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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568355

RESUMO

Current clinical RAF inhibitors (RAFi) inhibit monomeric BRAF (mBRAF), but are less potent against dimeric BRAF (dBRAF). RAFi equipotent for mBRAF and dBRAF have been developed, but are predicted to have lower therapeutic index. Here we identify a third class of RAFi that selectively inhibits dBRAF over mBRAF. Molecular Dynamic simulations reveal restriction of the movement of the BRAF αC-helix as the basis of inhibitor selectivity. Combination of inhibitors based on their conformation selectivity (mBRAF- plus dBRAF-selective plus the most potent BRAF-MEK disruptor MEK inhibitor) promoted suppression of tumor growth in BRAF(V600E) therapy-resistant models. Strikingly, the triple combination showed no toxicities, whereas dBRAF-selective plus MEK inhibitor treatment caused weight loss in mice. Finally, the triple combination achieved durable response and improved clinical wellbeing in a stage IV colorectal cancer patient. Thus, exploiting allosteric properties of RAF and MEK inhibitors enables the design of effective and well-tolerated therapies for BRAF(V600E) tumors.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545064

RESUMO

There is a lack of appropriate melanoma models that can be used to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic modalities. Here, we discuss the current state of the art of melanoma models including genetically engineered mouse, patient-derived xenograft, zebrafish, and ex vivo and in vitro models. We also identify five major challenges that can be addressed using such models, including metastasis and tumor dormancy, drug resistance, the melanoma immune response, and the impact of aging and environmental exposures on melanoma progression and drug resistance. Additionally, we discuss the opportunity for building models for rare subtypes of melanomas, which represent an unmet critical need. Finally, we identify key recommendations for melanoma models that may improve accuracy of preclinical testing and predict efficacy in clinical trials, to help usher in the next generation of melanoma therapies.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 86-99, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414553

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are resected human tumors engrafted into mice for preclinical studies and therapeutic testing. It has been proposed that the mouse host affects tumor evolution during PDX engraftment and propagation, affecting the accuracy of PDX modeling of human cancer. Here, we exhaustively analyze copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,451 PDX and matched patient tumor (PT) samples from 509 PDX models. CNA inferences based on DNA sequencing and microarray data displayed substantially higher resolution and dynamic range than gene expression-based inferences, and they also showed strong CNA conservation from PTs through late-passage PDXs. CNA recurrence analysis of 130 colorectal and breast PT/PDX-early/PDX-late trios confirmed high-resolution CNA retention. We observed no significant enrichment of cancer-related genes in PDX-specific CNAs across models. Moreover, CNA differences between patient and PDX tumors were comparable to variations in multiregion samples within patients. Our study demonstrates the lack of systematic copy number evolution driven by the PDX mouse host.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Oncogene ; 40(9): 1659-1673, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500549

RESUMO

The clinical benefit of MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma patients carrying BRAF mutations is temporal. After the initial response to treatment, the majority of tumors will develop resistance and patients will relapse. Here we demonstrate that the endothelin-endothelin receptor B (ETBR) signaling pathway confers resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors in BRAF mutated melanoma. MAPK blockade, in addition to being anti-proliferative, induces a phenotypic change which is characterized by increased expression of melanocyte-specific genes including ETBR. In the presence of MAPK inhibitors, activation of ETBR by endothelin enables the sustained proliferation of melanoma cells. In mouse models of melanoma, including patient-derived xenograft models, concurrent inhibition of the MAPK pathway and ETBR signaling resulted in a more effective anti-tumor response compared to MAPK pathway inhibition alone. The combination treatment significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to therapies with MAPK pathway inhibitors alone. The phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that ETBR signaling did not induce resistance towards MAPK pathway inhibitors by restoring MAPK activity, but instead via multiple alternative signaling pathways downstream of the small G proteins GNAq/11. Together these data indicate that a combination of MAPK pathway inhibitors with ETBR antagonists could have a synergistically beneficial effect in melanoma patients with hyperactivated MAPK signaling pathways.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414132

