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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association of physical activity (PA) level and longitudinal PA trajectory with a composite heart failure hospitalization and mortality endpoint over a 5-year follow-up period following implantation. BACKGROUND: Low device measured PA early after implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) is associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We linked daily PA data from the Boston Scientific ALTITUDE dataset of patients with ICD or CRT-D implantation to Medicare claims data. We used a joint model to investigate the association of the composite endpoint with 1) the time-varying point estimate of PA and 2) the time-varying trajectory/slope of PA during follow-up. RESULTS: Among 20,927 patients with median activity level 85 min/day, 14.1% and 49.6% experienced the composite endpoint at 1 and 5 years. Adjusted joint model results showed that there was a 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.13)-fold increase in the hazard of the composite endpoint for 75 min of daily PA relative to 85 min of PA; and a within-patient 10-min decrease in average daily PA over an 8-week period from 85 to 75 min was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.02 (95% confidence interval: 3.82 to 4.22) for the composite endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with large decreases in PA have significantly higher risk of experiencing heart failure hospitalization or death. PA data from implantable devices may identify patients before clinical decompensation.

2.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(2): 159-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036861

RESUMO

In this update, we focus on selected topics of high clinical relevance for health care providers who treat patients with heart failure (HF), on the basis of clinical trials published after 2017. Our objective was to review the evidence, and provide recommendations and practical tips regarding the management of candidates for the following HF therapies: (1) transcatheter mitral valve repair in HF with reduced ejection fraction; (2) a novel treatment for transthyretin amyloidosis or transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis; (3) angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); and (4) sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of HF in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. We emphasize the roles of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy and of multidisciplinary teams when considering transcatheter mitral valve repair, to ensure excellent evaluation and care of those patients. In the presence of suggestive clinical indices, health care providers should consider the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis and proceed with proper investigation. Tafamidis is the first agent shown in a prospective study to alter outcomes in patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. Patient subgroups with HFpEF might benefit from use of sacubitril/valsartan, however, further data are needed to clarify the effect of this therapy in patients with HFpEF. Sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors reduce the risk of incident HF, HF-related hospitalizations, and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A large clinical trial recently showed that dapagliflozin provides significant outcome benefits in well treated patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%), with or without type 2 diabetes.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912603

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether the previously developed multivariable risk prediction framework (PRE score) could predict the renal effects observed in the EXSCEL cardiovascular outcomes trial using short-term changes in cardio-renal risk markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes from baseline to 6 months in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin, total cholesterol, and new micro- or macroalbuminuria were evaluated. The renal outcomes were defined as a composite of a sustained 30% or 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Relationships between risk markers and long-term renal outcomes were determined in patients with type 2 diabetes from the ALTITUDE study using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and then applied to short-term changes in risk markers observed in EXSCEL to predict the exenatide-induced impact on renal outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, mean HbA1c, BMI, SBP and total cholesterol were lower at 6 months with exenatide, as was the incidence of new microalbuminuria. The PRE score predicted a relative risk reduction for the 30% eGFR decline + ESRD endpoint of 11.3% (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83-0.94), compared with 12.7% (HR 0.87; 0.77-0.99) observed risk reduction. For the 40% eGFR decline + ESRD endpoint, the predicted and observed risk reductions were 11.0% (HR 0.89; 0.82-0.97) and 13.7% (HR 0.86, 0.72-1.04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating short-term risk marker changes into a multivariable risk score predicted the magnitude of renal risk reduction observed in EXSCEL.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933144

RESUMO

Patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for early readmission. A post hoc analysis was performed of the biomarker substudy of the ASCEND-HF trial. An in-hospital congestion score was derived using orthopnea, pedal edema, and NT-proBNP levels. Its added prognostic value beyond traditional risk factors was assessed by determining the net reclassification index (NRI). Study participants (n = 884) had a median age (years) of 67 (55-77), 68% were male, and the median (25th-75th) ejection fraction (%) was 26 (20-40). After adjustment, increasing congestion score was associated with 30-day all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.77, p < 0.001) and 180-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% CI 1.28-1.72, p < 0.001). However, adding the congestion score to the multivariable model did not significantly impact the NRI. A higher in-hospital congestion score portended a poor short-term prognosis but did not significantly reclassify risk.

5.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a high-risk phenotype. The Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) trial enrolled a high proportion of CKD participants, allowing investigation into differences in HFpEF by CKD status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 212 participants, we investigated the associations of CKD with biomarkers, cardiac structure, and exercise capacity, and identified predictors of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over trial follow-up. CKD participants (eGFR ≤60 mL/min/1.73m2) were older, had more comorbidities, and had worse diastolic function. Lower eGFR was associated with higher levels of endothelin-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, uric acid, and biomarkers of fibrosis (P < .05 for all). Whereas lower eGFR was associated with worse peak oxygen consumption (VO2) after adjustment for demographics, clinical comorbidities, exercise modality, ejection fraction, and chronotropic index (ß coefficient per 1 SD decrease in eGFR: -0.61, 95% CI: -1.01, -0.22, P = .002), this association was attenuated after further adjustment for hemoglobin (ß coefficient: -0.26, 95% CI: -0.68, 0.16, P = .22). Hemoglobin mediated 35% of the association between eGFR and peak VO2. Sildenafil therapy was independently associated with worsening eGFR over the trial (ß coefficient: -2.79, 95% CI: -5.34, -0.24, P = .03). CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction in HFpEF is characterized by echocardiographic and biomarker profiles indicative of more advanced disease, and reduced hemoglobin is a strong mediator of the association between renal dysfunction and low exercise capacity. Sildenafil therapy was associated with worsening of renal function in RELAX.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(1): e006031, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903770

RESUMO

Background Guidelines recommend against the use of intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator; IV tPA) in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior ischemic stroke within 3 months. However, there are limited data on the safety of IV tPA in this population. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study of patients ≥66 years of age linked to Medicare claims and treated with IV tPA at Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals (February 2009 to December 2015). We identified 293 patients treated with IV tPA who had a prior ischemic stroke within 3 months and 30 655 with no history of stroke. Patients with prior stroke had a higher stroke severity (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 11 [6-19] versus 11 [6-18]; absolute standardized difference, 11.2%) and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with prior stroke had a higher unadjusted risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (7.7% versus 4.8%) and in-hospital mortality (12.6% versus 8.9%), but these differences were not statistically significant after adjustment. When stratified by prespecified time epochs, the elevated risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was seen only within the first 14 days (16.3% versus 4.8%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.7 [95% CI, 1.62-8.43]) but not in other epochs (2.1% versus 4.8%; aOR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.05-2.79] for 15-30 days and 7.4% versus 4.8%; aOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.77-2.40] for 31-90 days). In addition, patients with prior stroke were significantly more likely to have a combined outcome of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice (25.9% versus 17.0%; aOR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.21-2.38]), less likely to be discharged to home (28.3% versus 32.3%; aOR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.54-0.98]), or to have good functional outcomes at discharge (modified Rankin Scale, 0-1; 11.3% versus 20.0%; aOR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.24-0.89]). Conclusions Stroke providers need to continue to be vigilant about the safety of IV tPA in patients with prior stroke, particularly those with an event in the previous 14 days.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 446-452, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of once-weekly exenatide (EQW) on microvascular and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes by baseline renal function in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Least squares mean difference (LSMD) in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline between the EQW and placebo groups was calculated for 13,844 participants. Cox regression models were used to estimate effects by group on incident macroalbuminuria, retinopathy, and major adverse CV events (MACE). Interval-censored time-to-event models estimated effects on renal composite 1 (40% eGFR decline, renal replacement, or renal death) and renal composite 2 (composite 1 variables plus macroalbuminuria). RESULTS: EQW did not change eGFR significantly (LSMD 0.21 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI -0.27 to 0.70]). Macroalbuminuria occurred in 2.2% of patients in the EQW group and in 2.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.70-1.07]). Neither renal composite was reduced with EQW in unadjusted analyses, but renal composite 2 was reduced after adjustment (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.74-0.98]). Retinopathy rates did not differ by treatment group or in the HbA1c-lowering or prior retinopathy subgroups. CV outcomes in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 did not differ by group. Those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had nominal risk reductions for MACE, all-cause mortality, and CV death, but interactions by renal function group were significant for only stroke (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.58-0.93]; P for interaction = 0.035) and CV death (HR 1.08 [95% CI 0.85-1.38]; P for interaction = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: EQW had no impact on unadjusted retinopathy or renal outcomes. CV risk was modestly reduced only in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in analyses unadjusted for multiplicity.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 374-381, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare medical resource use, costs, and health utilities for 14,752 patients with type 2 diabetes who were randomized to once-weekly exenatide (EQW) or placebo in addition to usual diabetes care in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medical resource use data and responses to the EuroQol 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) instrument were collected at baseline and throughout the trial. Medical resources and medications were assigned values by using U.S. Medicare payments and wholesale acquisition costs, respectively. Secondary analyses used English costs. RESULTS: Patients were followed for an average of 3.3 years, during which time those randomized to EQW experienced 0.41 fewer inpatient days (7.05 vs. 7.46 days; relative rate ratio 0.91; P = 0.05). Rates of outpatient medical visits were similar, as were total inpatient and outpatient costs. Mean costs for nonstudy diabetes medications over the study period were ∼$1,600 lower with EQW than with placebo (P = 0.01). Total within-study costs, excluding study medication, were lower in the EQW arm than in the placebo arm ($28,907 vs. $30,914; P ≤ 0.01). When including the estimated cost of EQW, total mean costs were significantly higher in the EQW group than in the placebo group ($42,697 vs. $30,914; P < 0.01). With English costs applied, mean total costs, including exenatide costs, were £1,670 higher in the EQW group than the placebo group (£10,874 vs. £9,204; P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in EQ-5D health utilities between arms over time. CONCLUSIONS: Medical costs were lower in the EQW arm than the placebo arm, but total costs were significantly higher once the cost of branded exenatide was incorporated.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 1-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606360

