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4.
Gac Sanit ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680659

RESUMO

The confinement of the population, researchers, shows the need to adapt the qualitative methodology, techniques and tools, to the current context generated by COVID-19. The Internet and the social media allow the collection of textual data, sequences, images or narratives about a limited reality for access to it in person. We enter the era of e-research, nuancing and reorienting the observation, conversation, collection and analysis of information. Currently, we are working on techniques and models of good practice in this area. This note includes data collection tools used in qualitative research in health sciences, a selection of techniques for qualitative online research is made, and 10 rules for the design of an e-research of this type are provided.

6.
Gac Sanit ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the views of the Internet in childhood, identifying both health assets and risks. METHOD: A qualitative study was performed using 14 focus groups, eight of which comprised boys and girls, four of which comprised parents and two of which were mixed (children and parents) in primary schools in urban and rural settings in Andalusia (Spain). Teachers in these schools were also asked to complete an online questionnaire using LimeSurvey. This study involved 114 individuals: 64 pupils (33 girls and 31 boys), 28 parents (18 mothers and 10 fathers), and 22 teachers (14 women and 8 men). Analysis of manifest content and underlying meanings was carried out. QSR NVivo 9 software was used to facilitate analysis and make it systematic. RESULTS: Our findings show how the differences in the way parents and children understand health and wellbeing affect the way they discuss the Internet and health. The discussion of results looks at the implications of computer literacy for public health and wellbeing, particularly with regard to health assets. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and children understand the contribution of the Internet to health and wellbeing differently. Whilst parents emphasize the risks (unsafe environment, relationships and quality of information, social networks, physical problems and addiction), the children emphasize the assets offered by the Internet.

7.
Gac Sanit ; 32 Suppl 1: 1-4, 2018 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390824

RESUMO

The thirteenth SESPAS (Spanish society of public health and health management) report is structured in three blocks Who, How and What about community health and local governance. In the who block the main agents working in community health are described: communities, health care system, and local government; and how their relations and implication in community health have evolved; which concepts are used; what is the current situation and which challenges they have. The How block contains methodological views, oriented towards implementation of community interventions, based upon participatory tools, development of networks and review of evidence and evaluations to build a National Strategy of Health Promotion of the Spanish Ministry of Health, welfare and consumers affairs including suitable deontologic principles. Finally, the what block refers to a wide range of experiences of community health at the local level as well as training in community health, urbanism, gender, neighborhoods, healthy universities. Additionally, besides regular papers, we show dialogs including debates to further develop community health. It contains 18 papers, without taking into account this introduction, authored by 40 men and 49 women.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Humanos , Espanha
8.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 1-4, oct. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174221

RESUMO

El decimotercer informe bienal de SESPAS se estructura en tres bloques que corresponden a quién, cómo y qué sobre la salud comunitaria y la administración local. En el bloque del quién, se describen los agentes principales que trabajan en la salud comunitaria: la comunidad, el sistema sanitario y la administración local; y cómo ha evolucionado su relación e implicación con la salud comunitaria, qué conceptos manejan, cómo se encuentran en este momento y cuáles son sus retos futuros. El bloque del cómo recoge aportaciones más metodológicas, orientadas a la implementación práctica de las intervenciones comunitarias; desde las herramientas para promover la participación, a la creación de redes de actividades, la revisión de las evidencias o la evaluación de la puesta en marcha de la Estrategia Nacional de Promoción de la Salud, del hoy Ministerio de Salud, Consumo y Bienestar Social, incluyendo los principios deontológicos que son de aplicación. Finalmente, el del qué, hace acopio de algunas experiencias sobre aspectos determinados de la salud comunitaria en el ámbito local, así como sobre la formación en salud comunitaria, el urbanismo, el género, los barrios o las universidades saludables. Además del formato habitual se incluyen 5 diálogos en los que se plantean debates para continuar desarrollando la salud comunitaria. En resumen 18 artículos, sin contar esta presentación, firmados por 49 autoras y por 40 autores


The thirteenth SESPAS (Spanish society of public health and health management) report is structured in three blocks Who, How and What about community health and local governance. In the who block the main agents working in community health are described: communities, health care system, and local government; and how their relations and implication in community health have evolved; which concepts are used; what is the current situation and which challenges they have. The How block contains methodological views, oriented towards implementation of community interventions, based upon participatory tools, development of networks and review of evidence and evaluations to build a National Strategy of Health Promotion of the Spanish Ministry of Health, welfare and consumers affairs including suitable deontologic principles. Finally, the what block refers to a wide range of experiences of community health at the local level as well as training in community health, urbanism, gender, neighborhoods, healthy universities. Additionally, besides regular papers, we show dialogs including debates to further develop community health. It contains 18 papers, without taking into account this introduction, authored by 40 men and 49 women


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Estratégias Locais
9.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 5-12, oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174222

RESUMO

El término «salud comunitaria» es ampliamente utilizado en nuestro medio, con una recuperación progresiva de su interés en los últimos 10 años. Consideramos que, aunque muy difundido, se trata de un término impreciso, por lo que percibimos la necesidad y la pertinencia de una mejor definición operativa. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura especializada, que fue contrastada con la experiencia y el conocimiento de los autores, así como con las perspectivas sobre el tema recogidas en un trabajo de campo con entrevistas realizadas a personas de reconocida relación con la cuestión. Como resultado se proponen algunas aclaraciones terminológicas que puedan facilitar una adecuada definición operativa; se describen las principales influencias teóricas en su formación; se realiza una propuesta de niveles de acción comunitaria que pueden desarrollarse desde atención primaria y salud pública; finalmente, se señalan algunos elementos fundamentales que consideramos que toda acción para mejorar la salud comunitaria debería contemplar


"Community health" is a widely used term in our context. Although interest in the concept has gradually increased over the past decade, we believe the term is still vague. Therefore, we think a better working definition is required. We conducted a review of the specialized literature on the topic. This was later contrasted with the professional backgrounds of the authors, as well as with the results of field work consisting of interviews with individuals with recognized experience and intellectual authority in the area. As a result, we intend to clarify some core terms to achieve a better working definition of community health; we describe the main theoretical influences on the formation of the term; we propose some levels of community action that could be developed through the primary health care and public health services; and finally, we identify some core aspects that should be taken into account in every action for improving community health


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Medicina Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Terminologia como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Educação em Saúde
10.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 98-102, oct. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174239

RESUMO

En los últimos años, los mapas de activos para la salud se están convirtiendo en herramientas cada vez más presentes en el ámbito de la promoción de la salud. Se están incorporando a la práctica diaria de muchos profesionales de la salud, tanto en la atención individualizada en las consultas (mediante la prescripción social) como en grupos o en procesos de desarrollo comunitario. Es necesario reflexionar sobre cómo se están produciendo los mapas de activos, analizando de qué manera las diferentes etapas del proceso pueden intervenir en su construcción. Tanto los formatos en que se presentan los datos obtenidos mediante la identificación de activos para la salud como los propios procesos de producción de la información, procesos participativos y evaluados, son clave para que los mapas sean útiles tanto a los profesionales como a la ciudadanía y las instituciones


In recent years, health asset maps have become increasingly important tools in the field of health promotion. They are being incorporated into the daily practice of many healthcare workers, in individualized care in consultations (through social prescription), and in groups or community development processes. It is necessary to reflect on how the asset maps are being produced, analyzing how the different stages of the process can be involved in their construction. The formats in which the data is obtained through the identification of health assets are presented, as well as the processes of production of the information, participative and evaluated processes, are crucial for the maps to be useful, for professionals as well as citizens and institutions


Assuntos
Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Mapa de Risco
11.
Gac Sanit ; 32 Suppl 1: 5-12, 2018 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266477

RESUMO

"Community health" is a widely used term in our context. Although interest in the concept has gradually increased over the past decade, we believe the term is still vague. Therefore, we think a better working definition is required. We conducted a review of the specialized literature on the topic. This was later contrasted with the professional backgrounds of the authors, as well as with the results of field work consisting of interviews with individuals with recognized experience and intellectual authority in the area. As a result, we intend to clarify some core terms to achieve a better working definition of community health; we describe the main theoretical influences on the formation of the term; we propose some levels of community action that could be developed through the primary health care and public health services; and finally, we identify some core aspects that should be taken into account in every action for improving community health.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Gac Sanit ; 32 Suppl 1: 98-102, 2018 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227942

RESUMO

In recent years, health asset maps have become increasingly important tools in the field of health promotion. They are being incorporated into the daily practice of many healthcare workers, in individualized care in consultations (through social prescription), and in groups or community development processes. It is necessary to reflect on how the asset maps are being produced, analyzing how the different stages of the process can be involved in their construction. The formats in which the data is obtained through the identification of health assets are presented, as well as the processes of production of the information, participative and evaluated processes, are crucial for the maps to be useful, for professionals as well as citizens and institutions.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Administração em Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(3): 238-241, mayo-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162089

