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1.
Water Environ Res ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565667

RESUMO

Researchers are trying to tackle water scarcity in numerous ways. One of those ways is the use of nanotechnology in water processing and purification. The current work involves the fabrication and optimization of activated carbon and graphene-based hybrid water purification system. Five different concentrations of methylene blue and deionized water (DI) water dye solutions were used, and they were filtered in three different cycles. For the potential usage on the consumer side, a small-scale, low-cost water filter is developed using activated carbon, commercial filter paper, and graphene nanoplatelets. The filter paper is used to hold mixtures of the activated carbon and graphene nanoplatelets within the water filter. The conductivity, TDS, and pH are measured for the feed water and the processed water using an Oakton EcoTestr and Apera Instruments PH60 Premium Pocket pH meter respectively. A UV-Vis spectrometer is used to measure the absorption of solutions. The distribution and adsorption of the dye particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 316: 53-57, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a systemic manifestation of atherosclerosis that is associated with a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). LDL aggregation contributes to atherosclerotic plaque progression and may contribute to plaque instability. We aimed to determine if LDL aggregation is associated with MACE in patients with PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER). METHODS: Two hundred thirty-nine patients with PAD undergoing LER had blood collected at baseline and were followed prospectively for MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) for one year. Nineteen age, sex and LDL-C-matched control subjects without cardiovascular disease also had blood drawn. Subject LDL was exposed to sphingomyelinase and LDL aggregate size measured via dynamic light scattering. RESULTS: Mean age was 72.3 ± 10.9 years, 32.6% were female, and LDL-cholesterol was 68 ± 25 mg/dL. LDL aggregation was inversely associated with triglycerides, but not associated with demographics, LDL-cholesterol or other risk factors. Maximal LDL aggregation occurred significantly earlier in subjects with PAD than in control subjects. 15.9% of subjects experienced MACE over one year. The 1st tertile (shortest time to maximal aggregation) exhibited significantly higher MACE (25% vs. 12.5% in tertile 2 and 10.1% in tertile 3, p = 0.012). After multivariable adjustment for demographics and CVD risk factors, the hazard ratio for MACE in the 1st tertile was 4.57 (95% CI 1.60-13.01; p = 0.004) compared to tertile 3. Inclusion of LDL aggregation in the Framingham Heart Study risk calculator for recurrent coronary heart disease events improved the c-index from 0.57 to 0.63 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We show that in the setting of very well controlled LDL-cholesterol, patients with PAD with the most rapid LDL aggregation had a significantly elevated MACE risk following LER even after multivariable adjustment. This measure further improved the classification specificity of an established risk prediction tool. Our findings support broader investigation of this assay for risk stratification in patients with atherosclerotic CVD.

