions in the proximity of genes with a potential role in cancer, and among them was the KDM2B gene. KDM2B encodes a histone H3 demethylase already shown to be involved in some hematological disorders. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in the development of Epstein-Barr virus-mediated lymphoma has not been investigated before. In this study, we show that Epstein-Barr virus deregulates KDM2B expression and describe the underlying mechanisms. We also reveal a role of the demethylase in controlling viral and B-cell gene expression, thus highlighting a novel interaction between the virus and the cellular epigenome.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871143

RESUMO

Methylation levels in tumor-suppressor genes and repetitive sequences have previously been used to study the relationship between environmental air pollution and epigenetic changes related to cancer. In this study, we measured the methylation profiles of the promoter regions CDKN2A, MLH1 and APC and the repetitive sequence LINE-1 in 59 workers exposed to the construction environment and in 49 unexposed workers. We also evaluated the micronuclei frequency and levels of trace elements in the blood of all workers. We evaluated of levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the construction site to characterize the environmental exposure. Our findings demonstrated that exposed workers exhibited significantly higher average levels of promoter methylation of CDKN2A, APC, and MLH1 genes and increased hypomethylation of the LINE-1 in comparison to unexposed workers (all p < 0.05). A higher frequency of micronuclei was observed in the exposed group (2 ± 2) compared to the unexposed group (1 ± 1) with p < 0.001. High levels of particulate matter (51⁻841 µg/m³) and some PAHs were found in samples from the construction environment. In summary, we provide evidence of increased DNA damage and altered DNA methylation of exposed workers, suggesting that genomic approaches to biomonitoring may be an effective way of estimating future cancer risk for construction workers.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Testes para Micronúcleos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791383

RESUMO

A high body mass (BMI) index has repeatedly been associated with non-atopic asthma, but the biological mechanism linking obesity to asthma is still poorly understood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that inflammation and/or innate immunity plays a role in the obesity-asthma link. DNA methylome was measured in blood samples of 61 non-atopic participants with asthma and 146 non-atopic participants without asthma (non-smokers for at least 10 years) taking part in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) study. Modification by DNA methylation of the association of BMI or BMI change over 10 years with adult-onset asthma was examined at each CpG site and differentially methylated region. Pathway enrichment tests were conducted for genes in a priori curated inflammatory pathways and the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis. The latter was chosen on the basis of previous work in mice. Inflammatory pathways including glucocorticoid/PPAR signaling (p = 0.0023), MAPK signaling (p = 0.013), NF-κB signaling (p = 0.031), and PI3K/AKT signaling (p = 0.031) were enriched for the effect modification of BMI, while NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis was enriched for the effect modification of BMI change over 10 years (p = 0.046). DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood is consistent with inflammation as a link between BMI and adult-onset asthma and with the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis as a link between BMI change over 10 years and adult-onset asthma in non-atopic participants.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , PPAR gama/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1298, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718669

RESUMO

The Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) locus and other DNA sequence variants identified in Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies explain around 50% of the heritability of celiac disease (CD). However, the pathogenesis of CD could be driven by other layers of genomic information independent from sequence variation, such as DNA methylation, and it is possible that allele-specific methylation explains part of the SNP associations. Since the DNA methylation landscape is expected to be different among cell types, we analyzed the methylome of the epithelial and immune cell populations of duodenal biopsies in CD patients and controls separately. We found a cell type-specific methylation signature that includes genes mapping to the HLA region, namely TAP1 and HLA-B. We also performed Immunochip SNP genotyping of the same samples and interrogated the expression of some of the affected genes. Our analysis revealed that the epithelial methylome is characterized by the loss of CpG island (CGI) boundaries, often associated to altered gene expression, and by the increased variability of the methylation across the samples. The overlap between differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and CD-associated SNPs or variants contributing to methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) is minimal. In contrast, there is a notable enrichment of mQTLs among the most significant CD-associated SNPs. Our results support the notion that DNA methylation alterations constitute a genotype-independent event and confirm its role in the HLA region (apart from the well-known, DQ allele-specific effect). Finally, we find that a fraction of the CD-associated variants could exert its phenotypic effect through DNA methylation.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(1): 30-44, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic experiences are recognized determinants of health, and recent work has shown that social disadvantages in early life may induce sustained biological changes at molecular level that are detectable later in life. However, the dynamics and persistence of biological embedding of socioeconomic position (SEP) remains vastly unexplored. METHODS: Using the data from the ALSPAC birth cohort, we performed epigenome-wide association studies of DNA methylation changes at three life stages (birth, n = 914; childhood at mean age 7.5 years, n = 973; and adolescence at mean age 15.5 years, n = 974), measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Beadchip, in relation to pregnancy SEP indicators (maternal and paternal education and occupation). RESULTS: Across the four early life SEP metrics investigated, only maternal education was associated with methylation levels at birth, and four CpGs mapped to SULF1, GLB1L2 and RPUSD1 genes were identified [false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P-value <0.05]. No epigenetic signature was found associated with maternal education in child samples, but methylation levels at 20 CpG loci were found significantly associated with maternal education in adolescence. Although no overlap was found between the differentially methylated CpG sites at different ages, we identified two CpG sites at birth and during adolescence which are 219 bp apart in the SULF1 gene that encodes an heparan sulphatase involved in modulation of signalling pathways. Using data from an independent birth cohort, the ENVIRONAGE cohort, we were not able to replicate these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that parental SEP, and particularly maternal education, may influence the offspring's methylome at birth and adolescence.