RESUMO

La prevención del exceso de peso infantil es actualmente uno de los grandes retos de la salud pública. Ello está generando una intensificación en la producción de evidencias científicas, dando lugar a todo un corpus de conocimiento sobre los componentes esenciales de las intervenciones desarrolladas en ámbitos como el escolar. En este sentido, es fácilmente identificable una tendencia creciente a orientar las aportaciones de las investigaciones hacia la evaluación de los resultados, analizados en términos de efectividad; raramente se pone el foco de atención en el trabajo de campo. Partiendo de la descripción del proceso de desarrollo de una intervención multicomponente, diseñada para prevenir el exceso de peso en escolares de 3° de Educación Primaria, el objetivo de este artículo es incidir en los elementos de dicho proceso considerando cuestiones importantes en su desarrollo, tales como la plausibilidad y la factibilidad en el medio concreto (AU)


The prevention of childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of modern times. This has triggered the generation of a wealth of scientific evidence, culminating in a body of knowledge concerning the essential components of campaigns implemented in the school setting. In this regard, a growing trend towards the evaluation of research results in terms of effectiveness has become apparent, while the fieldwork itself very rarely comes under the spotlight. By considering the implementation process description of a multicomponent campaign designed to prevent childhood obesity in boys and girls in the 3rdyear of primary education in Spain (9-10 years of age), the aim of this paper is to influence the elements of this process by considering important aspects pertaining to its implementation, such as its plausibility and feasibility in the particular context (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/organização & administração , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar
14.
Gac Sanit ; 31(3): 238-241, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162754

RESUMO

The prevention of childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of modern times. This has triggered the generation of a wealth of scientific evidence, culminating in a body of knowledge concerning the essential components of campaigns implemented in the school setting. In this regard, a growing trend towards the evaluation of research results in terms of effectiveness has become apparent, while the fieldwork itself very rarely comes under the spotlight. By considering the implementation process description of a multicomponent campaign designed to prevent childhood obesity in boys and girls in the 3rd year of primary education in Spain (9-10 years of age), the aim of this paper is to influence the elements of this process by considering important aspects pertaining to its implementation, such as its plausibility and feasibility in the particular context.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Antropometria , Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Descanso , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Materiais de Ensino
15.
Int J Public Health ; 60(2): 239-47, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This research was designed to explore the opinions held by primary school pupils about the Internet as a source of assets for health and well-being. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out based on 8 focus groups comprising 64 pupils from 8 primary schools in Spain. RESULTS: Our findings describe the Internet as a tool for learning, communication, fun and health care. In addition, they reveal how children understand influences on health and well-being in relation to their view of the Internet. The results are discussed in terms of the public-health implications of digital literacy, as well as its connection to well-being, especially in relation to health assets. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet is an important resource for children's health and well-being, which, through learning, communication, fun and health care, encourages them to make use of it. Digital and health literacy constitutes the foundation required for browsing the Internet in a positive way, as identified by the children interviewed in this study, and especially in relation to the health assets that the Internet can contain.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Comunicação , Compreensão , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 85(2): 129-39, 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21826376

RESUMO

This article seeks to provide an in depth review about one of the most revolutionary and influential methods used in understanding the variables and processes that explain human health. Based on a new vision in the analysis of the consequences of the Nazi Holocaust, a doctor-sociologist--Aaron Antonovsky--managed to influence medicine and behavioral science by facilitating the keys for the optimal development of public health today. Despite the fact that this theory began appearing in the 1970s in the 20th century, its real development and expansion have been seen in recent years. In fact, in Spain, there is little scientific literature that analyses the theoretic keys of the model in depth. This work seek to cover this gap; to achieve this objective, it first presents how the construct of salutogenesis arose, the social-cultural context that promoted it, as well as the importance public health acquires today. This is the aim of this work, which analyses the theoretical bases of the salutogenesis model, with specific emphasis on its background and precursors, as well as its inception, development and current expansion.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública , Senso de Coerência , Política de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 85(2): 129-139, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-90628

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene el objetivo de tratar en profundidad uno de los modelos más revolucionarios e influyentes para la comprensión de las variables y procesos que explican la salud humana. A partir de una nueva visión en el análisis de las consecuencias del holocausto nazi, un médico-sociólogo -Aaron Antonovsky-, consiguió influir en la medicina y la ciencia delcomportamiento, facilitando las claves para el óptimo desarrollo de la salud pública actual. A pesar de que esta teoría empezó a forjarse en los años 70 del siglo XX, su desarrollo real y su expansión están sucediendo en los últimos años. De hecho, enEspaña existe muy poca literatura con base científica que analice con detalle las claves teóricas del modelo. Este trabajo trata de cubrir esa carencia y, para ello, y en primer lugar, exponecómo surgió el constructo salutogénesis, el contexto sociocultural que lo impulsó, así como la importancia que adquiere enla salud pública actual. Con este objetivo, en estas páginas se analizan las bases teóricas del modelo salutogénico, con especial énfasis en sus antecedentes y precursores, así como en sus inicios, desarrollo y expansión actual(AU)