3.
Hum Immunol ; 81(9): 461-474, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651014

RESUMO

We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) allele groups and alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in a total of 15,318 mixed ancestry Mexicans from all the states of the country divided into 78 sample sets, providing information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies and their linkage disequilibrium, as well as admixture estimates and genetic substructure. We identified the presence of 4268 unique HLA extended haplotypes across Mexico and find that the ten most frequent (HF > 1%) HLA haplotypes with significant linkage disequilibrium (Δ'≥0.1) in Mexico (accounting for 20% of the haplotypic diversity of the country) are of primarily Native American ancestry (A*02~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*35~DRB1*08~DQB1*04, A*68~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*24~B*39~DRB1*14~DQB1*03:01, A*24~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*24~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*40:02~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*68~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*15:01~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02). Admixture estimates obtained by a maximum likelihood method using HLA-A/-B/-DRB1 as genetic estimators revealed that the main genetic components in Mexico as a whole are Native American (ranging from 37.8% in the northern part of the country to 81.5% in the southeastern region) and European (ranging from 11.5% in the southeast to 62.6% in northern Mexico). African admixture ranged from 0.0 to 12.7% not following any specific pattern. We were able to detect three major immunogenetic clusters correlating with genetic diversity and differential admixture within Mexico: North, Central and Southeast, which is in accordance with previous reports using genome-wide data. Our findings provide insights into the population immunogenetic substructure of the whole country and add to the knowledge of mixed ancestry Latin American population genetics, important for disease association studies, detection of demographic signatures on population variation and improved allocation of public health resources.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) have been shown to have vasodilatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic and antihypertrophic properties. However, the status and role of the ACE2-Ang(1-7) axis in human PAH is incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied 85 patients with a diagnosis of PAH of distinct aetiologies. 55 healthy blood donors paired for age and sex served as controls. Blood samples were obtained from the pulmonary artery in patients with PAH during right heart catheterisation. Peripheral blood was obtained for both groups. Ang(1-7) and -II were measured using zone capillary electrophoresis. Aldosterone, Ang(1-9), AngA and ACE2 were measured using ELISA, and ACE2 activity was determined enzymatically. RESULTS: Of the 85 patients, 47 had idiopathic PAH, 25 had PAH associated with congenital heart disease and 13 had PAH associated with collagen vascular disease. Compared to controls, patients with PAH had a higher concentration of AngII (median 1.03, interquartile range 0.72-1.88 pmol·mL-1 versus 0.19, 0.10-0.37 pmol·mL-1; p<0.001) and of aldosterone (88.7, 58.7-132 ng·dL-1 versus 12.9, 9.55-19.9 ng·dL-1; p<0.001). Conversely, PAH patients had a lower concentration of Ang(1-7) than controls (0.69, 0.474-0.91 pmol·mL-1 versus 4.07, 2.82-6.73 pmol·mL-1; p<0.001), and a lower concentration of Ang(1-9) and AngA. Similarly, the ACE2 concentration was higher than in controls (8.7, 5.35-13.2 ng·mL-1 versus 4.53, 1.47-14.3 ng·mL-1; p=0.011), whereas the ACE2 activity was significantly reduced (1.88, 1.08-2.81 nmol·mL-1 versus 5.97, 3.1-17.8 nmol·mL-1; p<0.001). No significant differences were found among the three different aetiological forms of PAH. CONCLUSIONS: The AngII-ACE2-Ang(1-7) axis appears to be altered in human PAH and we propose that this imbalance, in favour of AngII, plays a role in the pathogenesis of the severe PAH. Further mechanistic studies are warranted.

5.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(2): nzaa001, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025614

RESUMO

Background: In Peru, tuberculosis (TB) is perceived as a nutritional disease. This perception, alongside factors including household food insecurity, may drive the food choices of people with TB and influence treatment outcomes. Objectives: The objective of this qualitative study was to explore drivers of food choice among adults recently diagnosed with TB. Methods: The study was conducted between April and December 2016 in the Huaycán district of Lima, Peru. Structured questionnaires were administered to 39 adults with TB at the time of diagnosis and after 1 mo of treatment to characterize food security and socioeconomic status. At 1 mo of treatment, 24-h dietary recalls, enhanced by recipes obtained from local street vendors, were administered to examine patterns of food consumption and determine mean daily intake of macro- and micronutrients. Among a subset of 9 participants, in-depth interviews were used to explore dietary beliefs and food choices associated with TB. Results: Overall, 13.2% of participants were underweight at baseline, and 10.5% were overweight. At 1 mo of treatment, the mean caloric intake was 600 kcal/d over what was needed to maintain their current weight. Most of these additional kilocalories came from carbohydrates. Patients made active efforts to improve their diets during treatment, and were both receptive to, and actively sought out, nutritional advice. However, many patients reported significant unnecessary spending on questionable commercial products, such as expensive natural remedies and nutritional supplements. Conclusions: The perceived connection between TB and diet creates both opportunities and challenges for treatment providers. Nutritional counseling provided through the national TB program should promote dietary quality through foods that are locally available, inexpensive, and aligned with cultural perceptions of health and wellness.

