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Mar Drugs ; 17(1)2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597874


Historical records of ciguatera in Mexico date back to 1862. This review, including references and epidemiological reports, documents 464 cases during 25 events from 1984 to 2013: 240 (51.72%) in Baja California Sur, 163 (35.12%) in Quintana Roo, 45 (9.69%) in Yucatan, and 16 (3.44%) cases of Mexican tourists intoxicated in Cuba. Carnivorous fish, such as snapper (Lutjanus) and grouper (Epinephelus and Mycteroperca) in the Pacific Ocean, and great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) and snapper (Lutjanus) in the Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), were involved in all cases. In the Mexican Caribbean, a sub-record of ciguatera cases that occurred before 1984 exists. However, the number of intoxications has increased in recent years, and this food poisoning is poorly studied in the region. Current records suggest that ciguatera fish poisoning in humans is the second most prevalent form of seafood poisoning in Mexico, only exceeded by paralytic shellfish poisoning (505 cases, 21 fatalities in the same 34-year period). In this study, the status of ciguatera in Mexico (epidemiological and treatment), and the fish vectors are reviewed. Dinoflagellate species Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum are related with the reported outbreaks, marine toxins, ecological risk, and the potential toxicological impact.

Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/química , Animais , Peixes , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565135


The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham have been reported for several strains from the Pacific coast of Mexico cultured under different laboratory conditions, as well as from natural populations. Up to 15 saxitoxin analogues occurred and the quantity of each toxin depended on the growth phase and culture conditions. Previous analysis of toxin profiles of G. catenatum isolated from Mexico have been based on post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), a method prone to artefacts and non-specificity, leading to misinterpretation of toxin composition. We describe, for the first time, the complete toxin profile for several G. catenatum strains from diverse locations of the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new results confirmed previous reports on the dominance of the less potent sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1/2); significant differences, however, in the composition (e.g., absence of saxitoxin, gonyautoxin 2/3 and neosaxitoxin) were revealed in our confirmatory analysis. The LC-MS/MS analyses also indicated at least seven putative benzoyl toxin analogues and provided support for their existence. This new toxin profile shows a high similarity (> 80%) to the profiles reported from several regions around the world, suggesting low genetic variability among global populations.

Dinoflagelados/química , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , México , Saxitoxina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Toxicon ; 90: 199-212, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25151371


The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 µE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins.

Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Água do Mar , Temperatura
Mar Drugs ; 8(6): 1935-61, 2010 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20631876


This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Oceano Pacífico , Saxitoxina/metabolismo , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura