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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

2.
J Hepatol ; 70(6): 1072-1081, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) polymorphisms are linked with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-associated autoinflammatory disorders, including ankylosing spondylitis and Behçet's disease. Disease-associated ERAP1 allotypes exhibit distinct functional properties, but it remains unclear how differential peptide trimming in vivo affects the repertoire of epitopes presented to CD8+ T cells. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ERAP1 allotypes on the virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire in an HLA-B*27:05+ individual with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We performed genetic and functional analyses of ERAP1 allotypes and characterized the HCV-specific CD8+ T cell repertoire at the level of fine epitope specificity and HLA class I restriction, in a patient who had acquired an HCV genotype 1a infection through a needle-stick injury. RESULTS: Two hypoactive allotypic variants of ERAP1 were identified in an individual with acute HCV infection. The associated repertoire of virus-derived epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells was uncommon in a couple of respects. Firstly, reactivity was directed away from classically immunodominant epitopes, preferentially targeting either novel or subdominant epitopes. Secondly, reactivity was biased towards longer epitopes (10-11-mers). Despite the patient exhibiting favorable prognostic indicators, these atypical immune responses failed to clear the virus and the patient developed persistent low-level infection with HCV. CONCLUSIONS: ERAP1 allotypes modify the virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire in vivo, leading to altered immunodominance patterns that may contribute to the failure of antiviral immunity after infection with HCV. LAY SUMMARY: Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) plays a key role in antigen presentation. Genetic variants of ERAP1 (leading to distinct allotypes) are linked with specific autoinflammatory disorders, such as ankylosing spondylitis and Behçet's disease. We found that ERAP1 allotypes modified the repertoire of virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes in a patient with hepatitis C virus, leading to an altered pattern of immunodominance that may have contributed to the failure of antiviral immunity in this patient.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295827

RESUMO

Background: Alport syndrome (AS) and atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) are rare forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that can lead to a severe decline of renal function. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is more common than AS and aHUS and causes 10% of childhood-onset CKD. In recent years, multiple monogenic causes of AS, aHUS and SRNS have been identified, but their relative prevalence has yet to be studied together in a typical pediatric cohort of children with proteinuria and hematuria. We hypothesized that identification of causative mutations by whole exome sequencing (WES) in known monogenic nephritis and nephrosis genes would allow distinguishing nephritis from nephrosis in a typical pediatric group of patients with both proteinuria and hematuria at any level. Methods: We therefore conducted an exon sequencing (WES) analysis for 11 AS, aHUS and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-causing genes in an international cohort of 371 patients from 362 families presenting with both proteinuria and hematuria before age 25 years. In parallel, we conducted either WES or high-throughput exon sequencing for 23 SRNS-causing genes in all patients. Results: We detected pathogenic mutations in 18 of the 34 genes analyzed, leading to a molecular diagnosis in 14.1% of families (51 of 362). Disease-causing mutations were detected in 3 AS-causing genes (4.7%), 3 aHUS-causing genes (1.4%) and 12 NS-causing genes (8.0%). We observed a much higher mutation detection rate for monogenic forms of CKD in consanguineous families (35.7% versus 10.1%). Conclusions: We present the first estimate of relative frequency of inherited AS, aHUS and NS in a typical pediatric cohort with proteinuria and hematuria. Important therapeutic and preventative measures may result from mutational analysis in individuals with proteinuria and hematuria.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 128(10): 4313-4328, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179222