6.
Hum Immunol ; 81(9): 539-543, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353130

RESUMO

We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in 1217 Mexicans from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area living in the northern (N = 751), southern (N = 52), eastern (N = 79), western (N = 33), and central (N = 152) Mexico City, and rural communities (N = 150), to obtain information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies. We found that the most frequent haplotypes include 11 Native American haplotypes. Admixture estimates revealed that the main genetic components are Native American (63.85 ±â€¯1.55% by ML; 57.19% of Native American haplotypes) and European (28.53 ±â€¯3.13% by ML; 28.40% of European haplotypes), and a less apparent African genetic component (7.61 ±â€¯1.96% by ML; 7.17% of African haplotypes).

7.
Hum Immunol ; 81(9): 535-538, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345694

RESUMO

We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in 122 Mexicans from the state of Hidalgo living in the city of Pachuca (N = 41) and rural communities (N = 81), to obtain information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies. We find that the most frequent haplotypes in Hidalgo include eight Native American and one European haplotypes. Admixture estimates revealed that the main genetic components in Hidalgo are Native American (58.93 ±â€¯2.16% by ML; 54.51% of Native American haplotypes) and European (32.49 ±â€¯2.88% by ML; 28.69% of European haplotypes), and a relatively high African genetic component (8.58 ±â€¯0.93% by ML; 6.97% of African haplotypes).

8.
Hum Immunol ; 81(9): 510-512, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204089

RESUMO

We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in 262 Mexicans from the state of Guanajuato living in the cities of Guanajuato (N = 78), León (N = 22) and rural communities (N = 162), to obtain information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies. We find that the most frequent haplotypes found in the state of Guanajuato include 12 Native American and three European haplotypes. Admixture estimates revealed that the main genetic components in the state of Guanajuato are Native American (50.64 ±â€¯2.11% by ML, 43.35% of Native American haplotypes) and European (44.14 ±â€¯1.14% by ML; 39.35% of European haplotypes), while African genetic component is less apparent (5.22 ±â€¯2.08% by ML; 8.36% of African haplotypes).

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40769-40780, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621281

RESUMO

Magnesium silicides can be used for thermoelectric energy conversion as high values of figure of merit zT were obtained for n-type (1.4 at 500 °C) and p-type (0.55 at 350 °C) materials. This, however, needs to be complemented by low resistive and stable contacting to ensure long-term thermogenerator operation and minimize losses. In this study, we selected Cu and Ni45Cu55 as contacting electrodes for their high electrical conductivity, similar coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and good adhesion to Mg2(Si,Sn). Both electrodes were joined to Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 pellets by hot pressing in a current-assisted press. Microstructural changes near the interface were analyzed using SEM/EDX analysis, and the specific electrical contact resistance rc was estimated using a traveling potential probe combined with local Seebeck scanning. Good contacting was observed with both electrode materials. Results show low rc with Cu, suitable for applications, for both n- and p-type silicides (<10 µΩ·cm2), with the occurrence of wide, highly conductive diffusion regions. Ni45Cu55 joining also showed relatively low rc values (∼30 µΩ·cm2) for n- and p-type but had a less inhomogeneous reaction layer. We also performed annealing experiments with Cu-joined samples at 450 °C for 1 week to investigate the evolution of the contact regions under working temperatures. rc values increased (up to ∼100 µΩ·cm2) for annealed n-type samples but remained low (<10 µΩ·cm2) for p-type. Therefore, Cu is a good contacting solution for p-type Mg2(Si,Sn) and a potential one for n-type if the diffusion causing contact property degradation can be prevented.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557799

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the actions of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin (CS) and of its antagonist capsazepine (CZ), on cardiac function as well as endothelial biomarkers and some parameters related with nitric oxide (NO) release in L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. NO has been implicated in the pathophysiology of systemic arterial hypertension (SAHT). We analyzed the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), cyclic guanosin monophosphate (cGMP), phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3), and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH-1), protein kinase B (AKT), and TRPV1 in serum and cardiac tissue of normotensive (118±3 mmHg) and hypertensive (H) rats (165 ± 4 mmHg). Cardiac mechanical performance (CMP) was calculated and NO was quantified in the coronary effluent in the Langendorff isolated heart model. In hypertensive rats capsaicin increased the levels of NO, BH4, cGMP, and TAC, and reduced PDE-3 and MDA. Expressions of eNOS, GTPCH-1, and TRPV1 were increased, while AKT was decreased. Capsazepine diminished these effects. In the hypertensive heart, CMP improved with the CS treatment. In conclusion, the activation of TRPV1 in H rats may be an alternative mechanism for the improvement of cardiac function and systemic levels of biomarkers related to the bioavailability of NO.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Canais de Cátion TRPV/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistência Vascular
11.
Food Res Int ; 121: 586-592, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108785