This article seeks to provide an in depth review about one of the most revolutionary and influential methods used in understanding the variables and processes that explain human health. Based on a new vision in the analysis of the consequences of theNazi Holocaust, a doctor-sociologist—Aaron Antonovsky— managed to influence medicine and behavioral science by facilitating the keys for the optimal development of public health today. Despite the fact that this theory began appearing in the1970s in the 20th century, its real development and expansion have been seen in recent years. In fact, in Spain, there is littlescientific literature that analyses the theoretic keys of the model in depth. This work seek to cover this gap; to achieve this objective, it first presents how the construct of salutogenesis arose, the social-cultural context that promoted it, as well as the importance public health acquires today. This is the aim of this work, which analyses the theoretical bases of the salutogenesis model,with specific emphasis on its background and precursors, aswell as its inception, development and current expansion(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Pública/métodos , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Sociologia Médica/métodos , Medicina Social/métodos , Medicina Social/tendências , Entropia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Sociologia Médica/educação , Sociologia Médica/história , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração
18.
BMC Public Health ; 11(1): 54, 2011 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21269446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most textbooks contains messages relating to health. This profuse information requires analysis with regards to the quality of such information. The objective was to identify the scientific evidence on which the health messages in textbooks are based. METHODS: The degree of evidence on which such messages are based was identified and the messages were subsequently classified into three categories: Messages with high, medium or low levels of evidence; Messages with an unknown level of evidence; and Messages with no known evidence. RESULTS: 844 messages were studied. Of this total, 61% were classified as messages with an unknown level of evidence. Less than 15% fell into the category where the level of evidence was known and less than 6% were classified as possessing high levels of evidence. More than 70% of the messages relating to "Balanced Diets and Malnutrition", "Food Hygiene", "Tobacco", "Sexual behaviour and AIDS" and "Rest and ergonomics" are based on an unknown level of evidence. "Oral health" registered the highest percentage of messages based on a high level of evidence (37.5%), followed by "Pregnancy and newly born infants" (35%). Of the total, 24.6% are not based on any known evidence. Two of the messages appeared to contravene known evidence. CONCLUSION: Many of the messages included in school textbooks are not based on scientific evidence. Standards must be established to facilitate the production of texts that include messages that are based on the best available evidence and which can improve children's health more effectively.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Livros de Texto como Assunto , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espanha
19.
Qual Health Res ; 19(5): 605-20, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19299254

RESUMO

Our objective with this study was to analyze the opinions of a potentially socially marginalized group of Spanish Roma adolescents and young adults about noninjection drug use, HIV infection, and risky sexual behavior. Descriptive qualitative research was conducted through focus groups with Roma participants and semistructured interviews with professionals who work with them in areas such as education and health promotion. Results were triangulated by cross analysis among researchers. Declared drug consumption is lower among females than males. The former claim they do not maintain sporadic sexual relations, and link risky sexual practices to being in love and involved in a stable relationship. Males only use condoms in sporadic sexual relations. They attribute their lack of condom use to lost sensitivity, perceiving sex as something uncontrollable, and not having condoms available when using drugs. Results suggest the need to improve actions aimed at preventing the sexual transmission of HIV among the Roma population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Roma , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Gac Sanit ; 22(3): 227-31, 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18579048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Textbooks are an educational tool for learning health habits. The aim of this study was to determine how these textbooks present the health priorities defined by health organizations to children and teenagers. METHOD: We performed a descriptive study in 3 steps: a) the priorities defined by health organizations were identified; b) the messages on health in the textbooks used in the schools of a municipality were identified, and c) the extent to which these messages fitted the priorities established was analyzed. RESULTS: The World Health Organization, the European Union, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and the Spanish Society of Public Health and Healthcare Administration define 24 priorities. One hundred textbooks were collected, with 663 health messages. The priorities most frequently covered in the textbooks were diet, physical exercise and the impact of environmental contamination. The least frequently covered topics was bullying, child maltreatment, poverty, self harm, and obesity. The latter topic was especially lacking in kindergartens and elementary schools. CONCLUSIONS: The health messages contained in school textbooks are not well adapted to the priorities defined by health organizations.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Educação em Saúde , Livros de Texto como Assunto , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
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