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1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080017

RESUMO

Importance: Severe pneumonia with hyperinflammation and elevated interleukin-6 is a common presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether tocilizumab (TCZ) improves outcomes of patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Particpants: This cohort-embedded, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, bayesian randomized clinical trial investigating patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe pneumonia requiring at least 3 L/min of oxygen but without ventilation or admission to the intensive care unit was conducted between March 31, 2020, to April 18, 2020, with follow-up through 28 days. Patients were recruited from 9 university hospitals in France. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis with no correction for multiplicity for secondary outcomes. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive TCZ, 8 mg/kg, intravenously plus usual care on day 1 and on day 3 if clinically indicated (TCZ group) or to receive usual care alone (UC group). Usual care included antibiotic agents, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, vasopressor support, and anticoagulants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were scores higher than 5 on the World Health Organization 10-point Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) on day 4 and survival without need of ventilation (including noninvasive ventilation) at day 14. Secondary outcomes were clinical status assessed with the WHO-CPS scores at day 7 and day 14, overall survival, time to discharge, time to oxygen supply independency, biological factors such as C-reactive protein level, and adverse events. Results: Of 131 patients, 64 patients were randomly assigned to the TCZ group and 67 to UC group; 1 patient in the TCZ group withdrew consent and was not included in the analysis. Of the 130 patients, 42 were women (32%), and median (interquartile range) age was 64 (57.1-74.3) years. In the TCZ group, 12 patients had a WHO-CPS score greater than 5 at day 4 vs 19 in the UC group (median posterior absolute risk difference [ARD] -9.0%; 90% credible interval [CrI], -21.0 to 3.1), with a posterior probability of negative ARD of 89.0% not achieving the 95% predefined efficacy threshold. At day 14, 12% (95% CI -28% to 4%) fewer patients needed noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (MV) or died in the TCZ group than in the UC group (24% vs 36%, median posterior hazard ratio [HR] 0.58; 90% CrI, 0.33-1.00), with a posterior probability of HR less than 1 of 95.0%, achieving the predefined efficacy threshold. The HR for MV or death was 0.58 (90% CrI, 0.30 to 1.09). At day 28, 7 patients had died in the TCZ group and 8 in the UC group (adjusted HR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.33-2.53). Serious adverse events occurred in 20 (32%) patients in the TCZ group and 29 (43%) in the UC group (P = .21). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia requiring oxygen support but not admitted to the intensive care unit, TCZ did not reduce WHO-CPS scores lower than 5 at day 4 but might have reduced the risk of NIV, MV, or death by day 14. No difference on day 28 mortality was found. Further studies are necessary for confirming these preliminary results. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04331808.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004942

RESUMO

No studies have been reported so far on bridging treatment with idelalisib for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). To study potential carry-over effects of idelalisib and to assess the impact of pathway-inhibitor (PI) failure we performed a retrospective EBMT registry-based study. Patients with CLL who had a history of idelalisib treatment and received a first alloHCT between 2015 and 2017 were eligible. Data on 72 patients (median age 58 years) were analyzed. Forty percent of patients had TP53mut/del CLL and 64% had failed on at least one PI. No primary graft failure occurred. Cumulative incidences of acute GVHD °II-IV and chronic GVHD were 51% and 39%, respectively. Estimates for 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and cumulative incidences of relapse/progression (CIR) and non-relapse mortality NRM were 59%, 44%, 25%, and 31%. In univariate analysis, drug sensitivity was a strong risk factor. For patients who had failed neither PI treatment nor chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) the corresponding 2-year estimates were 73%, 65%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, idelalisib may be considered as an option for bridging therapy prior to alloHCT. Owing to the high risk for acute GVHD intensified clinical monitoring is warranted.