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) almost invariably progresses to end-stage renal disease. Although more than 50 monogenic causes of SRNS have been described, a large proportion of SRNS remains unexplained. Recently, it was discovered that mutations of NUP93 and NUP205, encoding 2 proteins of the inner ring subunit of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), cause SRNS. Here, we describe mutations in genes encoding 4 components of the outer rings of the NPC, namely NUP107, NUP85, NUP133, and NUP160, in 13 families with SRNS. Using coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that certain pathogenic alleles weakened the interaction between neighboring NPC subunits. We demonstrated that morpholino knockdown of nup107, nup85, or nup133 in Xenopus disrupted glomerulogenesis. Re-expression of WT mRNA, but not of mRNA reflecting mutations from SRNS patients, mitigated this phenotype. We furthermore found that CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of NUP107, NUP85, or NUP133 in podocytes activated Cdc42, an important effector of SRNS pathogenesis. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of nup107 or nup85 in zebrafish caused developmental anomalies and early lethality. In contrast, an in-frame mutation of nup107 did not affect survival, thus mimicking the allelic effects seen in humans. In conclusion, we discovered here that mutations in 4 genes encoding components of the outer ring subunits of the NPC cause SRNS and thereby provide further evidence that specific hypomorphic mutations in these essential genes cause a distinct, organ-specific phenotype.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(9): 2348-2361, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most prevalent cause of kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Previous gene panel studies showed monogenic causation in up to 12% of patients with CAKUT. METHODS: We applied whole-exome sequencing to analyze the genotypes of individuals from 232 families with CAKUT, evaluating for mutations in single genes known to cause human CAKUT and genes known to cause CAKUT in mice. In consanguineous or multiplex families, we additionally performed a search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT. RESULTS: In 29 families (13%), we detected a causative mutation in a known gene for isolated or syndromic CAKUT that sufficiently explained the patient's CAKUT phenotype. In three families (1%), we detected a mutation in a gene reported to cause a phenocopy of CAKUT. In 15 of 155 families with isolated CAKUT, we detected deleterious mutations in syndromic CAKUT genes. Our additional search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT in consanguineous and multiplex families revealed a potential single, novel monogenic CAKUT gene in 19 of 232 families (8%). CONCLUSIONS: We identified monogenic mutations in a known human CAKUT gene or CAKUT phenocopy gene as the cause of disease in 14% of the CAKUT families in this study. Whole-exome sequencing provides an etiologic diagnosis in a high fraction of patients with CAKUT and will provide a new basis for the mechanistic understanding of CAKUT.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079490

RESUMO

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease, manifesting with proteinuria. To identify additional monogenic disease causes, we here performed whole exome sequencing (WES), linkage analysis, and homozygosity mapping in three affected siblings of an Indian family with GAMOS. Applying established criteria for variant filtering, we identify a novel homozygous splice site mutation in the gene WDR4 as the likely disease-causing mutation in this family. In line with previous reports, we observe growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay, and intellectual disability as phenotypic features resulting from WDR4 mutations. However, the newly identified allele additionally gives rise to proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome, a phenotype that was never reported in patients with WDR4 mutations. Our data thus expand the phenotypic spectrum of WDR4 mutations by demonstrating that, depending on the specific mutated allele, a renal phenotype may be present. This finding suggests that GAMOS may occupy a phenotypic spectrum with other microcephalic diseases. Furthermore, WDR4 is an additional example of a gene that encodes a tRNA modifying enzyme and gives rise to GAMOS, if mutated. Our findings thereby support the recent observation that, like neurons, podocytes of the renal glomerulus are particularly vulnerable to cellular defects resulting from altered tRNA modifications.

7.
Mol Biol Cell ; 29(18): 2156-2164, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995586

RESUMO

ATP6AP2 (also known as the [pro]renin receptor) is a type I transmembrane protein that can be cleaved into two fragments in the Golgi apparatus. While in Drosophila ATP6AP2 functions in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, recent human genetic studies have suggested that ATP6AP2 could participate in the assembly of the V-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using a yeast model, we show here that the V-ATPase assembly factor Voa1 can functionally be replaced by Drosophila ATP6AP2. This rescue is even more efficient when coexpressing its binding partner ATP6AP1, indicating that these two proteins together fulfill Voa1 functions in higher organisms. Structure-function analyses in both yeast and Drosophila show that proteolytic cleavage is dispensable, while C-terminus-dependent ER retrieval is required for ATP6AP2 function. Accordingly, we demonstrate that both overexpression and lack of ATP6AP2 causes ER stress in Drosophila wing cells and that the induction of ER stress is sufficient to cause PCP phenotypes. In summary, our results suggest that full-length ATP6AP2 contributes to the assembly of the V-ATPase proton pore and that impairment of this function affects ER homeostasis and PCP signaling.

