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1.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 117: 106789, 2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545204

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are the gold standard for evaluating the effectiveness and safety of interventions and treatments, yet traditional clinical trials have relied on cumbersome and redundant processes such as electronic data entry which involves manual abstraction of already available electronic health record (EHR) data. This review focuses on the opportunities to expand the use of EHR data for pragmatic clinical trials using methods and lessons learned from the Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-Centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-Term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE) study, the demonstration project from PCORnet® (the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network).

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(17): e263-e421, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379503

RESUMO

AIM: The "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" replaces the "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" and the "2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure." The 2022 guideline is intended to provide patient-centric recommendations for clinicians to prevent, diagnose, and manage patients with heart failure. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from May 2020 to December 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant clinical trials and research studies, published through September 2021, were also considered. This guideline was harmonized with other American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines published through December 2021. STRUCTURE: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The 2022 heart failure guideline provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence for the treatment of these patients. The recommendations present an evidence-based approach to managing patients with heart failure, with the intent to improve quality of care and align with patients' interests. Many recommendations from the earlier heart failure guidelines have been updated with new evidence, and new recommendations have been created when supported by published data. Value statements are provided for certain treatments with high-quality published economic analyses.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , American Heart Association , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(17): 1757-1780, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379504

RESUMO

AIM: The "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" replaces the "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" and the "2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure." The 2022 guideline is intended to provide patient-centric recommendations for clinicians to prevent, diagnose, and manage patients with heart failure. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from May 2020 to December 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant clinical trials and research studies, published through September 2021, were also considered. This guideline was harmonized with other American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines published through December 2021. STRUCTURE: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The 2022 heart failure guideline provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence for the treatment of these patients. The recommendations present an evidence-based approach to managing patients with heart failure, with the intent to improve quality of care and align with patients' interests. Many recommendations from the earlier heart failure guidelines have been updated with new evidence, and new recommendations have been created when supported by published data. Value statements are provided for certain treatments with high-quality published economic analyses.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Insuficiência Cardíaca , American Heart Association , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Card Fail ; 28(5): 810-830, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2022 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America (AHA/ACC/HFSA) Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure replaces the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure and the 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The 2022 guideline is intended to provide patient-centric recommendations for clinicians to prevent, diagnose and manage patients with heart failure. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from May 2020 to December 2020, encompassing studies, reviews and other evidence conducted in human subjects that were published in English from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant clinical trials and research studies published through September 2021 were also considered. This guideline was harmonized with other American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines published through December 2021. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The 2022 heart failure guideline provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence for the treatment of these patients. The recommendations present an evidence-based approach to managing patients with heart failure, with the intent to improve quality of care and align with patients' interests. Many recommendations from the earlier heart failure guidelines have been updated with new evidence, and new recommendations have been created when supported by published data. Value statements are provided for certain treatments that have high-quality published economic analyses.

6.
Circulation ; 145(18): e895-e1032, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363499

RESUMO

AIM: The "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" replaces the "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" and the "2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure." The 2022 guideline is intended to provide patient-centric recommendations for clinicians to prevent, diagnose, and manage patients with heart failure. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from May 2020 to December 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant clinical trials and research studies, published through September 2021, were also considered. This guideline was harmonized with other American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines published through December 2021. Structure: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The 2022 heart failure guideline provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence for the treatment of these patients. The recommendations present an evidence-based approach to managing patients with heart failure, with the intent to improve quality of care and align with patients' interests. Many recommendations from the earlier heart failure guidelines have been updated with new evidence, and new recommendations have been created when supported by published data. Value statements are provided for certain treatments with high-quality published economic analyses.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Insuficiência Cardíaca , American Heart Association , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
7.
Circulation ; 145(18): e876-e894, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363500