3.
Haematologica ; 105(9): 2240-2249, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054049

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia major (ß-TM) is an inherited hemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of ß-globin chains of hemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free a-globin chains that aggregate and cause ineffective erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that terminal erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 and that the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) accumulates in the nucleus to protect GATA-1 transcription factor from caspase-3 cleavage. This nuclear accumulation of HSP70 is inhibited in human ß-TM erythroblasts due to HSP70 sequestration in the cytoplasm by free a-globin chains, resulting in maturation arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, terminal maturation can be restored by transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant. Here we demonstrate that in normal erythroid progenitors, HSP70 localization is regulated by the exportin-1 (XPO1), and that treatment of ß-thalassemic erythroblasts with an XPO1 inhibitor increased the amount of nuclear HSP70, rescued GATA-1 expression and improved terminal differentiation, thus representing a new therapeutic option to ameliorate ineffective erythropoiesis of ß-TM.

5.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(11): e798-e807, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obinutuzumab monotherapy has shown promising efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma. We aimed to investigate the activity of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin), measured by minimal residual disease quantitative (q)PCR status in the bone marrow after four cycles. METHODS: LyMa-101 was a prospective, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Participants were enrolled from 28 hospitals in France. Newly diagnosed patients with mantle cell lymphoma (aged 18 to <66 years) who were eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation received four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (obinutuzumab 1000 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 at cycle 1 and day 1 at cycles 2, 3, and 4; dexamethasone 40 mg intravenously on days 1-4, cytarabine 2 g/m2 intravenously every 12 h on day 1, and according to local investigator, cisplatin 100 mg/m2 by continuous infusion over 24 h on day 1 or carboplatin area under the curve 5 or oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2) every 21 days before transplantation, and 3 years of obinutuzumab (1000 mg/m2 every 2 months) maintenance followed by minimal residual disease-based obinutuzumab on-demand maintenance. The primary outcome was minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow after four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP at the end of induction, measured in the efficacy set (all minimal residual disease-informative [bone marrow or peripheral blood] patients who received at least one dose of obinutuzumab). Obinutuzumab plus DHAP was considered effective if bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity was 70% or more by intention to treat. The trial is closed to recruitment and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02896582. FINDINGS: 86 patients were enrolled between Nov 29, 2016, and May 2, 2018. 81 patients completed induction, 73 underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation, and 69 started maintenance therapy. 55 (75%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set reached minimal residual disease negativity in bone marrow at end of induction. According to the protocol definition, 18 (25%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set were minimal residual disease-positive: 12 patients who were minimal residual disease-positive in the bone marrow, plus two patients who progressed during induction, and four patients who did not have minimal residual disease assessment. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (grade 3, 26 [31%] of 85 patients; grade 4, three [4%] of 85 patients) and neutropenia (grade 3, 13 [15%] of 85 patients; grade 4, 32 [38%] of 85 patients). 58 serious adverse events occurred during the induction phase. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Obinutuzumab plus DHAP is a well tolerated regimen and has good activity for inducing minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow of transplant-eligible patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Obinutuzumab plus DHAP has potential activity as induction chemotherapy, with bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity potentially predicting long-term disease control. FUNDING: Roche SAS.

6.
Theranostics ; 10(23): 10743-10768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929378

RESUMO

The origin and functions of mast cells (MCs) have been debated since their description by Paul Ehrlich in 1879. MCs have long been considered 'reactive bystanders' and 'amplifiers' in inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, and host responses to infectious diseases. However, knowledge about the origin, phenotypes and functions of MCs has increased substantially over the past 50 years. MCs are now known to be derived from multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which, through a process of differentiation and maturation, form a unique hematopoietic lineage residing in multiple organs. In particular, MCs are distinguishable from basophils and other hematopoietic cells by their unique phenotype, origin(s), and spectrum of functions, both in innate and adaptive immune responses and in other settings. The concept of a unique MC lineage is further supported by the development of a distinct group of neoplasms, collectively referred to as mastocytosis, in which MC precursors expand as clonal cells. The clinical consequences of the expansion and/or activation of MCs are best established in mastocytosis and in allergic inflammation. However, MCs have also been implicated as important participants in a number of additional pathologic conditions and physiological processes. In this article, we review concepts regarding MC development, factors controlling MC expansion and activation, and some of the fundamental roles MCs may play in both health and disease. We also discuss new concepts for suppressing MC expansion and/or activation using molecularly-targeted drugs.

