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3.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(20): 584, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807565

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis is the most prevalent primary valve disease in developed countries. Its prevalence is increasing due to population aging. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a sterling therapy for symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis and high or intermediate surgery risk. The number of procedures has increased exponentially expanding to younger and lower risk patients. Despite new-generation TAVR devices and enhanced operator skills, cerebrovascular events (CVEs) carry on being one of the most severe complications, increasing morbi-mortality. CVE might be under reported because there are few studies with rigorous neurological clinical assessment. Several imaging studies show most of CVE after TAVR has a probable embolic etiology. The risk of CVE ranges from 2.7% to 5.5% at 30 days. As TAVR expands to younger and lower risk patients, the prevention of stroke plays an increasingly important role. Cerebral protection devices (CPD) were designed to reduce the risk of CVE during TAVR. This review describes the scientific evidence on CVE after TAVR and summarizes the performance and results of the main CPDs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) changes the natural history of severe aortic stenosis. However, whether the life expectancy of patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing this surgical procedure is fully restored is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess if the life expectancy of patients aged >75 years is fully restored after undergoing surgery for severe aortic stenosis. METHODS: We compared long-term survival of a group of patients aged >75 years, who underwent SAVR at our institution with the long-term survival of the general population. We matched each patient with 100 simulated individuals (control group) of the same age, sex and geographical region who died as indicated by the National Institute of Statistics. We compared survival curves and calculated hazard ratio (HR) or incidence rate ratio. Statistical significance existed if confidence intervals (CIs) did not overlap or did not include the value 1, as appropriate. RESULTS: Average life expectancy of surgical patients who survived the postoperative period was 90.91 months (95% CI 82.99-97.22), compared to 92.94 months (95% CI 92.39-93.55) in the control group. One-, 5- and 8-year survival rates for SAVR patients who were discharged from the hospital were 94.9% (95% CI 92.74-96.43%), 71.66% (95% CI 67.37-75.5%) and 44.48% (95% CI 38.14-50.61%), respectively, compared to that of the general population: 95.8% (95% CI 95.64-95.95%), 70.64% (95% CI 70.28%-71%) and 47.91% (95% CI 47.52-48.31%), respectively (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.94-1.22). CONCLUSION: For patients over the age of 75 years who underwent SAVR and survived the postoperative period, life expectancy and survival rates were similar to that of the general population.

8.
J Orthop Translat ; 18: 84-91, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508311

RESUMO

Background: One of the possible causes of dissatisfaction reported by many patients after total knee replacement (TKR) is the lack of agreement between component size and bone structure. To avoid this complication and facilitate the procedure, preoperative planning with digitized templates is recommended. Surgical navigation indicates the best position and the most adequate size of arthroplasty and may therefore replace preoperative radiographic measurement. The objective of the study was to check agreement between the sizes of TKR components measured before surgery with digitized templates, the size recommended by the navigation and sizes actually implanted. Methods: In 103 patients scheduled for TKR, preoperative full-limb radiography was performed to measure the mechanical and anatomical axes of the limb, femur and tibia. The most adequate size of the femoral and tibial components was planned by superimposing digitized templates. The size recommended in navigation and the size of the finally implanted components were also recorded. Results: A high level of agreement was found between the sizes of femoral and tibial components measured by X-rays and in navigation (0.750 and 0.772, respectively) (intraclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha). Agreement between the sizes recommended by X-rays and navigation and those finally implanted was 0.886 for the femur and 0.891 for the tibia. Agreement levels were not different in cases with prior deformities of limb axis. Conclusions: The high level of agreement found in component sizes between radiographic measurement with digitized templates and navigation suggests that preoperative X-ray measurement is not needed when navigation is used for placement of implants during TKR. The translational potential of this article: Computer-assisted surgery may avoid preoperative measurement with templates in TKR.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 53-58, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of valve in valve (VIV) TAVI with the autoexpandable valve, specifically in patients with failed Mitroflow (MF) bioprosthetic aortic valves. METHODS: Pilot, single center, observational and prospective study that included 45 consecutive patients with symptomatic failed MF bioprosthetic aortic valve, referred for VIV TAVI. The safety primary endpoint was a composite of early events at 30 days, defined by VARC-2 criteria. The efficacy primary endpoint was the device success (no procedural mortality, correct positioning of a single prosthetic heart valve into the proper anatomical location and absence of moderate/severe prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation). We also analysed patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) parameters. RESULTS: Between March 2012 to December 2017, 45 symptomatic patients (age 79.9 ±â€¯6.5 years) with degenerated MF valves (numbers 19: 33.3%; 21: 28.9%; 23: 24.4%; 25: 13.3%) underwent CoreValve (n = 11) or Evolut R (n = 34) implantation (23 and 26 mm sizes). The STS predicted risk of mortality was 6.3 ±â€¯6.3%. The safety primary endpoint occurred in 4 patients (8.8%). The efficacy endpoint was present in all patients (100%). There were no coronary occlusions or procedural deaths. The number of patients with any degree of PPM raised from 51.1% (pre-TAVI) to 60% (post-TAVI). CONCLUSIONS: Self-expanding TAVI for degenerated MF bioprosthesis has favourable early outcomes. The VIV procedure has provided an important gateway to avoiding high-risk redo surgery and is now a potential option for MF failed surgically aortic implanted valves.