RESUMO

AIM: The "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" replaces the "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure" and the "2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure." The 2022 guideline is intended to provide patient-centric recommendations for clinicians to prevent, diagnose, and manage patients with heart failure. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from May 2020 to December 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant clinical trials and research studies, published through September 2021, were also considered. This guideline was harmonized with other American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines published through December 2021. Structure: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The 2022 heart failure guideline provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence for the treatment of these patients. The recommendations present an evidence-based approach to managing patients with heart failure, with the intent to improve quality of care and align with patients' interests. Many recommendations from the earlier heart failure guidelines have been updated with new evidence, and new recommendations have been created when supported by published data. Value statements are provided for certain treatments with high-quality published economic analyses.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Insuficiência Cardíaca , American Heart Association , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
8.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of blood volume (BV) expansion versus a change in vascular compliance in worsening heart failure (HF) remains under debate. We aimed to assess the relationship between BV and resting and stress hemodynamics in worsening HF, and to further elucidate the significance of BV in cardiac decompensation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with worsening HF underwent radiolabeled indicator-dilution BV analysis and cardiac catheterization. Intravascular volumes and resting/stress hemodynamics were recorded. Provocative stress maneuvers included change in systolic blood pressure (ΔSBP) from lying to standing and Valsalva, and intracardiac pressure changes with leg raise. Correlation between BV and invasive hemodynamics were assessed by linear regression. Of 27 patients with worsening HF, patient characteristics included mean age 61±12 years, 70% male, 19% Black, and mean ejection fraction 29±15%. Thirteen (48%) had hypervolemia measured by total BV (TBV). TBV weakly correlated with ΔSBP by position (R2=0.009) and Valsalva (R2=0.003), and with right atrial (R2=0.049) and pulmonary capillary wedge (R2=0.047) pressure changes during leg raise. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with worsening HF, BV mildly correlated with intracardiac pressures at rest. Provocative maneuvers intended to test vascular compliance did not correlate with BV, indicating that compliance may serve as a standalone metric in HF.

9.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health system-level interventions to improve use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) often fail in the acute care setting. We sought to identify factors associated with high performance in adoption of GDMT among health systems in CONNECT-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Site-level composite quality scores were calculated at discharge and last follow-up. Site performance was defined as the average change in score from baseline to last follow-up and analyzed by performance tertile using a mixed-effects model with baseline performance as a fixed effect and site as a random effect. Among 150 randomized sites, mean 12-month improvement in GDMT was 1.8% (-26.4% to 60.0%). Achievement of ≥50% target dose for angiotensin-converting enzymes/angiotensin receptor blockers/angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors and beta blockers at 12 months was modest, even at the highest performing sites (median 29.6% [23%, 41%] and 41.2% [29%, 50%]). Sites achieving higher GDMT scores had care teams that included social workers and pharmacists and patients able to afford medications and access medication lists in the electronic health record. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial gaps in site-level use of GDMT were found even among highest performing sites. Failure of hospital-level interventions to improve quality metrics suggests that a team-based approach to care and improved patient access to medications are needed for post-discharge success.

10.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) suffer from a relapsing and remitting disease, where early treatment changes may improve outcomes. We assessed the clinical integration and safety of the HeartLogic multi-sensor index and alerts in heart failure care. METHODS: The Multiple cArdiac seNsors for mAnaGEment of Heart Failure (MANAGE-HF) study enrolled 200 patients with HFrEF (< 35%), NYHA class II-III symptoms, implanted with a CRT-D or ICD, who had either a hospitalization for HF within 12 months or unscheduled visit for HF exacerbation within 90 days or an elevated natriuretic peptide concentration (BNP≥150 pg/mL or NT-proBNP≥600 pg/mL). This phase included development of an alert management guide and evaluated changes in medical treatment, natriuretic peptide levels, and safety. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 67 years, 68% were men, 81% were white, and 61% had a HF hospitalization in prior 12 months. During follow-up there were 585 alert cases with an average of 1.76 alert cases/pt-yr. HF medications were augmented during 74% of the alert cases. HF treatment augmentation within 2 weeks from an initial alert was associated with more rapid recovery of the HeartLogic Index. Five SAEs (0.015 per pt-year) occurred in relation to alert-prompted medication change. NTproBNP levels decreased from median of 1316 pg/mL at baseline to 743 pg/mL at 12 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HeartLogic alert management was safely implemented in HF care and may optimize HF management. This phase supports further evaluation in larger studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03237858).