RESUMO

Five years ago, the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) conducted an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the melanoma research community and patients with melanoma. Since then, remarkable progress has been made on both the basic and clinical research fronts. However, the incidence, recurrence and death rates for melanoma remain unacceptably high and significant challenges remain. Hence, the MRF Scientific Advisory Council and Breakthrough Consortium, a group that includes clinicians and scientists, reconvened to facilitate intensive discussions on thematic areas essential to melanoma researchers and patients alike - prevention, detection, diagnosis, metastatic dormancy and progression, response and resistance to targeted and immune-based therapy, and the clinical consequences of COVID-19 for melanoma patients and providers. These extensive discussions helped to crystalize our understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing the broader melanoma community today. In this report, we discuss the progress made since the last MRF assessment, comment on what remains to be overcome and offer recommendations for the best path forward.

7.
Nature ; 589(7843): 597-602, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361818

RESUMO

Isoprenoids are vital for all organisms, in which they maintain membrane stability and support core functions such as respiration1. IspH, an enzyme in the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, is essential for Gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and apicomplexans2,3. Its substrate, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), is not produced in metazoans, and in humans and other primates it activates cytotoxic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells at extremely low concentrations4-6. Here we describe a class of IspH inhibitors and refine their potency to nanomolar levels through structure-guided analogue design. After modification of these compounds into prodrugs for delivery into bacteria, we show that they kill clinical isolates of several multidrug-resistant bacteria-including those from the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Vibrio, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Mycobacterium and Bacillus-yet are relatively non-toxic to mammalian cells. Proteomic analysis reveals that bacteria treated with these prodrugs resemble those after conditional IspH knockdown. Notably, these prodrugs also induce the expansion and activation of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in a humanized mouse model of bacterial infection. The prodrugs we describe here synergize the direct killing of bacteria with a simultaneous rapid immune response by cytotoxic γδ T cells, which may limit the increase of antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/antagonistas & inibidores , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredutases/deficiência , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Suínos/sangue , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
8.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333124

RESUMO

The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler family includes the BAF and PBAF complexes. ARID2, encoding a PBAF complex subunit, is frequently mutated in melanoma independently of BRAF/RAS mutations. Emerging evidence shows that SWI/SNF complexes regulate tumor immunity; for instance, the loss of PBRM1, another PBAF complex subunit, enhances susceptibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma. Notably, ARID2 mutations are more frequent in melanoma than PBRM1 mutations. However, the role of ARID2 as a modulator of tumor immunity remains unclear. In this study, we show that ARID2 knockout sensitizes melanoma to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti‒PD-L1 treatment restricts tumor growth in mice bearing ARID2-knockout melanoma cells, correlating with an increase in the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, ARID2 deficiency leads to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 upregulation, which subsequently causes increased expression of T-cell‒attracting chemokines such as CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5. These results demonstrate that ARID2 is an immunomodulator and a potential biomarker that indicates immune checkpoint inhibitor effectiveness in patients with melanoma.

9.
Cancer Cell ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157050

RESUMO

Perturbation biology is a powerful approach to modeling quantitative cellular behaviors and understanding detailed disease mechanisms. However, large-scale protein response resources of cancer cell lines to perturbations are not available, resulting in a critical knowledge gap. Here we generated and compiled perturbed expression profiles of ∼210 clinically relevant proteins in >12,000 cancer cell line samples in response to ∼170 drug compounds using reverse-phase protein arrays. We show that integrating perturbed protein response signals provides mechanistic insights into drug resistance, increases the predictive power for drug sensitivity, and helps identify effective drug combinations. We build a systematic map of "protein-drug" connectivity and develop a user-friendly data portal for community use. Our study provides a rich resource to investigate the behaviors of cancer cells and the dependencies of treatment responses, thereby enabling a broad range of biomedical applications.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 882, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082316