RESUMO

The mandatory federal pay-for-performance Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was created to decrease 30-day hospital readmissions by instituting accountability and stimulating quality care and coordination, particularly during care transitions. The HRRP has changed the landscape of hospital readmissions and reimbursement within the United States by imposing substantial Medicare payment penalties on hospitals with higher-than-expected readmission rates. However, the HRRP has been controversial since its inception, particularly in the field of heart failure. Proponents argue that it has reduced national readmission rates, in part by raising awareness and investment in mechanisms to better assist patients during discharge and transitions; opponents contend that it unfairly penalizes hospitals for issues beyond their control, has unintended negative consequences due to incentivizing readmission over survival, that it encourages "gaming" the system, was not tested before implementation, and that it does not specify how hospitals can improve their performance. This paper incorporates the diverse, nuanced, and sometimes divergent interpretations presented during a multifaceted expert clinician discussion regarding the HRRP and heart failure; in cases in which consensus opinions were achieved, they are presented, including regarding potential new iterations of the HRRP for the future. Potential improvements include more comprehensive incorporation of outcomes into the HRRP measure and better risk adjustment to improve equality and fairness.

10.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 88: 105775, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228563

RESUMO

Individual-level baseline covariate imbalance could happen more frequently in cluster randomized trials, and may influence the observed treatment effect. Using computer and real-data simulations, this paper quantifies the extent and impact of covariate imbalance on the estimated treatment effect for both continuous and binary outcomes, and relates it to the degree of imbalance for different numbers of clusters, cluster sizes, and covariate intraclass correlation coefficients. We focused on the impact of race as a covariate, given the emphasis of regulatory and funding bodies on understanding the influence of demographic characteristics on treatment effectiveness. We found that bias in the treatment effect is proportional to both the degree of baseline covariate imbalance and the covariate effect size. Larger numbers of clusters result in lower covariate imbalance, and increasing cluster size is less effective in reducing imbalance compared to increasing the number of clusters. Models adjusted for important baseline confounders are superior to unadjusted models for minimizing bias in both model-based simulations and an innovative simulation based on real clinical trial data. Higher outcome intraclass correlation coefficients did not affect bias but resulted in greater variance in treatment estimates.