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 45: 101314, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265822

RESUMO

Background: The extent to which healthcare worker (HCWs) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic vary by race or ethnicity after adjustment for confounding factors is not currently known. Methods: We performed an observational prospective cohort study of 24,769 healthcare workers from 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, enrolled between April 10, 2020 and June 30, 2021, and evaluated participant experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including testing, diagnosis with COVID-19, emotional experiences, burnout, and interest in vaccines and vaccine clinical trials. Findings: After adjustment for professional role, medical history, and community characteristics, Black and Asian participants were less likely to receive SARS-CoV-2 viral testing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·82 [0·70, 0·96], p=0·012 and aOR 0·77 [0·67, 0·89], p<0·001 respectively) than White participants. Hispanic participants were more likely to have evidence of COVID-19 infection (aOR 1·23 (1·00, 1·50, p=0·048). Black and Asian participants were less likely to report interest in a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 0·11 [0·05, 0·25], p<0·001 and aOR 0·48 [0·27, 0·85] p=0·012). Black participants were less likely to report interest in participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial (aOR = 0·39 [0·28, 0·54], p<0·001). Black participants were also less likely to report 3 or more daily emotional impacts of COVID-19 (aOR = 0·66 [0·53, 0·82], p=<0·001). Black participants were additionally less likely to report burnout (aOR = 0·66 ([0·49, 0·95], p=0·025). Interpretation: In a large, national study of healthcare workers, after adjustment for individual and community characteristics, race/ethnicity disparities in COVID-19 outcomes persist. Future work is urgently needed to understand precise mechanisms behind these disparities and to develop and implement targeted interventions to improve health equity for healthcare workers. Funding: This work was funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), Contract # COVID-19-2020-001.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239245

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) portends worse outcomes in heart failure (HF). We aimed to characterize patients with CAD and worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and evaluate post hoc whether vericiguat treatment effect varied according to CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards were generated for the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (CVD/HFH). CAD was defined as previous myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Of 5048 patients in VICTORIA with available data on CAD status, 2704 had CAD and were older, were more frequently male, diabetic, and had a lower glomerular filtration rate than those without CAD (all p <0.0001). Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was higher in patients with versus without CAD (33.5% vs. 21.1%; p <0.0001 and 16.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.0006). The primary endpoint of CVD/HFH was higher in those with versus without CAD (40.6 vs. 30.1/100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23; p <0.001) as was all-cause mortality (17.9% vs. 12.7%; adjusted HR 1.32; p <0.001). The primary outcome of CVD/HFH associated with vericiguat in patients with or without CAD was 38.8 versus 27.6 per 100 patient-years and for placebo was 42.6 versus 32.7 per 100 patient-years (interaction p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: In this post hoc study, CAD was associated with more CVD and HFH in patients with HFrEF and worsening HF. Vericiguat was beneficial and safe regardless of concomitant CAD.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293088

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed for an association between improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and future outcomes, including health status, in routine clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHAMP-HF was a registry of outpatients with heart failure (HF) and LVEF ≤40%. Enrolled participants completed the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) at regular intervals and were followed as part of routine care. We assessed for associations between improvements in LVEF (≥10%) over time and concurrent changes in KCCQ-12, as well as the subsequent risk of poor outcomes. We included 2092 participants in the study. They had the following characteristics: median age 67 years (25th-75th percentile 58-75), 29% female, median duration of HF 2.7 years (0.6-6.8), and median baseline LVEF 30% (23-35). Of the study participants, 689 (33%) had a ≥10% absolute improvement in LVEF. Participants with an LVEF improvement also had an improvement in KCCQ-12 overall summary score compared with participants without an LVEF improvement (+7.6 vs. +3.5, adjusted effect estimate +4.01 [95% confidence interval CI 2.3-5.7]). Similarly, subsequent all-cause death or HF hospitalization occurred in 12% in the LVEF improvement group versus 25% in the group without an LVEF improvement (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.61). CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of outpatients with chronic HF, improvements in LVEF were associated with improved health status and a reduced risk for future clinical events. These data underscore the importance of improvement in LVEF as a treatment target for medical interventions for patients with chronic HF.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 115: 106732, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301133

