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1.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-19, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750489

RESUMO

Although variable-oriented analyses are dominant in developmental psychopathology, researchers have championed a person-oriented approach that focuses on the individual as a totality. This view has methodological implications and various person-oriented methods have been developed to test person-oriented hypotheses. Configural frequency analysis (CFA) has been identified as a prime method for a person-oriented analysis of categorical data. CFA searches for configurations in cross-classifications and asks whether the number of observed cases is larger (CFA type) or smaller (CFA antitype) than expected under a probability model. The present study introduces a combination of CFA and model-based recursive partitioning (MOB) to test for type/antitype heterogeneity in the population. MOB CFA is well suited to detect complex moderation processes and can distinguish between subpopulation and population types/antitypes. Model specifications are discussed for first-order CFA and prediction CFA. Results from two simulation studies suggest that MOB CFA is able to detect moderation processes with high accuracy. Two empirical examples are given from school mental health research for illustrative purposes. The first example evaluates heterogeneity in student behavior types/antitypes, the second example focuses on the effect of a teacher classroom management intervention on student behavior. An implementation of the approach is provided in R.

2.
J Sch Psychol ; 84: 49-62, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581770

RESUMO

As leaders in the school, principals play an important role in fostering family engagement. Unfortunately, little is known about specific aspects of leadership that promote family engagement. Collegial leadership, an aspect of principal leadership that promotes organizational health via trusting relationships and a sense of community, may be particularly useful to understanding how principals influence family engagement. Drawing on data from two randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of teacher training in universal classroom management practices, the current study explores the relationship between teacher reports of family engagement and principal collegial leadership. Participants included 3208 students and 207 teachers across 18 elementary and middle schools in the Midwest United States. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, results revealed a significant positive relationship between family engagement and overall collegial leadership in addition to specific collegial leadership practices/characteristics. Further, baseline collegial leadership predicted increased end-of-year family engagement when controlling for baseline family engagement, developmental context, intervention status, and student-level characteristics. Overall, results provide empirical evidence for an important link between principal leadership practices and family engagement. Albeit promising, more research is needed to identify and explain the particular mechanisms by which principal collegial leadership may promote family engagement.

3.
Sch Psychol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166164

RESUMO

Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period for the identification, prevention, and early intervention of mental health concerns. The Early Identification System-Student Report (EIS-SR) was developed as a user-friendly, accessible, and cost-efficient method for identifying youth at risk for mental health concerns. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the EIS-SR in a sample of middle school students in the Midwest. Two confirmatory factor analyses (N1 = 2,404, N2 = 2,404) supported the hypothesized seven correlated factor model showing adequate model fit and subscale reliability (range = .68-.90). Subsequent analyses found that many of the EIS-SR subscales predicted office discipline referrals, suspensions, and standardized academic achievement performance. Additionally, the subscales correlated in expected ways with subscales of the Behavior Assessment Scales for Children (3rd edition). These findings suggest that the EIS-SR is promising for identifying youth in early adolescence who are at risk for mental health concerns in addition to being a free and efficient universal screening tool. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
School Ment Health ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224304

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to confirm the factor structure, examine the invariance, and investigate the predictive validity using disciplinary data for 5262 high school students who completed the Early Identification System-Student Response (EIS-SR). The development and theory of the EIS-SR is discussed along with prior work. Building off of prior factor analytic work with a separate sample, it was hypothesized the items of the EIS-SR would coalesce into seven factors representing Externalizing Behavior, Internalizing Behavior, Peer Relationship Problems, School Disengagement, Emotional Dysregulation, Attention and Academic Issues, and Relational Aggression. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that EIS-SR scores would be invariant with regard to gender and grade level. Lastly, it was hypothesized that students with high EIS-SR subscale scores would be predictive of school discipline events. Our analyses indicated the EIS-SR did fit the previously observed factor structure with the items loading on seven distinct scales. Tests for measurement invariance indicated support that the EIS-SR measured the seven factors equally well regardless of both gender and grade level. Lastly, EIS-SR subscale scores predicted spring office disciplinary referrals, both in and out of school suspensions, and attendance.