RESUMO

Current treatment modalities for disseminated cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) improve survival, however disease progression commonly ensues. In a previous study we identified afatinib and crizotinib in combination as a novel potential therapy for CMM independent of BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Herein, we elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the combination treatment effect to find biomarkers and novel targets for development of therapy that may provide clinical benefit by proteomic analysis of CMM cell lines and xenografts using mass spectrometry based analysis and reverse phase protein array. Identified candidates were validated using immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. Our analysis revealed that mTOR/Insulin signaling pathways were significantly decreased by the afatinib and crizotinib combination treatment. Both in vitro and in vivo analyses showed that the combination treatment downregulated pRPS6KB1 and pRPS6, downstream of mTOR signaling, and IRS-1 in the insulin signaling pathway, specifically ablating IRS-1 nuclear signal. Silencing of RPS6 and IRS-1 alone had a similar effect on cell death, which was further induced when IRS-1 and RPS6 were concomitantly silenced in the CMM cell lines. Silencing of IRS-1 and RPS6 resulted in reduced sensitivity towards combination treatment. Additionally, we found that IRS-1 and RPS6KB1 expression levels were increased in advanced stages of CMM clinical samples. We could demonstrate that induced resistance towards combination treatment was reversible by a drug holiday. CD171/L1CAM, mTOR and PI3K-p85 were induced in the combination resistant cells whereas AXL and EPHA2, previously identified mediators of resistance to MAPK inhibitor therapy in CMM were downregulated. We also found that CD171/L1CAM and mTOR were increased at progression in tumor biopsies from two matched cases of patients receiving targeted therapy with BRAFi. Overall, these findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms behind the afatinib and crizotinib combination treatment effect and leverages a platform for discovering novel biomarkers and therapy regimes for CMM treatment.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(22): 6039-6050, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intriguing, yet understudied component of therapy resistance. Here, we investigated the role of ECM remodeling by the collagenase, MT1-MMP, in conferring resistance of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutant melanoma to BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Publicly available RNA-sequencing data and reverse phase protein array were used to determine the relevance of MT1-MMP upregulation in BRAFi-resistant melanoma in patients, patient-derived xenografts, and cell line-derived tumors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of MT1-MMP, inhibition via the selective MT1-MMP/MMP2 inhibitor, ND322, or overexpression of MT1-MMP was used to assess the role of MT1-MMP in mediating resistance to BRAFi. RESULTS: MT1-MMP was consistently upregulated in posttreatment tumor samples derived from patients upon disease progression and in melanoma xenografts and cell lines that acquired resistance to BRAFi. shRNA- or ND322-mediated inhibition of MT1-MMP synergized with BRAFi leading to resensitization of resistant cells and tumors to BRAFi. The resistant phenotype depends on the ability of cells to cleave the ECM. Resistant cells seeded in MT1-MMP uncleavable matrixes were resensitized to BRAFi similarly to MT1-MMP inhibition. This is due to the inability of cells to activate integrinß1 (ITGB1)/FAK signaling, as restoration of ITGB1 activity is sufficient to maintain resistance to BRAFi in the context of MT1-MMP inhibition. Finally, the increase in MT1-MMP in BRAFi-resistant cells is TGFß dependent, as inhibition of TGFß receptors I/II dampens MT1-MMP overexpression and restores sensitivity to BRAF inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: BRAF inhibition results in a selective pressure toward higher expression of MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP is pivotal to an ECM-based signaling pathway that confers resistance to BRAFi therapy.