RESUMO

Data monitoring committees (DMCs) play a critical role in protecting the safety of participants and integrity of clinical studies. While there are well-established DMC guidelines for traditional, randomized controlled trials, the clinical trial community is still in the search for best practices in data and safety monitoring in pragmatic clinical trials. ADAPTABLE was a large, open label, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial, harnessing real world data from multiple sources and studying the comparative effectiveness of the two most common dosages of aspirin in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Specific issues arose in ADAPTABLE such as data quality, information latency, and protocol adherence, and these issues were both expected and unexpected features of the pragmatic study design. These issues imposed great challenges to the DMC members who were tasked to make critical decisions during the study. This article summarizes the unique experience of the ADAPTABLE DMC, including the internal debates and concerns, the concerted efforts to accomplish its mission, and the special contribution of the patient representatives. We also offer recommendations on data and safety monitoring for future pragmatic trials.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), guidelines recommend optimization of medical therapy prior to discharge. The degree to which changes in medical therapy occur during hospitalizations for HFrEF in North American clinical practice is unclear. METHODS: The VICTORIA registry (Vericiguat Global Study in Subjects with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction) enrolled patients hospitalized for worsening chronic HFrEF across 51 sites in the United States and Canada from February 2018-January 2019. In patients with complete medication data who were not receiving dialysis, use and dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), beta-blocker, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) were assessed at admission and discharge. RESULTS: Of 1695 patients, the median (IQR) age was 69 (59-79) years, and 33% were women. Among eligible patients, 33%, 25% and 55% were not prescribed ACEI/ARB/ARNI, beta-blocker, and MRA at discharge, respectively; 99% were not prescribed SGLT2i. For each medication, > 50% of patients remained on stable subtarget doses or no medication during hospitalization. In-hospital rates of initiation/dose increase were 20% for ACEI/ARB, 4% for ARNI, 20% for beta-blocker, 22% for MRA, and < 1% for SGLT2i; corresponding rates of dose decrease/discontinuation were 11%, 2%, 9%, 5%, and < 1%, respectively. Overall, 17% and 28% of eligible patients were prescribed triple therapy prior to admission and at discharge, respectively. At both admission and discharge, 1% of patients were prescribed triple therapy at target doses. Across classes of medication, multiple factors were independently associated with higher likelihood of in-hospital initiation/dosing increase (eg, Canadian enrollment, white race, admission to intensive care units) and discontinuation/dosing decrease (eg, worse renal function, admission to intensive care units). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary North American registry of patients hospitalized for worsening chronic HFrEF, for each recommended medical therapy, the large majority of eligible patients remained on stable subtarget doses or without medication at admission and discharge. Although most patients had no alterations in medical therapy, hospitalization in Canada and multiple patient characteristics were associated with higher likelihood of favorable in-hospital medication changes.

16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(3): 184-197, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This report describes the baseline clinical profiles and management of DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) trial participants and how these compare with those in other contemporary heart failure with preserved ejection fraction trials. BACKGROUND: The DELIVER trial was designed to evaluate the effects of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on cardiovascular death, heart failure (HF) hospitalization, or urgent HF visits in patients with HF with mildly reduced and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: Adults with symptomatic HF and LVEF >40%, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, and evidence of structural heart disease were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo. RESULTS: A total of 6,263 patients were randomized (mean age: 72 ± 10 years; 44% women; 45% type 2 diabetes mellitus; 45% with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; and 57% with history of atrial fibrillation or flutter). Most participants had New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms (75%). Baseline mean LVEF was 54.2 ± 8.8% and median NT-proBNP of 1,399 pg/mL (IQR: 962 to 2,210 pg/mL) for patients in atrial fibrillation/flutter compared with 716 pg/mL (IQR: 469 to 1,281 pg/mL) in those who were not. Patients in both hospitalized and ambulatory settings were enrolled, including 10% enrolled in-hospital or within 30 days of a hospitalization for HF. Eighteen percent of participants had HF with improved LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: DELIVER is the largest and broadest clinical trial of this population to date and enrolled high-risk, well-treated patients with HF with mildly reduced and preserved LVEF. (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [NCT03619213]).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Anesth Analg ; 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hypotension after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is associated with increased mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Current guidelines suggest the use of intravenous vasopressors, commonly norepinephrine and phenylephrine, to support blood pressure after TBI. However, guidelines do not specify vasopressor type, resulting in variation in clinical practice. We describe early vasopressor utilization patterns in critically ill patients with TBI and examine the association between utilization of norepinephrine, compared to phenylephrine, with hospital mortality after sTBI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of US hospitals participating in the Premier Healthcare Database between 2009 and 2018. We examined adult patients (>17 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of sTBI who were treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) after injury. The primary exposure was vasopressor choice (phenylephrine versus norepinephrine) within the first 2 days of hospital admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes examined included hospital length of stay (LOS) and ICU LOS. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis in all patients with intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor placement. Regression analysis was used to assess differences in outcomes between patients exposed to phenylephrine versus norepinephrine, with propensity matching to address selection bias due to the nonrandom allocation of treatment groups. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2018, 24,718 (37.1%) of 66,610 sTBI patients received vasopressors within the first 2 days of hospitalization. Among these patients, 60.6% (n = 14,991) received only phenylephrine, 10.8% (n = 2668) received only norepinephrine, 3.5% (n = 877) received other vasopressors, and 25.0% (n = 6182) received multiple vasopressors. In that time period, the use of all vasopressors after sTBI increased. A moderate degree of variation in vasopressor choice was explained at the individual hospital level (23.1%). In propensity-matched analysis, the use of norepinephrine compared to phenylephrine was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.46-1.86; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Early vasopressor utilization among critically ill patients with sTBI is common, increasing over the last decade, and varies across hospitals caring for TBI patients. Compared to phenylephrine, norepinephrine was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality in propensity-matched analysis. Given the wide variation in vasopressor utilization and possible differences in efficacy, our analysis suggests the need for randomized controlled trials to better inform vasopressor choice for patients with sTBI.