13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(3): e173-e174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794783

RESUMO

This report describes a clinical case of a degenerated CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) aortic prosthesis in a 59-year-old patient. Videos of a previously described surgical technique for late surgical explantation of a CoreValve are provided. This operation is feasible and easy to perform, partly because of the absence of adhesions at the coronary ostia. This report also comments on the controversy between mechanical and biologic prostheses in patients undergoing renal dialysis.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(1): 23-29, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has emerged as one of the main predictors of worse outcomes after cardiac surgery, but scarce evidence is available about its influence on postoperative quality of life. Whether frail patients may improve their quality of life or not after the surgical procedure is a matter that still remains unclear. METHODS: This observational and multicenter cohort study was conducted in 3 university-affiliated hospitals of three different regions of Spain (Madrid, Asturias, and Canary Islands). Patients were categorized into three ordinal levels of frailty (frail, prefrail, robust) using the Fried, FRAIL (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight) scale, and Clinical Frailty Scale frailty scales. We analyzed the changes on health-related quality-of-life for each level of frailty using the EuroQoL 5-Dimension 5 Level questionnaire before and 6 months after the operation. RESULTS: The study included 137 patients, and 109 completed the 6-month follow-up. Median age of the entire cohort was 78 years (interquartile interval, 72 to 83 years). Frailty prevalence varied between 10% and 29%, depending on which scale was used. There was a statistically significant linear trend in the incidence of death or major morbidity among the different levels of frailty. On one hand, robust patients did not show significant changes in their previously high score of quality of life during follow-up. On the other hand, frail and prefrail patients significantly improved their scores after the operation. These results were comparable regardless the scale used for frailty assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Frail and prefrail patients have a significant improvement in their quality of life 6 months after their cardiac operation, and they have a proportionally greater increase in their postoperative health-related quality of life scores than robust patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Fragilidade , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(3): 706-714.e18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the use of surgically implanted biological aortic valves has been favored over mechanical prosthesis in patients between 50 and 70 years of age. However, outcomes on long-term survival are contradictory. The objective of this study was to determine if patients with mechanical valves have worse long-term survival than patients with biological prostheses. METHODS: We systematically searched published studies that: (1) were propensity score-matched or randomized controlled trials; (2) provided survival data with a minimum follow-up of 5 years; and (3) included patients older than 50 and younger than 70 years of age. Review articles, case reports, and editorials were excluded. We conducted a meta-analysis on the basis of 2 types of analysis. A reconstruction of the database of each study to simulate a patient-level meta-analysis was performed. Log rank test of Kaplan-Meier curves was recalculated. Hazard ratio (HR) was calculated using a univariate Cox regression. In addition, we calculated a pooled HR using the fixed-effect inverse variance method. RESULTS: Four propensity score-matched studies and 1 randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. Data of 4686 patients were analyzed. Survival rates for mechanical versus biological valves at 10 and 15 years of follow-up were: 76.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.72%-78.69%) versus 74.09% (95% CI, 71.96%-76.08%), and 61.58% (95% CI, 58.29%-64.69%) versus 58.04% (95% CI, 54.57%-61.35%). Log rank test was statistically significant (P = .012) and the pooled HR was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.76-0.97; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with biological aortic valves, mechanical valves are associated with a long-term survival benefit for patients between 50 and 70 years.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 6(7): 113, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955573

RESUMO

Background: Malpositioning of the components in total knee replacement (TKR) can result in failure or deficient outcomes of the surgical procedure. In the tibial segment, the rotational position of the tray should reproduce the mechanical axis without modifying physiological tibial torsion. Methods: A randomised, prospective study was made of 74 patients subjected TKR involving the standard technique (38 cases) and navigation surgery (36 cases). A computed tomography study of the knee and ankle was made before the operation and after arthroplasty implantation, in order to identify the position of the prosthetic tibial tray in the transverse axis and the tibial torsion angle. Results: The rotation of the tibial tray changed from its preoperative to postoperative range, but no significant differences were found between the navigated and the standard groups. The presence of preoperative deformities in the frontal plane did not modify the changes in the rotation of the tibial component. The mean preoperative tibial torsion angle was 17.76º (SD =10.15) of external rotation, with no significant differences in relation to the previous frontal deformity. After TKR, the tibial torsion angle was 15.36º (SD =7.16) (P=0.021). There were no differences in final tibial torsion between the knees operated upon with the standard instruments and those subjected to computer-assisted surgery (CAS; P=0.157). Conclusions: TKR surgery modifies preoperative tibial torsion. Neither mechanical instrumentation nor navigation surgery precisely reproduces the rotational axis of the leg.

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