7.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959052

RESUMO

Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of hematological malignancies or autoimmune disease but may be responsible for a secondary humoral deficiency. In the context of COVID-19 infection, this may prevent the elicitation of a specific SARS-CoV-2-antibody response. We report a series of 17 consecutive patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia and prolonged COVID-19 symptoms, negative IgG-IgM SARS-CoV-2 serology and a positive RNAemia measured by digital PCR who were treated with four units of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Within 48 hours following transfusion, all patients except one experienced an amelioration of their clinical symptoms. The inflammatory syndrome abated within a week. Only one patient who needed mechanical ventilation for severe COVID-19 disease died of bacterial pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia decreased to below the sensitivity threshold in 9 out of 9 evaluated patients. Analysis of virus-specific T-cell responses using T-cell enzyme linked immunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay was analyzed before convalescent plasma transfusion in 3 patients. All showed a conserved SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response and poor cross-response to other coronaviruses. No adverse event was reported. In COVID-19 patients unable to mount a specific humoral response to SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies appears to be a very promising approach in the context of protracted COVID-19 symptoms.

8.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818241

RESUMO

The role of ribosome biogenesis in erythroid development is supported by the recognition of erythroid defects in ribosomopathies in both Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome. Whether ribosome biogenesis exerts a regulatory function on normal erythroid development is still unknown. In the present study, a detailed characterization of ribosome biogenesis dynamics during human and murine erythropoiesis shows that ribosome biogenesis is abruptly interrupted by the drop of rDNA transcription and the collapse of ribosomal protein neo-synthesis. Its premature arrest by RNA polI inhibitor, CX-5461 targets the proliferation of immature erythroblasts. We also show that p53 is activated spontaneously or in response to CX-5461 concomitantly to ribosome biogenesis arrest, and drives a transcriptional program in which genes involved in cell cycle arrest, negative regulation of apoptosis and DNA damage response were upregulated. RNA polI transcriptional stress results in nucleolar disruption and activation of ATR-CHK1-p53 pathway. Our results imply that the timing of ribosome biogenesis extinction and p53 activation are crucial for erythroid development. In ribosomopathies in which ribosome availability is altered by unbalanced production of ribosomal proteins, the threshold of ribosome biogenesis down-regulation could be prematurely reached and together with pathological p53 activation prevents a normal expansion of erythroid progenitors.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638373

RESUMO

The sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been demonstrated to predict the response to high-dose cytarabine consolidation treatment in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Here, we evaluated SAMHD1 as potential biomarker for the response to high-dose cytarabine in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. We quantified SAMHD1 protein expression and determined the mutation status in patients of the MCL Younger and Elderly trials (n = 189), who had received high-dose cytarabine- or fludarabine-based polychemotherapy. Additionally, we quantified SAMHD1 expression in B cell lymphoma cell lines and exposed them to cytarabine, fludarabine, and clinically relevant combinations. Across both trials investigated, SAMHD1 mutations had a frequency of 7.1 % (n = 13) and did not significantly affect the failure-free survival (FFS, p = 0.47). In patients treated with high-dose cytarabine- or fludarabine-containing regimes, SAMHD1 expression was not significantly associated with FFS or complete remission rate. SAMHD1 expression in B cell lymphoma cell lines, however, inversely correlated with their in vitro response to cytarabine as single agent (R = 0.65, p = 0.0065). This correlation could be reversed by combining cytarabine with other chemotherapeutics, such as oxaliplatin and vincristine, similar to the treatment regime of the MCL Younger trial. We conclude that this might explain why we did not observe a significant association between SAMHD1 protein expression and the outcome of MCL patients upon cytarabine-based treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1771-1778, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601796