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 70-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), elevated soluble neprilysin (sNEP) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, and its inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan has improved survival. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relevance of sNEP as a biomarker in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to compare circulating sNEP levels in patients with HFpEF with normal controls. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in 242 symptomatic patients with HFpEF previously enrolled in the Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) and Nitrates's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection (NEAT-HFpEF) clinical trials and 891 asymptomatic subjects without HF or diastolic dysfunction (confirmed by NT-proBNP levels <200 pg/ml and echocardiography) who were enrolled in the Prevalence of Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Dysfunction study. sNEP was measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all subjects. RESULTS: Overall, sNEP levels were lower in HFpEF compared with controls (3.5 ng/ml; confidence interval [CI]: 2.5 to 4.8 vs. 8.5 ng/ml; CI: 7.2 to 10.0; p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, mean sNEP levels were also lower in HFpEF compared with controls (4.0 ng/ml [CI: 2.7 to 5.4] vs. 8.2 ng/ml [CI: 6.8 to 9.7]; p = 0.002). The cohorts were propensity matched based on age, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, smoking history, and renal function, and sNEP levels remained lower in HFpEF compared with controls (median 2.4 ng/ml [interquartile range: 0.6 to 27.7] vs. 4.9 ng/ml [interquartile range: 1.2 to 42.2]; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HFpEF on average have significantly lower circulating sNEP levels compared with controls. These findings challenge our current understanding of the complex biology of circulating sNEP in HFpEF.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1596-1604, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820546

RESUMO

AIM: Describe the distinguishing features of heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the VICTORIA (Vericiguat Global Study in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Key background characteristics were evaluated in 5050 patients randomized in VICTORIA and categorized into three cohorts reflecting their index worsening HF event. Differences within the VICTORIA population were assessed and compared with PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) and COMMANDER HF (A Study to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke in Participants with Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease Following an Episode of Decompensated Heart Failure). VICTORIA patients had increased risk of mortality and rehospitalization: New York Heart Association class (40% class III), atrial fibrillation (45%), diabetes (47%), hypertension (79%) and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 61.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Baseline standard of HF care was very good: 60% received triple therapy. Their N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was 3377 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 1992-6380]. Natriuretic peptides were 30% higher level in the 67% patients with HF hospitalization <3 months, compared to those within 3-6 months of HF hospitalization and those randomized after recent outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy. Overall the median MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure) risk score in VICTORIA was 23 (IQR 18-27) as compared to the MAGGIC risk score in PARADIGM-HF of 20 (IQR 16-24). CONCLUSIONS: VICTORIA comprises a broadly generalizable high-risk population of three unique clinical strata of worsening chronic HFrEF despite very good HF therapy. VICTORIA will establish the role of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in HFrEF.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e011560, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818219