8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2123-2138, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of CKD. The discovery of monogenic causes of SRNS has revealed specific pathogenetic pathways, but these monogenic causes do not explain all cases of SRNS. METHODS: To identify novel monogenic causes of SRNS, we screened 665 patients by whole-exome sequencing. We then evaluated the in vitro functional significance of two genes and the mutations therein that we discovered through this sequencing and conducted complementary studies in podocyte-like Drosophila nephrocytes. RESULTS: We identified conserved, homozygous missense mutations of GAPVD1 in two families with early-onset NS and a homozygous missense mutation of ANKFY1 in two siblings with SRNS. GAPVD1 and ANKFY1 interact with the endosomal regulator RAB5. Coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated interaction between GAPVD1 and ANKFY1 proteins, which also colocalized when expressed in HEK293T cells. Silencing either protein diminished the podocyte migration rate. Compared with wild-type GAPVD1 and ANKFY1, the mutated proteins produced upon ectopic expression of GAPVD1 or ANKFY1 bearing the patient-derived mutations exhibited altered binding affinity for active RAB5 and reduced ability to rescue the knockout-induced defect in podocyte migration. Coimmunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated a physical interaction between nephrin and GAPVD1, and immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of these proteins in rat glomeruli. The patient-derived GAPVD1 mutations reduced nephrin-GAPVD1 binding affinity. In Drosophila, silencing Gapvd1 impaired endocytosis and caused mistrafficking of the nephrin ortholog. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in GAPVD1 and probably in ANKFY1 are novel monogenic causes of NS. The discovery of these genes implicates RAB5 regulation in the pathogenesis of human NS.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1960, 2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773874

RESUMO

No efficient treatment exists for nephrotic syndrome (NS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here we show mutations in six different genes (MAGI2, TNS2, DLC1, CDK20, ITSN1, ITSN2) as causing NS in 17 families with partially treatment-sensitive NS (pTSNS). These proteins interact and we delineate their roles in Rho-like small GTPase (RLSG) activity, and demonstrate deficiency for mutants of pTSNS patients. We find that CDK20 regulates DLC1. Knockdown of MAGI2, DLC1, or CDK20 in cultured podocytes reduces migration rate. Treatment with dexamethasone abolishes RhoA activation by knockdown of DLC1 or CDK20 indicating that steroid treatment in patients with pTSNS and mutations in these genes is mediated by this RLSG module. Furthermore, we discover ITSN1 and ITSN2 as podocytic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Cdc42. We generate Itsn2-L knockout mice that recapitulate the mild NS phenotype. We, thus, define a functional network of RhoA regulation, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534211

RESUMO

Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS), a chronic kidney disease, is characterized by significant loss of protein in the urine causing hypoalbuminemia and edema. In general, ∼15% of childhood-onset cases do not respond to steroid therapy and are classified as steroid-resistant NS (SRNS). In ∼30% of cases with SRNS, a causative mutation can be detected in one of 44 monogenic SRNS genes. The gene LAMA5 encodes laminin-α5, an essential component of the glomerular basement membrane. Mice with a hypomorphic mutation in the orthologous gene Lama5 develop proteinuria and hematuria. Methods: To identify additional monogenic causes of NS, we performed whole exome sequencing in 300 families with pediatric NS. In consanguineous families we applied homozygosity mapping to identify genomic candidate loci for the underlying recessive mutation. Results: In three families, in whom mutations in known NS genes were excluded, but in whom a recessive, monogenic cause of NS was strongly suspected based on pedigree information, we identified homozygous variants of unknown significance (VUS) in the gene LAMA5. While all affected individuals had nonsyndromic NS with an early onset of disease, their clinical outcome and response to immunosuppressive therapy differed notably. Conclusion: We here identify recessive VUS in the gene LAMA5 in patients with partially treatment-responsive NS. More data will be needed to determine the impact of these VUS in disease management. However, familial occurrence of disease, data from genetic mapping and a mouse model that recapitulates the NS phenotypes suggest that these genetic variants may be inherited factors that contribute to the development of NS in pediatric patients.

11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(1): 53-62, 2018 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. RESULTS: In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel. NPHS1, PLCE1, NPHS2, and SMARCAL1 were the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 262, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270398

RESUMO

Glomerular disorders are a major cause of end-stage renal disease and effective therapies are often lacking. Nephrocytes are considered to be part of the Drosophila excretory system and form slit diaphragms across cellular membrane invaginations. Nehphrocytes have been shown to share functional, morphological, and molecular features with podocytes, which form the glomerular filter in vertebrates. Here, we report the progress and the evolving tool-set of this model system. Combining a functional, accessible slit diaphragm with the power of the genetic tool-kit in Drosophila, the nephrocyte has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 127(12): 4257-4269, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058690