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma has a dismal prognosis at relapse or in the refractory setting. Among therapies, mTor pathway targeting by temsirolimus has been the first strategy approved for relapse in Europe. While its efficacy in monotherapy has long been demonstrated, its use remains limited. In the T3 phase Ib clinical trial, we investigated the recommended dose of temsirolimus in association with R-CHOP (R-CHOP-T), or high-dose cytarabine plus rituximab (R-DHA-T), or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide plus rituximab (R-FC-T). From November 11, 2011 to February 26, 2015, forty-one patients were enrolled. Patients presented with high MIPI (47.5%) at relapse and a median number of treatments of 1 (1-3). Patients were treated by R-CHOP-T (n = 10), R-FC-T (n = 14), or R-DHA-T (n = 17) according to the choice of local investigators. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 15 mg in the R-CHOP-T arm and has not been determined in other treatment arms because of toxicities. All patients experienced ≥ Grade 3 adverse events, mainly thrombocytopenia (76%). Twenty-six patients discontinued prematurely the treatment, mostly for toxicity (n = 12) and progression of the disease (n = 8). Of note, 6 patients of the R-DHA-T arm reached complete remission (35%). Temsirolimus with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with a high rate of toxicities. Determination of MTD could only be achieved for R-CHOP-T arm. Associations between temsirolimus and other targeted therapies may be warranted for R/R MCL patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/terapia , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/efeitos adversos
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(4): 1339-1345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Masitinib is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that modulates mast cells activity. A previous phase II study reported a cognitive effect of masitinib in patients with Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to shed light on the mode of action of masitinib in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS/RESULTS: We demonstrated here that chronic oral treatment of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease restored normal spatial learning performance while having no impacts on amyloid-ß loads nor on neuroinflammation. However, masitinib promoted a recovery of synaptic markers. Complete genetic depletion of mast cells in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice similarly rescued synaptic impairments. CONCLUSION: These results underline that masitinib therapeutic efficacy might primarily be associated with a synapto-protective action in relation with mast cells inhibition.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599332

RESUMO

The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has massively distorted our health care systems and caused catastrophic consequences in our affected communities. The number of victims continues to increase and patients at risk can only be protected to a degree, since the virulent state may be asymptomatic. Risk factors concerning COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality include advanced age, an impaired immune system, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cancer treated with chemotherapy. Here within, we discuss the risk and impact of COVID-19 in patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes. As no published data are yet available, expert opinions are, by necessity, based on case experience and reports from patients. Whereas the overall risk to acquire the SARS-CoV-2 virus may not be elevated in mast cell disease, certain conditions may increase the risk of infected patients to develop severe COVID-19. These factors include certain co-morbidities, mast cell activation-related events affecting the cardiovascular or bronchopulmonary system and chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, such treatments should be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis during a COVID-19 infection. By contrast, other therapies, such as anti-mediator-type drugs, venom immunotherapy, or vitamin D, should be continued. Overall, patients with mast cell disorders should follow the general and local guidelines in the COVID-19 pandemic and advice from their medical provider.

13.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 752-762, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CYBB gene (located on Xp21.1). Patients with large deletions on chromosome Xp21.1 can present with the McLeod phenotype and also Duchenne muscular dystrophy or retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of the present study was to describe a series of French patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of 8 patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype registered at the French National Reference Center for blood types. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of CGD was 1.2 years, the median age at diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype was 4.5 years, and the median length of follow-up was 15.2 years. Four patients displayed allo-immunization, with anti-KEL20 and anti-XK1 (formerly known as anti-KL) antibodies. Five of the 6 patients with available blood smears had acanthocytosis. Neuropsychiatric, muscle-related, and ocular manifestations were present in 4, 2, and 1 of the patients, respectively. Three of the 4 patients having undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are alive. Overall, 5 patients are alive, and 3 are alive and well. CONCLUSION: This is the largest yet descriptive study of a series of patients with X-linked CGD and the McLeod phenotype. Although this disease combination is rare, the timely, accurate diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype is critical because of the serious post-transfusion complications. However, HSCT can be considered in these patients.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 300-306, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561389