RESUMO

Background Limited data exist to guide treatment for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and atrial fibrillation, including the important decision regarding rate versus rhythm control. Methods and Results We analyzed the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry linked to Medicare claims data from 2008 to 2014 to describe current treatments for rate versus rhythm control and subsequent outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and atrial fibrillation using inverse probability weighted analysis. Rhythm control was defined as use of an antiarrhythmic medication, cardioversion, or AF ablation or surgery. Rate control was defined as use of any combination of ß-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and digoxin without evidence of rhythm control. Among 15 682 fee-for-service Medicare patients, at the time of discharge, 1857 were treated with rhythm control and 13 825 with rate control, with minimal differences in baseline characteristics between groups. There was higher all-cause death at 1 year in the rate control compared with the rhythm control group (37.5% and 30.8%, respectively, P<0.01). The lower 1-year all-cause death in the rhythm control group remained after risk adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98; P=0.02). Conclusions Rhythm control in patients aged 65 and older with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and AF was associated with a lower risk of 1 year all-cause mortality. Future prospective randomized studies are needed to explore this potential benefit.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223515, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies on older adults who take statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are limited. To determine the incidence of statin use in older adults with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes (DM), we conducted a descriptive observational study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of health plan members in the NIH Collaboratory Distributed Research Network aged >75 years who had continuous drug and medical benefits for ≥183 days during the study period, January 1, 2008- March 31, 2018. We defined DM and CVD using diagnosis codes, and identified statins using dispensing data. Statin use was considered incident if a member had no evidence of statin exposure in the claims during the previous 183 days, and the use was considered long-term if statins were supplied for ≥180 days. Incidence rates were reported among members with and without CVD and/or diabetes, and stratified by year, sex, and age group. RESULTS: Among 757,569 eligible members, 109,306 older adults initiated statins and 54,624 became long-term users. Health plan members with CVD had the highest incidence of statin use (143.9 initiators per 1,000 member-years for CVD & DM; 114.5 initiators per 1,000 member-years for CVD & No DM). Among health plan members without CVD, those with DM had rates of statin use that were over two times higher than members without DM (76.1 versus 34.5 initiators per 1,000 member-years, respectively). Statin initiation remained steady throughout 2008-2016, was slightly higher in males, and declined with increasing age. CONCLUSION: Incidence of statin use varied by CVD and DM comorbidity, and was lowest among those without CVD. These results highlight the potential clinical equipoise to conduct large pragmatic clinical trials to generate evidence that could be used to inform future blood cholesterol guidelines.

16.
Am Heart J ; 220: 97-107, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to health status and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to test whether biomarkers can reflect CRF and its change over time. METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from ambulatory cohorts of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (IRONOUT) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (RELAX). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 16- or 24-week follow-up (for IRONOUT and RELAX respectively). Biomarkers included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor-15, and Galectin-3. RESULTS: Analysis included 225 patients with HFrEF and 216 with HFpEF. Baseline peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and 6MWD showed a mild correlation with the doubling of all 4 tested biomarkers in HFrEF and HFpEF. Following multivariable adjustment (including all biomarkers), the only significant association between change in biomarker and functional parameter in HFrEF was change in NT-proBNP and change in VE/VCO2 slope (3.596% increase per doubling, 95% CI 0.779-6.492, P = .012). In HFpEF, a decrease in peak VO2 was associated with an increase in NT-proBNP (-0.726 mL/min/kg per doubling, 95% CI -1.100 to -0.353, P < .001), and a decrease in 6MWD was associated with an increase in growth differentiation factor-15 (-31.606 m per doubling, 95% CI -61.404 to -1.809, P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: In these ambulatory trial cohorts, NT-proBNP was associated with baseline and change in CRF in HFrEF and HFpEF. In contrast, novel biomarkers do not appear suitable as a reliable surrogate for serial assessment of exercise capacity in HF patients given lack of consistent independent association with CRF beyond traditional risk factors and NT-proBNP.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm a bidirectional association between severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) and cardiovascular (CV) event risk and to characterize individuals at dual risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of 14,752 Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) participants, we examined time-dependent associations between SHEs and subsequent major adverse cardiac events (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke), fatal/nonfatal MI, fatal/nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (hACS), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), and all-cause mortality (ACM), as well as time-dependent associations between nonfatal CV events and subsequent SHEs. RESULTS: SHEs were uncommon and not associated with once-weekly exenatide therapy (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.94-1.36], P = 0.179). In fully adjusted models, SHEs were associated with an increased risk of subsequent ACM (1.83 [1.38-2.42], P < 0.001), CV death (1.60 [1.11-2.30], P = 0.012), and hHF (2.09 [1.37-3.17], P = 0.001), while nonfatal MI (2.02 [1.35-3.01], P = 0.001), nonfatal stroke (2.30 [1.25-4.23], P = 0.007), hACS (2.00 [1.39-2.90], P < 0.001), and hHF (3.24 [1.98-5.30], P < 0.001) were all associated with a subsequent increased risk of SHEs. The elevated bidirectional time-dependent hazards linking SHEs and a composite of all CV events were approximately constant over time, with those individuals at dual risk showing higher comorbidity scores compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, showing greater risk of SHEs after CV events as well as greater risk of CV events after SHEs, validate a bidirectional relationship between CV events and SHEs in patients with high comorbidity scores.