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here, we identified recessive mutations in the gene encoding the actin-binding protein advillin (AVIL) in 3 unrelated families with SRNS. While all AVIL mutations resulted in a marked loss of its actin-bundling ability, truncation of AVIL also disrupted colocalization with F-actin, thereby leading to impaired actin binding and severing. Additionally, AVIL colocalized and interacted with the phospholipase enzyme PLCE1 and with the ARP2/3 actin-modulating complex. Knockdown of AVIL in human podocytes reduced actin stress fibers at the cell periphery, prevented recruitment of PLCE1 to the ARP3-rich lamellipodia, blocked EGF-induced generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by PLCE1, and attenuated the podocyte migration rate (PMR). These effects were reversed by overexpression of WT AVIL but not by overexpression of any of the 3 patient-derived AVIL mutants. The PMR was increased by overexpression of WT Avil or PLCE1, or by EGF stimulation; however, this increased PMR was ameliorated by inhibition of the ARP2/3 complex, indicating that ARP-dependent lamellipodia formation occurs downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 function. Together, these results delineate a comprehensive pathogenic axis of SRNS that integrates loss of AVIL function with alterations in the action of PLCE1, an established SRNS protein.

14.
Nat Genet ; 49(10): 1529-1538, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805828

RESUMO

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hérnia Hiatal/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Mutação , Nefrose/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Movimento Celular , Citoesqueleto/ultraestrutura , Reparo do DNA/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/deficiência , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/patologia , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(5): 1521-1533, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932481

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is characterized by podocyte dysfunction. Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes are podocyte-like cells and thus provide a potential in vivo model in which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. However, relevant pathomechanisms of nephrotic syndrome have not been studied in nephrocytes. Here, we discovered that two Drosophila slit diaphragm proteins, orthologs of the human genes encoding nephrin and nephrin-like protein 1, colocalize within a fingerprint-like staining pattern that correlates with ultrastructural morphology. Using RNAi and conditional CRISPR/Cas9 in nephrocytes, we found this pattern depends on the expression of both orthologs. Tracer endocytosis by nephrocytes required Cubilin and reflected size selectivity analogous to that of glomerular function. Using RNAi and tracer endocytosis as a functional read-out, we screened Drosophila orthologs of human monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome and observed conservation of the central pathogenetic alterations. We focused on the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis gene Coq2, the silencing of which disrupted slit diaphragm morphology. Restoration of CoQ10 synthesis by vanillic acid partially rescued the phenotypic and functional alterations induced by Coq2-RNAi. Notably, Coq2 colocalized with mitochondria, and Coq2 silencing increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silencing of ND75, a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that controls ROS formation independently of CoQ10, phenocopied the effect of Coq2-RNAi. Moreover, the ROS scavenger glutathione partially rescued the effects of Coq2-RNAi. In conclusion, Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes provide a model with which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome, and ROS formation may be a pathomechanism of COQ2-nephropathy.


Assuntos
Drosophila/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Síndrome Nefrótica , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia
16.
Nat Genet ; 48(4): 457-65, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878725

RESUMO

Nucleoporins are essential components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Only a few diseases have been attributed to NPC dysfunction. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease, is caused by dysfunction of glomerular podocytes. Here we identify in eight families with SRNS mutations in NUP93, its interaction partner NUP205 or XPO5 (encoding exportin 5) as hitherto unrecognized monogenic causes of SRNS. NUP93 mutations caused disrupted NPC assembly. NUP93 knockdown reduced the presence of NUP205 in the NPC, and, reciprocally, a NUP205 alteration abrogated NUP93 interaction. We demonstrate that NUP93 and exportin 5 interact with the signaling protein SMAD4 and that NUP93 mutations abrogated interaction with SMAD4. Notably, NUP93 mutations interfered with BMP7-induced SMAD transcriptional reporter activity. We hereby demonstrate that mutations of NUP genes cause a distinct renal disease and identify aberrant SMAD signaling as a new disease mechanism of SRNS, opening a potential new avenue for treatment.