16.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361985

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review evaluated existing evidence linking air pollution exposure in humans to major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Eighty-two manuscripts were eligible, most of which were observational (85%), conducted in adults (66%) and based on DNA methylation (79%). Most observational studies, except panel, demonstrated modest effects of air pollution on the methylome. Panel and experimental studies revealed a relatively large number of significant methylome alterations, though based on smaller sample sizes. Particulate matter levels were positively associated in several studies with global or LINE-1 hypomethylation, a hallmark of several diseases, and with decondensed chromatin structure. Several air pollution species altered the DNA methylation clock, inducing accelerated biological aging. The causal nature of identified associations is not clear, however, especially that most originate from countries with low air pollution levels. Existing evidence, gaps, and perspectives are highlighted herein.

18.
Environ Int ; 120: 11-21, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the potential mechanisms linking air pollution to health effects is through changes in DNA-methylation, which so far has mainly been analyzed globally or at candidate sites. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of personal and ambient air pollution exposure measures with genome-wide DNA-methylation changes. METHODS: We collected repeated 24-hour personal and ambient exposure measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, and ultrafine particles (UFP) and peripheral blood samples from a panel of 157 healthy non-smoking adults living in four European countries. We applied univariate mixed-effects models to investigate the association between air pollution and genome-wide DNA-methylation perturbations at single CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites and in Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs). Subsequently, we explored the association of air pollution-induced methylation alterations with gene expression and serum immune marker levels measured in the same subjects. RESULTS: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with methylation changes at 13 CpG sites and 69 DMRs. Two of the 13 identified CpG sites (mapped to genes KNDC1 and FAM50B) were located within these DMRs. In addition, 42 DMRs were associated with personal PM2.5 absorbance exposure, 16 DMRs with personal exposure to UFP, 4 DMRs with ambient exposure to PM2.5, 16 DMRs with ambient PM2.5 absorbance exposure, and 15 DMRs with ambient UFP exposure. Correlation between methylation levels at identified CpG sites and gene expression and immune markers was generally moderate. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for an association between 24-hour exposure to air pollution and DNA-methylation at single sites and regional clusters of CpGs. Analysis of differentially methylated regions provides a promising avenue to further explore the subtle impact of environmental exposures on DNA-methylation.

19.
Environ Int ; 119: 334-345, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes ("meeting-in-the-middle"), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. METHODS: We applied a statistical approach named 'meet-in-the-middle' to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). We compared the results to identify both common and disease-specific altered metabolic pathways. RESULTS: A novel finding was a strong association of AOA with ultrafine particles (UFP; odds ratio 1.80 [1.26, 2.55] per increase by 5000 particles/cm3). Further, we have identified several metabolic pathways that potentially mediate the effect of air pollution on health outcomes. Among those, perturbation of Linoleate metabolism pathway was associated with air pollution exposure, AOA and CCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest common pathway perturbations may occur as a consequence of chronic exposure to air pollution leading to increased risk for both AOA and CCVD.

20.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917250

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most lethal cancers and a public health concern worldwide, owing to late diagnosis and lack of efficient treatment. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are main histopathological subtypes of EC that show striking differences in geographical distribution, possibly due to differences in exposure to risk factors and lifestyles. ESCC and EAC are distinct diseases in terms of cell of origin, epidemiology, and molecular architecture of tumor cells. Past efforts aimed at translating potential molecular candidates into clinical practice proved to be challenging, underscoring the need for identifying novel candidates for early diagnosis and therapy of EC. Several major international efforts have brought about important advances in identifying molecular landscapes of ESCC and EAC toward understanding molecular mechanisms and critical molecular events driving the progression and pathological features of the disease. In our review, we summarize recent advances in the areas of genomics and epigenomics of ESCC and EAC, their mutational signatures and immunotherapy. We also discuss implications of recent advances in characterizing the genome and epigenome of EC for the discovery of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and development of new targets for personalized treatment and prevention.

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