12.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4314-4323, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641416

RESUMO

Spread of cancer to the brain remains an unmet clinical need in spite of the increasing number of cases among patients with lung, breast cancer, and melanoma most notably. Although research on brain metastasis was considered a minor aspect in the past due to its untreatable nature and invariable lethality, nowadays, limited but encouraging examples have questioned this statement, making it more attractive for basic and clinical researchers. Evidences of its own biological identity (i.e., specific microenvironment) and particular therapeutic requirements (i.e., presence of blood-brain barrier, blood-tumor barrier, molecular differences with the primary tumor) are thought to be critical aspects that must be functionally exploited using preclinical models. We present the coordinated effort of 19 laboratories to compile comprehensive information related to brain metastasis experimental models. Each laboratory has provided details on the cancer cell lines they have generated or characterized as being capable of forming metastatic colonies in the brain, as well as principle methodologies of brain metastasis research. The Brain Metastasis Cell Lines Panel (BrMPanel) represents the first of its class and includes information about the cell line, how tropism to the brain was established, and the behavior of each model in vivo. These and other aspects described are intended to assist investigators in choosing the most suitable cell line for research on brain metastasis. The main goal of this effort is to facilitate research on this unmet clinical need, to improve models through a collaborative environment, and to promote the exchange of information on these valuable resources.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2858, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504051

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is challenging to manage. Although targeted- and immune therapies have extended survival, most patients experience therapy resistance. The adaptability of melanoma cells in nutrient- and therapeutically-challenged environments distinguishes melanoma as an ideal model for investigating therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss the current available repertoire of melanoma models including two- and three-dimensional tissue cultures, organoids, genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenograft. In particular, we highlight how each system recapitulates different features of melanoma adaptability and can be used to better understand melanoma development, progression and therapy resistance.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Organoides , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares
14.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(10): 1560-1573, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571981

RESUMO

Mechanisms regulating nuclear organization control fundamental cellular processes, including the cell and chromatin organization. Their disorganization, including aberrant nuclear architecture, has been often implicated in cellular transformation. Here, we identify Lamin A, among proteins essential for nuclear architecture, as SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus on the X chromosome), a cancer testis antigen previously linked to invasive tumor phenotypes, interacting protein in melanoma. SPANX interaction with Lamin A was mapped to the immunoglobulin fold-like domain, a region critical for Lamin A function, which is often mutated in laminopathies. SPANX downregulation in melanoma cell lines perturbed nuclear organization, decreased cell viability, and promoted senescence-associated phenotypes. Moreover, SPANX knockdown (KD) in melanoma cells promoted proliferation arrest, a phenotype mediated in part by IRF3/IL1A signaling. SPANX KD in melanoma cells also prompted the secretion of IL1A, which attenuated the proliferation of naïve melanoma cells. Identification of SPANX as a nuclear architecture complex component provides an unexpected insight into the regulation of Lamin A and its importance in melanoma. IMPLICATIONS: SPANX, a testis protein, interacts with LMNA and controls nuclear architecture and melanoma growth.

15.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1282-1295, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499221

RESUMO

Older patients with melanoma (>50 years old) have poorer prognoses and response rates to targeted therapy compared with young patients (<50 years old), which can be driven, in part, by the aged microenvironment. Here, we show that aged dermal fibroblasts increase the secretion of neutral lipids, especially ceramides. When melanoma cells are exposed to the aged fibroblast lipid secretome, or cocultured with aged fibroblasts, they increase the uptake of lipids via the fatty acid transporter FATP2, which is upregulated in melanoma cells in the aged microenvironment and known to play roles in lipid synthesis and accumulation. We show that blocking FATP2 in melanoma cells in an aged microenvironment inhibits their accumulation of lipids and disrupts their mitochondrial metabolism. Inhibiting FATP2 overcomes age-related resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibition in animal models, ablates tumor relapse, and significantly extends survival time in older animals. SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that melanoma cells take up lipids from aged fibroblasts, via FATP2, and use them to resist targeted therapy. The response to targeted therapy is altered in aged individuals because of the influences of the aged microenvironment, and these data suggest FATP2 as a target to overcome resistance.See related commentary by Montal and White, p. 1255.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1241.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 8001-8012, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193336

RESUMO

The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), originally described as a neuronal-specific kinase, is also frequently activated in human cancers. Using conditional CDK5 knockout mice and a mouse model of highly metastatic melanoma, we found that CDK5 is dispensable for the growth of primary tumors. However, we observed that ablation of CDK5 completely abrogated the metastasis, revealing that CDK5 is essential for the metastatic spread. In mouse and human melanoma cells CDK5 promotes cell invasiveness by directly phosphorylating an intermediate filament protein, vimentin, thereby inhibiting assembly of vimentin filaments. Chemical inhibition of CDK5 blocks the metastatic spread of patient-derived melanomas in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Hence, inhibition of CDK5 might represent a very potent therapeutic strategy to impede the metastatic dissemination of malignant cells.