5.
Dev Psychol ; 56(9): 1723-1735, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700944

RESUMO

Direction dependence analysis (DDA) is a recently developed method that addresses the need for more sophisticated tools to evaluate causal mechanisms of developmental processes and interventions. The present study applied DDA to evaluate the hypothesized mediators of a classroom behavior management training program on student academic competence. The study involved a group randomized controlled trial with 105 teachers and 1,818 students (K-3rd grade) in a large urban school district in the United States. Analyses revealed only student prosocial skill development causally mediated the intervention's effects on student academic competence. The findings support the importance of explicit instruction and coaching of student social skills as part of classroom behavior management programs and confirm the causal link between prosocial skills and academic success. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for future applications of DDA in developmental research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
J Sch Psychol ; 78: 54-68, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178811

RESUMO

This study examined the stress and coping patterns of middle school teachers. A final teacher sample of 102 and student sample of 1450 agreed to participate in the study. We conducted a latent profile analysis of the teachers' self-reported levels of stress and coping at the beginning of the school year and used the resulting profiles to predict teacher practices and student outcomes over time. Nearly all teachers were characterized by high stress and high coping (66%) or high stress and low coping (28%). Based on concurrent ratings and observations, the High Stress/Low Coping profile had higher burnout and lower self-efficacy, higher rates of observed reprimands, and higher student-reported depression in comparison to the other classes. The most adaptive profile, Low Stress/High Coping (6% of sample), had lower burnout, greater parent involvement and higher student prosocial skills in comparison to the other groups. Profiles also predicted the maintenance of most of these effects and the increase of some effects over the school year. Examining stress and coping in combination can inform efforts to improve teacher well-being and have a positive influence on student learning environments.

7.
J Sch Psychol ; 78: 69-74, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178812

RESUMO

Teacher stress and burnout are associated with many adverse outcomes for teachers, students, and the educational system. This paper describes the Coping-Competence-Context (3C) Theory of Teacher Stress. The theory is based on empirical research on teacher stress and coping highlighted within this special issue and attempts to more explicitly highlight three critical interconnected pathways to teacher stress development and intervention. The 3C model also highlights why teacher stress is important and should be the topic of future inquiry by showing clear links between teacher stress and adverse student and teacher outcomes. Lastly, this paper provides guidance for leverage points to intervene and describes a future research agenda in three domains: measurement, conceptual, and intervention issues and challenges.

8.
Prev Sci ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056058

RESUMO

Prevention scientists recognize that implementing effective prevention practices and programs responsive to the needs of individuals but based solely upon the findings from variable-centered methods presents several limitations due to numerous risk factors, pathways, and unobserved influences. One such understudied influence that is masked by variable-centered methods, motivation, is a person-level characteristic that influences treatment outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of an alternative person-centered approach, group iterative multiple model estimation (GIMME), to model change over time that focuses on the interdependence of daily student motivation levels and teacher feedback and their relations to student outcomes over time. Specifically, we used GIMME to model person level responses to negative teacher feedback regarding students' next day motivational ratings using data from 58 5th grade students participating in a study of the impact of the self-monitoring and regulation training strategy (SMARTS). Results identified a set of SMARTS students whose daily readiness aligned with high rates of self and teacher agreement regarding ongoing performance ratings. However, results identified a group of students whose daily motivation and readiness for change was adversely impacted by negative teacher feedback the day before. For these students, they were more likely than their peers to experience high levels of depression and internalization scores. Motivationally oriented practice suggestions for providing feedback to students who may be sensitive to this type of feedback and research implications of these findings are discussed.

9.
Sch Psychol ; 35(2): 128-136, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916789

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a wait-list comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Ensino , População Urbana
10.
Child Dev ; 91(2): e331-e344, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654412

RESUMO

The present study investigated the role of teacher-rated likeability as a mediator of the relation between low academic competence and depressive symptoms in elementary-aged children. Analyses focused on a sample of children at risk for child maltreatment living in Hawaii (n = 380). Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized negative relations between academic competence in first grade and depressive symptoms in third grade controlling for correlated constructs (e.g., baseline social avoidance, parenting stress, externalizing problems, and internalizing symptoms). Teacher-rated likeability in second grade negatively mediated the effect of academic competence on depressive symptoms. Implications for understanding the role of early academic skill deficits and social judgments on risk for depressive symptoms as well as recommendations for interventions and prevention strategies are discussed.

11.
J Sch Psychol ; 76: 17-32, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759465

RESUMO

This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of single-item scales for assessing teacher stress and coping. Correlations between the stress and coping items and present and end-of-year teacher-reported burnout and self-efficacy generally aligned with hypotheses, with stronger associations between coping and burnout and self-efficacy in comparison to the associations between stress and burnout and self-efficacy. Stress and coping items also predicted concurrent and future emotional exhaustion controlling for covariates; however, only coping consistently predicted additional variance in future emotional exhaustion with both stress and coping items in the model. Further, the coping item, not the stress item, demonstrated sensitivity to detect intervention effects; that is, teachers randomly assigned to receive a classroom management intervention (the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program) had significantly higher coping scores compared to a wait-list comparison group. The results of this study provide support for the continued use of single-item stress and coping measures of teacher well-being, and areas for further research and potential use of these measures are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Testes Psicológicos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Educação Continuada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoeficácia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sch Psychol ; 34(6): 612-621, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368740