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites play an important role in the avocado fruit defense system. Phenolic compounds are the main biosynthesized metabolites of this system response. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the induction of specific metabolic pathways using chitosan as an elicitor. Extracts obtained from avocado in intermediate and consumption maturity stages treated with chitosan exhibited an increase in antifungal activity, which caused inhibition of mycelial growth and a decrease in sporulation as well as spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Additionally, RNA from epicarp of the fruits treated and untreated with chitosan was obtained in order to evaluate the expression of genes related to phenylpropanoids and the antifungal compound 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene biosynthesis. An increased in gene expression of genes that participates in the phenylpropanoids route was observed during the stage of physiological fruit maturity, others genes such as Flavonol synthase (Fls), increased only in samples obtained from fruit treated with chitosan at consumption maturity. Our results reveal a new molecular mechanism where chitosan induces a specific accumulation of phenylpropanoids and antifungal diene; this partially explains avocado's resistance against fungal pathogens. Finally, we discuss the molecular connections between chitosan induction and gene expression to explain the biological events that orchestrate the resistance pathways in fruits.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Persea/química , Propanóis/metabolismo , Propanóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcoois Graxos , Flavonóis/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Oxirredutases/genética , Persea/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
12.
PPAR Res ; 2019: 1371758, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863432

RESUMO

Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand, has been reported to act as insulin sensitizer and exert cardiovascular actions. In this work, we hypothesized that RGZ exerts a PPARγ-dependent regulation of blood pressure through modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-type 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7)/angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) axis in an experimental model of high blood pressure. We carried on experiments in normotensive (Sham) and aortic coarctation (AoCo)-induced hypertensive male Wistar rats. Both sham and AoCo rats were treated 7 days with vehicle (V), RGZ (5 mg/kg/day), or RGZ+BADGE (120 mg/kg/day) post-coarctation. We measured blood pressure and vascular reactivity on aortic rings, as well as the expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) proteins. We found that RGZ treatment in AoCo group decreases blood pressure values and improves vascular response to acetylcholine, both parameters dependent on PPARγ-stimulation. RGZ lowered serum angiotensin II (AngII) but increased Ang-(1-7) levels. It also decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-2dG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and improved the antioxidant capacity. Regarding protein expression of RAS, RGZ decreases ACE and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and improved ACE2, AT2R, and Mas receptor in AoCo rats. Additionally, an in silico analysis revealed that 5'UTR regions of RAS and PPARγ share motifs with a transcriptional regulatory role. We conclude that RGZ lowers blood pressure values by increasing the expression of RAS axis proteins ACE2 and AT2R, decreasing the levels of AngII and increasing levels of Ang-(1-7) in a PPARγ-dependent manner. The in silico analysis is a valuable tool to predict the interaction between PPARγ and RAS.