Assuntos
Carioferinas/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Idade de Início , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Podócitos/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Xenopus laevis
17.
Cell Rep ; 8(1): 10-9, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24953654

RESUMO

mTOR kinase is a master growth regulator that can be stimulated by multiple signals, including amino acids and the lysosomal small GTPase Rheb. Recent studies have proposed an important role for the V-ATPase in the sensing of amino acids in the lysosomal lumen. Using the Drosophila wing as a model epithelium, we show here that the V-ATPase is required for Rheb-dependent epithelial growth. We further uncover a positive feedback loop for the control of apical protein uptake that depends on V-ATPase/mTOR signaling. This feedback loop includes Rheb-dependent transcriptional regulation of the multiligand receptor Megalin, which itself is required for Rheb-induced endocytosis. In addition, we provide evidence that long-term mTOR inhibition with rapamycin in mice causes reduction of Megalin levels and proteinuria in the proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney. Thus, our findings unravel a homeostatic mechanism that allows epithelial cells to promote protein uptake under normal conditions and to prevent uptake in lysosomal stress conditions.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epitélio/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética
18.
EMBO J ; 32(2): 245-59, 2013 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292348

RESUMO

Planar cell polarity (PCP) controls the orientation of cells within tissues and the polarized outgrowth of cellular appendages. So far, six PCP core proteins including the transmembrane proteins Frizzled (Fz), Strabismus (Stbm) and Flamingo (Fmi) have been identified. These proteins form asymmetric PCP domains at apical junctions of epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that VhaPRR, an accessory subunit of the proton pump V-ATPase, directly interacts with the protocadherin Fmi through its extracellular domain. It also shows a striking co-localization with PCP proteins during all pupal wing stages in Drosophila. This localization depends on intact PCP domains. Reversely, VhaPRR is required for stable PCP domains, identifying it as a novel PCP core protein. VhaPRR performs an additional role in vesicular acidification as well as endolysosomal sorting and degradation. Membrane proteins, such as E-Cadherin and the Notch receptor, accumulate at the surface and in intracellular vesicles of cells mutant for VhaPRR. This trafficking defect is shared by other V-ATPase subunits. By contrast, the V-ATPase does not seem to have a direct role in PCP regulation. Together, our results suggest two roles for VhaPRR, one for PCP and another in endosomal trafficking. This dual function establishes VhaPRR as a key factor in epithelial morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Células Cultivadas , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epitélio/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Morfogênese/genética , Estabilidade Proteica , Transporte Proteico/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/fisiologia
19.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 26(9): 1523-7, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21380625

RESUMO

The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway polarizes epithelia in the plane of a tissue. It regulates form and function of tissues and manifests itself by the polarized formation of cellular appendages such as epidermal hairs and cilia. Defects in the pathway are often associated with organ malformation and disease. In the kidney, the molecular events leading to cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease involve the PCP pathway. PCP is, however, best understood in Drosophila where genetic screens have identified a group of PCP core proteins including the Wnt receptor Frizzled (Fz), Dishevelled (Dsh), and Flamingo (Fmi). These proteins can localize to opposite parts of the plasma membrane in response to a poorly understood symmetry breaking event. Recent evidence suggests that proton transporters may play a role in regulating the asymmetric localization of PCP core proteins. Several papers have reported that the (pro)renin receptor, which is an associated subunit of the proton pumping V-ATPase, is required for PCP, but also for canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings for diverse developmental settings.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rim/embriologia , Morfogênese , Bombas de Próton/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética
20.
Curr Biol ; 20(14): 1269-76, 2010 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20579879

RESUMO

Frizzled (Fz) is a seven-pass transmembrane receptor that acts in both Wingless (Wg) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. A prerequisite for PCP signaling is the asymmetric subcellular distribution of Fz. However, the regulation of Fz asymmetry is currently not well understood. Here we describe that the transmembrane protein CG8444 (here termed VhaPRR) is needed for PCP signaling in Drosophila. VhaPRR is an accessory subunit of the vacuolar (V)-ATPase proton pump, but it also functions as a receptor for (pro)renin (PRR) in mammals. We show that VhaPRR function is tightly linked with Fz but not other PCP core proteins. Fz fails to localize asymmetrically in the absence of VhaPRR, and this is accompanied by prehair mispolarization of pupal wing cells. In addition, VhaPRR forms a protein complex with Fz receptors and interacts genetically with Fz in the Drosophila eye. VhaPRR also acts as a modulator of canonical Wnt signaling in larval and adult wing tissue. Its loss leads to an expansion of the Wg morphogen gradient and a reduction of Wg target gene expression. The requirement for additional V-ATPase subunits suggests that proton fluxes contribute to normal Fz receptor function and signaling.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoprecipitação , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
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