18.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2108-2118, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841369

RESUMO

Following regulatory guidance set forth in 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration for new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus, many large randomized, controlled trials have been conducted with the primary goal of assessing the safety of antihyperglycemic medications on the primary end point of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Heart failure (HF) was not specifically mentioned in the US Food and Drug Administration guidance and therefore it was not a focus of these studies when planned. Several trials subsequently showed the impact of antihyperglycemic drugs on HF outcomes, which were not originally specified as the primary end point of the trials. The most impressive finding has been the substantial and consistent risk reduction in HF hospitalization seen across 4 trials of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. However, to date, these results have not led to regulatory approval of any of these drugs for a HF indication or a recommendation for use by US HF guidelines. It is therefore important to explore to what extent persuasive treatment effects on nonprimary end points can be used to support regulatory claims and guideline recommendations. This topic was discussed by researchers, clinicians, industry sponsors, regulators, and representatives from professional societies, who convened on the US Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2019. This report summarizes these discussions and the key takeaway messages from this meeting.

19.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although left atrial (LA) mechanical dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with poor clinical outcomes, the influence of LA myopathy on temporal changes in cardiovascular biomarkers is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated biomarker correlates of LA myopathy, as defined by reduced LA strain, and the associations of LA strain with longitudinal changes in biomarkers among participants in the Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) trial. LA speckle-tracking was performed on baseline echocardiograms of RELAX participants to measure LA reservoir and LA contractile strain. Of the 216 RELAX participants, 169 (78%) had measurable LA strain and biomarker data. Participants with LA reservoir strain below median (13.5%, interquartile range: 10%-22.5%) were older, more likely to have atrial fibrillation, and had higher jugular venous pressure (P < .05 for all). At baseline, higher levels of endothelin-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I were independently associated with lower LA reservoir and contractile strain (Padjusted < .05 for all comparisons). Higher LA reservoir strain (ß coefficient per 1-unit increase: -21.2, 95% CI: -38.8, -3.7; P = .02) was independently associated with reduction in NT-proBNP at 24 weeks. CONCLUSION: In HFpEF, LA myopathy is characterized by elevation in biomarkers of neurohormonal activation and myocardial necrosis. Lower LA function is associated with continued elevation in NT-proBNP over time, suggesting that LA myopathy is associated with persistent congestion in HFpEF.

20.
Am Heart J ; 220: 41-50, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770656

RESUMO

Many therapies have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF) in controlled settings, but there are limited data available to inform best practices for hospital and post-discharge quality improvement initiatives. The CONNECT-HF study is a prospective, cluster-randomized trial of 161 hospitals in the United States with a 2×2 factorial design. The study is designed to assess the effect of a hospital and post-discharge quality improvement intervention compared with usual care (primary objective) on HF outcomes and quality-of-care, as well as to evaluate the effect of hospitals implementing a patient-level digital intervention compared with usual care (secondary objective). The hospital and post-discharge intervention includes audit and feedback on HF clinical process measures and outcomes for patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) paired with education to sites and clinicians by a trained, nationally representative group of HF and quality improvement experts. The patient-level digital intervention is an optional ancillary study and includes a mobile application and behavioral tools that are intended to facilitate improved use of guideline-directed recommendations for self-monitoring and self-management of activity and medications for HFrEF. The effects of the interventions will be measured through an opportunity-based composite score on quality and time-to-first HF readmission or death among patients with HFrEF who present to study hospitals with acute HF and who consent to participate. The CONNECT-HF study is evaluating approaches for implementing HF guideline recommendations into practice and is one of the largest HF implementation science trials performed to date.

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