Assuntos
Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/genética , Prognóstico , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Vimentina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(2)2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093022

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly lethal skin cancer. MCC tumors rapidly develop resistance to the chemotherapies tested to date. While PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade has demonstrated success in MCC treatment, a significant portion of MCC patients are nonresponsive. Therefore, the pressing need for effective MCC chemotherapies remains. We screened a library of natural products and discovered that one compound, glaucarubin, potently reduced the viability of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive MCCs, while remaining nontoxic to primary human fibroblasts and MCPyV-negative MCC cell lines tested. Protein array and Western blot analyses revealed that glaucarubin induces DNA damage and PARP-1 cleavage that correlates with the loss of viability in MCC cells. However, high basal expression of the antiapoptotic factor BCL-2 allowed a subpopulation of cells to survive glaucarubin treatment. Previous studies have shown that, while targeting BCL-2 family proteins significantly decreases MCC cell viability, BCL-2 antisense therapy alone was insufficient to inhibit tumor growth in patients with advanced MCC. We discovered that treatment with an FDA-approved BCL-2 inhibitor in the context of glaucarubin-induced DNA damage led to near complete killing in multiple MCPyV-positive MCC cell lines that express high levels of BCL-2. The combination of DNA damage-induced apoptosis and BCL-2 inhibition thus represents a novel therapeutic strategy for MCPyV-positive MCCs.

19.
Mol Cell ; 77(3): 633-644.e5, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836388

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease, despite recent improvements in therapy. Eradicating all melanoma cells even in drug-sensitive tumors is unsuccessful in patients because a subset of cells can transition to a slow-cycling state, rendering them resistant to most targeted therapy. It is still unclear what pathways define these subpopulations and promote this resistant phenotype. In the current study, we show that Wnt5A, a non-canonical Wnt ligand that drives a metastatic, therapy-resistant phenotype, stabilizes the half-life of p53 and uses p53 to initiate a slow-cycling state following stress (DNA damage, targeted therapy, and aging). Inhibiting p53 blocks the slow-cycling phenotype and sensitizes melanoma cells to BRAF/MEK inhibition. In vivo, this can be accomplished with a single dose of p53 inhibitor at the commencement of BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy. These data suggest that taking the paradoxical approach of inhibiting rather than activating wild-type p53 may sensitize previously resistant metastatic melanoma cells to therapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia
20.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 33(3): 446-457, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660681

RESUMO

MX2 protein is a dynamin-like GTPase2 that has recently been identified as an interferon-induced restriction factor of HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs45430, in an intron of the MX2 gene, was previously reported as a novel melanoma susceptibility locus in genome-wide association studies. Functionally, however, it is still unclear whether and how MX2 contributes to melanoma susceptibility and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that MX2 is differentially expressed in melanoma tumors and cell lines, with most metastatic cell lines showing lower MX2 expression than primary melanoma cell lines and melanocytes. Furthermore, high expression of MX2 RNA in primary melanoma tumors is associated with better patient survival. Overexpression of MX2 reduces in vivo proliferation partially through inhibition of AKT activation, suggesting that it can act as a tumor suppressor in melanoma. However, we have also identified a subset of melanoma cell lines with high endogenous MX2 expression where downregulation of MX2 leads to reduced proliferation. In these cells, MX2 downregulation interfered with DNA replication and cell cycle processes. Collectively, our data for the first time show that MX2 is functionally involved in the regulation of melanoma proliferation but that its function is context-dependent.

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