18.
JAMA ; 327(8): 760-771, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143601

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend against use of intravenous alteplase in patients with acute ischemic stroke who are taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Objective: To evaluate the safety and functional outcomes of intravenous alteplase among patients who were taking NOACs prior to stroke and compare outcomes with patients who were not taking long-term anticoagulants. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of 163 038 patients with acute ischemic stroke either taking NOACs or not taking anticoagulants prior to stroke and treated with intravenous alteplase within 4.5 hours of symptom onset at 1752 US hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program between April 2015 and March 2020, with complementary data from the Addressing Real-world Anticoagulant Management Issues in Stroke registry. Exposures: Prestroke treatment with NOACs within 7 days prior to alteplase treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurring within 36 hours after intravenous alteplase administration. There were 4 secondary safety outcomes, including inpatient mortality, and 7 secondary functional outcomes assessed at hospital discharge, including the proportion of patients discharged home. Results: Of 163 038 patients treated with intravenous alteplase (median age, 70 [IQR, 59 to 81] years; 49.1% women), 2207 (1.4%) were taking NOACs and 160 831 (98.6%) were not taking anticoagulants prior to their stroke. Patients taking NOACs were older (median age, 75 [IQR, 64 to 82] years vs 70 [IQR, 58 to 81] years for those not taking anticoagulants), had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and experienced more severe strokes (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 10 [IQR, 5 to 17] vs 7 [IQR, 4 to 14]) (all standardized differences >10). The unadjusted rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 3.7% (95% CI, 2.9% to 4.5%) for patients taking NOACs vs 3.2% (95% CI, 3.1% to 3.3%) for patients not taking anticoagulants. After adjusting for baseline clinical factors, the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was not significantly different between groups (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.70 to 1.10]; adjusted risk difference [RD], -0.51% [95% CI, -1.36% to 0.34%]). There were no significant differences in the secondary safety outcomes, including inpatient mortality (6.3% for patients taking NOACs vs 4.9% for patients not taking anticoagulants; adjusted OR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.01]; adjusted RD, -1.20% [95% CI, -2.39% to -0%]). Of the secondary functional outcomes, 4 of 7 showed significant differences in favor of the NOAC group after adjustment, including the proportion of patients discharged home (45.9% vs 53.6% for patients not taking anticoagulants; adjusted OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.29]; adjusted RD, 3.84% [95% CI, 1.46% to 6.22%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous alteplase, use of NOACs within the preceding 7 days, compared with no use of anticoagulants, was not associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Thromb Res ; 211: 63-69, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091313

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with cardiovascular complications such as diabetes and hypertension. However, obesity and high body mass index (BMI) can also be linked to improved clinical outcomes in certain patient populations. This counterintuitive observation is called the "obesity paradox." The effect of BMI on the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients remains unclear. In the Acute Medically Ill VTE Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) trial, acutely ill hospitalized medical patients were randomized to receive either extended-duration betrixaban or shorter-duration enoxaparin and followed for 77 days. A total of 7372 patients with evaluable VTE endpoints had BMI measured at baseline. The association between BMI and VTE risk was assessed after adjusting for potential confounders. The multivariable adjusted ORs of VTE risk associated with BMI levels referencing the median BMI value (15, 18.5, 28.3 [reference], 35, 40, 45) were: 2.82 (95% CI, 1.32-6.04, [change from 28.3 to 15]), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.14-2.99, [change from 28.3 to 18.5]), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.04-1.63, [change from 28.3 to 35]), 1.13 (95% CI, 0.84-1.52, [change from 28.3 to 40]), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.57-1.47, [change from 28.3 to 45]), respectively (p = 0.022). In conclusion, acutely ill hospitalized patients with lower BMI had a higher VTE risk through 77 days, which appears to be a manifestation of the BMI paradox.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
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