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief and feasible universal screener for kindergarten readiness for predicting follow-up outcomes in first grade. Participants included kindergarten and first-grade teachers and students from 6 urban elementary schools. Students included slightly more males than females (54%; 46%), the race/ethnicity of the students was predominantly African American (74%) or White (23%), and 36% of students qualified for free or reduced lunch. Data included in this study were collected for children in the fall (October) of their kindergarten year and the Spring (April) of their first-grade year. Kindergarten teachers completed single-item ratings of student readiness as well as full-scale ratings of student behaviors and academic competence. Students also completed a standardized academic achievement test. Main findings from this study include that the single-item screener continued to predict negative academic and social behavior outcomes at a follow-up 18 months later. The percentage of unique variance explained by the readiness items was significant and, in the majority of cases, remained significant even after the baseline variables were entered into the analyses. Children rated poor in their academic readiness were over 9-10 times as likely to have low reading performance at the end of their first-grade year. Furthermore, children rated as poor in their behavior readiness were at over 6 times greater risk for low prosocial and high disruptive behavior teacher ratings in first grade. The screener could be used to screen for children low in readiness in order to provide supports and monitoring for early intervention. Kindergarten entry is a critical time to screen children and support them in developing skills to ameliorate deficits and build essential early academic and social behavior skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Problema , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sch Psychol ; 34(4): 346-349, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294592

RESUMO

Family school engagement practices (e.g., family school partnerships and parental involvement) are empirically supported across academic and social-behavioral domains. Despite family school engagement and parent involvement being deemed important across elementary and secondary schooling, much of the research has focused on early childhood and elementary students. Understanding family school engagement across all stages of development is important, as aspects of family school engagement practices often become more challenging as children grow into middle- and high-school students. This special series works to build our knowledge of family school engagement across development. The series presents a set of studies which confer current knowledge on the association between family school engagement and child outcomes in elementary, middle, and high school while offering important implications for school personnel. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Família , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
14.
Sch Psychol ; 34(4): 363-375, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294594

RESUMO

Although family-school engagement is important across child and adolescent development, most research, programs, and policies have focused primarily on elementary students and contexts. The current study extends beyond elementary settings by exploring the unique and shared contributions of developmental context on family-school engagement (i.e., across and within elementary- and middle-school settings). Data were drawn from two randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of teacher training in universal classroom-management practices. Participants included 3,174 students and 207 teachers across 21 elementary and middle schools in the Midwest. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results revealed that family-school engagement was significantly higher in elementary than in middle schools. Student-level characteristics (i.e., identifying as White, participation in the free/reduced-price lunch program, and having lower levels of disruptive behavior) were also associated with higher levels of family-school engagement. In addition, student characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity and level of disruptive behavior) moderated the relations between family-school engagement and developmental context. Regardless of developmental context, family-school engagement predicted positive end-of-year behavioral outcomes (i.e., increases in youth prosocial skills and decreases in youth concentration problems, disruptive behaviors, and emotional dysregulation). Last, moderation analyses revealed that these effects of family-school engagement were especially pronounced in middle school for concentration problems and emotional dysregulation. Overall, findings provide further support for the value of family-school engagement across development in fostering positive youth outcomes. However, it is evident that more steps must be taken to ensure family-school engagement practices are developed to support the unique needs of middle-school students and contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Família/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 25(3): 227-236, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083038

RESUMO

One in 5 youth experience a psychiatric disorder in any given year, but fewer than half of these youth receive mental health services. This lack of service utilization is often attributed to structural and perceptual barriers, and school-based mental health programs have been proposed as a means of addressing these barriers and increasing youths' access to services. While universal prevention programs and targeted treatments may benefit most youth receiving services in schools, collaborations between schools and child psychiatry may benefit youth with the most severe symptoms and the greatest impairment. This article describes the Bridge Program, a school-based psychiatric program funded by a county-wide mental health tax initiative designed to provide psychiatric services in local schools without any out-of-pocket expenses for youth and families within 10 days of referral. Two case reports provide a description of the delivery of psychiatric services through the Bridge Program. Future research is needed to compare the feasibility and effectiveness of different approaches to increasing access to youth psychiatric care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Mental/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/provisão & distribução , Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Criança , Psiquiatria Infantil , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Missouri , Encaminhamento e Consulta
16.
Am Psychol ; 74(3): 315-328, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945894