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic has massively distorted our health care systems and caused catastrophic consequences in our affected communities. The number of victims continues to increase, and patients at risk can only be protected to a degree, because the virulent state may be asymptomatic. Risk factors concerning COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality include advanced age, an impaired immune system, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cancer treated with chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the risk and impact of COVID-19 in patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes. Because no published data are yet available, expert opinions are, by necessity, based on case experience and reports from patients. Although the overall risk to acquire the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may not be elevated in mast cell disease, certain conditions may increase the risk of infected patients to develop severe COVID-19. These factors include certain comorbidities, mast cell activation-related events affecting the cardiovascular or bronchopulmonary system, and chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, such treatments should be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis during a COVID-19 infection. In contrast, other therapies, such as anti-mediator-type drugs, venom immunotherapy, or vitamin D, should be continued. Overall, patients with mast cell disorders should follow the general and local guidelines in the COVID-19 pandemic and advice from their medical provider.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Mastocitose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Mastocitose Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Prova Pericial , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Mastocitose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Mastocitose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Mastocitose Cutânea/patologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Mastocitose Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/patologia , Agonistas Mieloablativos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
16.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555298

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) carries a poor prognosis even in indolent subtypes. We performed targeted deep sequencing combined with mapping of HTLV-1 proviral integration sites of 61 ATL patients of African and Caribbean origin. This revealed mutations mainly affecting TCR/NF-kB (74%), T-cell trafficking (46%), immune escape (29%), and cell cycle (26%) related pathways, consistent with the genomic landscape previously reported in a large Japanese cohort. To examine the evolution of mutational signatures upon disease progression while tracking the viral integration architecture of the malignant clone, we carried out a longitudinal study of patients who either relapsed or progressed from an indolent to an aggressive subtype. Serial analysis of relapsing patients identified several patterns of clonal evolution. In progressing patients, the longitudinal study revealed NF-kB/NFAT mutations at progression that were present at a subclonal level at diagnosis (allelic frequency < 5%). Moreover, the presence in indolent subtypes of mutations affecting the TCR/NF-kB pathway, whether clonal or subclonal, was associated with significantly shorter time to progression and overall survival. Our observations reveal the clonal dynamics of ATL mutational signatures at relapse and during progression. Our study defines a new subgroup of indolent ATLs characterized by a mutational signature at high risk of transformation.

17.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568831

RESUMO

Cutaneous mastocytosis is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in the skin. However, mast cell counting is not always easy and reproducible with classical methods. This work aims to demonstrate the reliability, usability, and virtues of a new software used on digital tablets for counting mast cells in cutaneous specific lesions of mastocytosis, to assess differences in mast cell counts between clinical subtypes of mastocytosis in the skin, and to consider the feasibility of applying a diagnostic mast cell count cutoff to urticaria pigmentosa, which is the most frequent form of cutaneous mastocytosis. Using a new digital tablet software that was accessible by multiple observers through its own wireless network and allowed high resolution of the image without data compression, we counted the number of mast cells on slides of patients and control skins immunostained for CD117. We found that our counting method was highly reproducible and that the new software allowed very quick counting. We evidenced strong differences in the mast cell count between most of the clinical subtypes of mastocytosis in the skin. However, when applied to a subset of patients with urticaria pigmentosa, a diagnostic cutoff in the mast cell count lacked sensitivity. Thus, our digital method for counting CD117-immunostained mast cells was highly accurate and was of a significant value for the diagnosis of mastocytosis in the skin. However, some subtypes with low mast cell counts will still require the application of additional diagnostic criteria.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 356-366.e4, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced systemic mastocytosis (advSM) is characterized by presence of the KIT D816V mutation and pathologic accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in various tissues, leading to severe symptoms and organ damage (eg, cytopenias, liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, malabsorption, and weight loss). Treatment with midostaurin, an orally active multikinase/KIT inhibitor now approved for advSM in the United States and the European Union, resulted in a high rate of response accompanied by reduced MC infiltration of the bone marrow and lowered serum tryptase level. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether midostaurin improves health-related quality of life (QOL) and MC mediator-related symptoms in patients with advSM. METHODS: In 116 patients with systemic mastocytosis (89 patients with advSM fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria of the D2201 study [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00782067]), QOL and symptom burden were assessed during treatment with midostaurin by using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale patient-reported questionnaires, respectively. MC mediator-related symptoms were evaluated by using a specific physician-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: Over the first 6 cycles of treatment with midostaurin (ie, 6 months), patients experienced significant improvements in total SF-12 and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale scores, as well as in subscores of each instrument. These improvements were durable during 36 months of follow-up. Similarly, we found substantial improvements (67%-100%) in all MC mediator-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: QOL and MC mediator-related symptoms significantly improve with midostaurin treatment in patients with advSM (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00782067).