13.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642049

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) initiates an inflammatory response that promotes both beneficial and deleterious effects. The early response helps the myocardium to remove damaged tissue; however, a prolonged later response brings cardiac remodeling characterized by functional, metabolic, and structural pathological changes. Current pharmacological treatments have failed to reverse ischemic-induced cardiac damage. Therefore, our aim was to study if clofibrate treatment was capable of decreasing inflammation and apoptosis, and reverse ventricular remodeling and MI-induced functional damage. Male Wistar rats were assigned to (1) Sham coronary artery ligation (Sham) or (2) Coronary artery ligation (MI). Seven days post-MI, animals were further divided to receive vehicle (V) or clofibrate (100 mg/kg, C) for 7 days. The expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and inflammatory related molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-2 and -9, nuclear NF-kB, and iNOS, were elevated in MI-V. These inflammatory biomarkers decreased in MI-C. Also, apoptotic proteins (Bax and pBad) were elevated in MI-V, while clofibrate augmented anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and 14-3-3ε). Clofibrate also protected MI-induced changes in ultra-structure. The ex vivo evaluation of myocardial functioning showed that left ventricular pressure and mechanical work decreased in infarcted rats; clofibrate treatment raised those parameters to control values. Echocardiogram showed that clofibrate partially reduced LV dilation. In conclusion, clofibrate decreases cardiac remodeling, decreases inflammatory molecules, and partly preserves myocardial diameters.


Assuntos
Clofibrato/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Roedores
14.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 50(4): 320-327, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003143

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el grado de adherencia del personal sanitario a las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud en la atención del parto y nacimiento humanizado en Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se estudiaron 256 partos atendidos en tres instituciones de tercer nivel en Medellín y Rionegro Antioquia (abril - diciembre 2016), se incluyeron las gestantes que ingresaron en etapa del trabajo de parto, los datos se obtuvieron a partir de observación directa y aplicación de lista de chequeo de las recomendaciones de la OMS. Para el análisis de la información se aplicó estadística descriptiva, y para el análisis bivariado la prueba Chi cuadrado. Resultados: La proporción de cesárea fue elevada 34.8 %; no hubo diligenciamiento del partograma en 29,3 %; se viola la privacidad de las mujeres 26.2 %; no hubo facilidades para la deambulación 92.2 %; sigue presentándose el uso de fórceps, aunque en baja proporción 7.4 %; se realizó episiotomía en el 16.8 % de los partos. Conclusiones: El grado de adherencia por parte de las instituciones y el personal de salud que participa durante el proceso de atención del trabajo de parto, parto y del recién nacido están alejadas a las recomendaciones propuestas por la OMS.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the degree of adherence of the health personnel to the recommendations of the World Health Organization in the care of humanized delivery and birth in Medellín, Colombia. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, 256 deliveries attended in three institutions of third level in Medellín and Rionegro Antioquia (April - December 2016), were studied. Pregnant women who entered the stage of labor were included, data were obtained from direct observation and application of a checklist of WHO recommendations. For the analysis of the information, descriptive statistics and for the bivariate analysis Chi square test were applied. Results: The proportion of caesarean section was high 34.8 %; there was no completion of the partogram in 29.3 %; the privacy of women is violated 26.2 %; there were no facilities for ambulation 92.2 %; the use of forceps continues to present, although in a low proportion 7.4 %; Episiotomy remains an unjustified procedure with 16.8 %. Prophylactic antibiotics were used in 41 %. Conclusions: The degree of adherence on the part of the institutions and health personnel participating during the process of the care labor, delivery and the newborn are far from the recommendations by the WHO.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Parto Humanizado , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Trabalho de Parto , Assistência à Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Lista de Checagem
15.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 27(3): 755-763, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263801

RESUMO

Soursop (Annona muricata) is a tropical fruit that can be infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer. Traditional methods used for postharvest disease control include the application of fungicides, however due to their excessive use, as well as their persistence in the environment, the development of new strategies that control pathogens are required. The application of chitosan (Chi), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an environmentally-friendly alternative with antimicrobial properties and also induces defense mechanisms in plant tissues. In this study, Colletotrichum was reactivated and Rhizopus was identified using morphological features and molecular tools. In vitro, the application of 0.5 and 1.0% of Chi alone or in combination with SA and MJ decreased mycelial growth and sporulation, a complete inhibition of spore germination was obtained. Thus, the application of Chi in combination with SA and MJ could be a smart strategy to inhibit the development of pathogens that attack soursop fruit.