RESUMO

The challenges presented by the growing prevalence, burden, and unmet service needs of youth mental health problems are formidable. During the past decade, scholars and other stakeholders of the Missouri Prevention Center (MPC) have been using a prevention and implementation science approach to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate recommended practices in promoting youth mental health in real world contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe the multidisciplinary contributions of MPC to improve the social, emotional, and behavioral health of youth, locally and nationally. We briefly summarize MPC scholarship that has addressed the individual and social-contextual risk and protective factors of youth mental health at home, school, and community. The article concludes with a description of two large-scale community projects, funded by an innovative local sales tax, that represent the systematic application of MPC scholarship and outreach. Together these projects provide mental health screening for every youth in our county three times per year and a single point of entry into the mental health service system where any family in our county can access an evaluation and referral for their child at no cost to them. The projects serve as model demonstrations for how communities can address the challenges of youth mental health concerns through multidisciplinary collaborations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Missouri , Prevalência
17.
J Sch Psychol ; 72: 134-149, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819458

RESUMO

Although there is a growing evidence base about effective classroom management practices, teacher implementation of these practices varies due to a number of factors. A school's organizational health is one aspect of the broader social environment that has been hypothesized to influence implementation of interventions. Yet, empirical evidence is limited on whether organizational contexts can influence teacher implementation of effective interventions and subsequently, classroom environments and student outcomes. In the present study, teachers in an urban school district were randomly assigned to receive training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program (IY TCM), a classroom management intervention. We examined how teacher perceptions of their school environment moderated intervention effects for previously established treatment outcomes - implementation of effective classroom methods, students' social behaviors, emotional regulation, and social competence. Results showed that treatment effects on teacher implementation and student outcomes were moderated by teachers' sense of affiliation to their school. Specifically, main effects on implementation of effective classroom management strategies were only observed among teachers whose perceptions of initial teacher affiliation was low or average; whereas main effects on student outcomes were only found for teachers with initial high levels of affiliation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Cultura Organizacional , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Capacitação de Professores , Ensino , Adulto , Criança , Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais
18.
Sch Psychol Q ; 34(1): 86-95, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911877

RESUMO

Research has supported the applied use of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scale (DBR-SIS) targets of "academic engagement" and "disruptive behavior" for a range of purposes, including universal screening and progress monitoring. Though useful in evaluating social behavior and externalizing problems, these targets have limited utility in evaluating emotional behavior and internalizing problems. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to support the initial development and validation of a novel DBR-SIS target of "unhappy," which was intended to tap into the specific construct of depression. A particular focus of this study was on the novel target's utility within universal screening. A secondary purpose was to further validate the aforementioned existing DBR-SIS targets. Within this study, 87 teachers rated 1,227 students across two measures (i.e., DBR-SIS and the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist [TOCA-C]) and time points (i.e., fall and spring). Correlational analyses supported the test-retest reliability of each DBR-SIS target, as well as its convergent and discriminant validity across concurrent and predictive comparisons. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses further supported (a) the overall diagnostic accuracy of each target (as indicated by the area under the curve [AUC] statistic), as well as (b) the selection of cut scores found to accurately differentiate at-risk and not at-risk students (as indicated by conditional probability statistics). A broader review of findings suggested that across the majority of analyses, the existing DBR-SIS targets outperformed the novel "unhappy" target. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia
19.
J Sch Psychol ; 69: 84-99, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558756

RESUMO

The present study examined the latent profiles of child, parent, and teacher ratings of child depressive symptoms in a developmental sample of children from Hawaii at two time points (2nd and 3rd grade). The study attempted to identify patterns of agreement and discrepancy among raters and correlates of these patterns to test a new theory for understanding rating disagreements as Divergent Operations. Three profiles best described the ratings at both time points: Child-Only High Depression, Child-Only Mild Depression, and Normative (non-depressed). Second and third grade measures of child social skills, externalizing symptoms, attention problems, and language and academic competence confirmed the distinctiveness of these classes which provides support for a Divergent Operations perspective. Latent transition analyses suggested that depressive symptoms were relatively transient for each class. Implications regarding the measurement and identification of child depressive symptoms across development and the meaning and use of discrepant ratings are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Pais , Professores Escolares , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Prev Sci ; 19(8): 1043-1054, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022357

RESUMO

This group randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY TCM) on student social behavioral and academic outcomes among a large diverse sample of students within an urban context. Participants included 105 teachers and 1817 students in kindergarten to third grade. Three-level hierarchical linear models (HLM) were conducted to examine the overall treatment effects on teacher-reported student behavior and academic outcomes. In addition, multi-level moderation analyses were conducted to examine whether the treatment effects on student outcomes differed by demographic variables and pretest measures of social emotional and disruptive behavior and academics. Findings indicate that IY TCM reduced student emotional dysregulation (d = - 0.14) and increased prosocial behavior (d = 0.13) and social competence (d = 0.13). In addition, students initially lower on measures of social and academic competence demonstrated significant improvements on the same measure at outcome in comparison to similar peers in control classrooms. Practical significance of the findings and implications for schools and policy makers are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Pessoal de Educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , População Urbana
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