19.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(5): 62, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461544

RESUMO

In total, 279 patients with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 10 years. Data were collected up to June 2018. We analyzed responses to treatment, relapses, survival, and the occurrence of second malignancies during follow-up. The median age was 59 years. In total, 208 patients (75%) were treated with purine analogs (PNAs), either cladribine (159) or pentosatin (49), as the first-line therapy. After a median follow-up of 127 months, the median overall survival was 27 years, and the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 11 years. The cumulative 10-year relapse incidence was 39%. In patients receiving second-line therapy, the median RFS was 7 years. For the second-line therapy, using the same or another PNA was equivalent. We identified 68 second malignancies in 59 patients: 49 solid cancers and 19 hematological malignancies. The 10-year cumulative incidences of cancers, solid tumors, and hematological malignancies were 15%, 11%, and 5.0%, respectively, and the standardized incidence ratios were 2.22, 1.81, and 6.67, respectively. In multivariate analysis, PNA was not a risk factor for second malignancies. HCL patients have a good long-term prognosis. PNAs are the first-line treatment. HCL patients require long-term follow-up because of their relatively increased risk of second malignancies.

20.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(4): 446-455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472610

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) CCND1/IGH translocation. This lymphoma is however extremely heterogeneous in terms of molecular alterations. Moreover, the course of the disease can vary greatly between indolent forms with slow progression and aggressive conditions rapidly pejorative. The identification of early markers allowing to predict individual patients outcome has however been unsuccessful so far. The LyMa trial treated homogeneously a cohort of young MCL patients. This appeared as a good opportunity to search for biomarkers of response to therapy. DNA extracted from diagnostic paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsies from 100 patients with newly diagnosed MCL, homogeneously treated in this prospective clinical trial, were investigated for copy number alterations and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity using the Oncoscan SNP-array scanning the whole genome. An independent confirmatory cohort was used to strengthen the possibly relevant anomalies observed. Here we describe the recurrent anomalies identified with this technique. Deletions of 17p(TP53) and 9p(CDKN2A) were more frequent in refractory or early relapsing patients (10%), but had no significant impact in univariate analysis on progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Regardless of the presence of TP53 or CDKN2A deletions, gains in 7p22 (8,5%) were associated with better PFS in univariate but not in multivariate analysis including MCL International Prognostic Index and treatment. Gains of 11q(CCDN1), suggesting gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion, were associated with worse OS and PFS in univariate and multivariate analyses. This worse prognosis impact was confirmed by FISH in an independent confirmatory cohort. This work, using a whole genome approach, confirms the broad genomic landscape of MCL and shows that gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion can be considered as a new prognostic structural variant. Genomic abnormalities of prognostic impact could be useful to strengthen or de-escalate treatment schedules or choosing targeted therapies or CART-cells.

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