16.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(9): 581-592, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991579

RESUMO

In 2012, Colombia launched human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for girls ages 9 to 12, and in 2013, the target age was expanded to 9 to 17 years. Monitoring the changes of HPV infection prevalence among young women has been proposed as an endpoint for early assessment of HPV vaccination programs. However, the data on HPV prevalence in young ages are very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and the distribution of genotypes in a group of nonvaccinated women ages 18 to 25 years old in three Colombian cities as baseline for the monitoring of the HPV national vaccination program. A total of 1,782 sexually active women were included. Cervical smear samples were collected to perform the Pap smear and HPV DNA detection using a Linear Array HPV assay. Of the 1,782 specimens analyzed, 60.3% were positive for any HPV type; 42.2% were positive for high-risk HPV (HR-HVP) types, and 44.4% for low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types. Multiple and single infections were identified in 37.1% and 23.2% of samples, respectively. HR-HPV types -16, -52, and -51 were the most predominant with proportions of 11.3%, 7.92%, and 7.9%, correspondingly. The prevalence for HR-HPV 16/18 was 14.4%. HR-HPV prevalence in women with abnormal cytology (75.16%) was higher than in women with normal cytology (38.6%). In conclusion, a high prevalence of HR-HPV was observed among younger women. This HPV type-specific prevalence baseline may be used to monitor postvaccination longitudinal changes and to determine its impact on HPV-related disease incidence in Colombia population. Cancer Prev Res; 11(9); 581-92. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681972

RESUMO

Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 µg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 µg/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 µg/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 µg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 µg/ml); interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 µg/ml) and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 µg/ml) extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 µg/ml and CC50 = 250 µg/ml, resp.). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 µg/ml) and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 µg/ml). In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

19.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 164(4): 685-696, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485393

RESUMO

Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes vascular wilt diseases on numerous plant species worldwide. The production of darkly melanized microsclerotia is crucial in the disease cycle of V. dahliae, as these structures allow for long-term survival in soil. Previously, transcriptomic and genomic analysis identified a cluster of genes in V. dahliae that encodes some dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthetic pathway homologues found in related fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of cluster-specific transcription factor VdCmr1, as well as two other genes within the cluster encoding a polyketide synthase (VdPKS1) and a laccase (VdLac1), enzymes at initial and endpoint steps in DHN melanin production. The results revealed that VdCmr1 and VdPKS1 are required for melanin production, but neither is required for microsclerotia production. None of the three genes were required for pathogenesis on tobacco and lettuce. Exposure of ΔVdCmr1 and wild-type strains to UV irradiation, or to high temperature (40 °C), revealed an approx. 50 % reduction of survival in the ΔVdCmr1 strain, relative to the wild-type strain, in response to either condition. Expression profiles revealed that expression of some melanin biosynthetic genes are in part dependent on VdCmr1. Combined data indicate VdCmr1 is a key regulator of melanin biosynthesis, and that via regulation of melanogenesis, VdCmr1 affects survival of V. dahliae in response to abiotic threats. We conclude with a model showing regulation of VdCmr1 by a high osmolarity glycerol response (Hog)-type MAP kinase pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Melaninas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Verticillium/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Lacase/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Naftóis , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Verticillium/metabolismo , Verticillium/efeitos da radiação
20.
Oncol Lett ; 15(1): 354-360, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387223

RESUMO

Epidemiological information on telomerase activity (TA) and development of cervical lesions is scarce. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort of Colombian women tested for Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Measurement of TA was done in cervical scrapes of 25 women who developed High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) during the first 6 years of follow-up and was compared with that of 104 control women who maintained normal cytology during the entire follow-up. TA was measured by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol-ELISA. TA and HPV infections were significantly more frequent in cases than in controls. Likewise, 68% of the cases were positive for both TA and HPV compared with only 7.7% of the controls (P<0.0001). Factors independently associated with increased odds of HGSIL included TA, high risk HPV (hrHPV) infections and multiple parities. When restricted to hrHPV positive women, TA was strongly associated with increased odds of HGSIL (adjusted odds ratio=37.94, 95% confidence interval, 1.64-678.1). In addition to an infection with hrHPV, TA appears to be a significant cofactor for HGSIL.

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