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1.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
2.
Am J Surg ; 223(4): 780-786, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to determine whether e-scooter shares' introduction in September 2017 increased serious scooter-related injury across the United States. METHODS: Using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we queried emergency department visits involving motorized scooter-related injuries from January 2010-December 2019. Cases originating where e-scooter shares launched between September 1, 2017-December 1, 2019 (intervention period) were considered exposed. The first month of launch (September 2017) was chosen as the time point for pre- and post-intervention analysis. The primary outcome was change in hospitalizations following scooter injury in association with the month/year launch. RESULTS: This analysis includes 2754 unweighted encounters, representing 102614 estimated injuries involving motorized scooters nationwide. Hospitals within 20 miles of e-scooter shares also experienced a significant monthly increase of 0.24 scooter-related injury hospitalizations/1000 product-related injury hospitalizations ([0.17,0.31]) compared to a non-significant change in hospitalizations of 0.02 [-0.05,0.09] for control hospitals. CONCLUSION: An increase in serious motorized scooter injuries coincides with e-scooter shares' introduction in the US. Future works should explore effective polices to improve public safety.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Acidentes de Trânsito , Eletrônica , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Surgery ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction management has evolved to incorporate the Gastrografin challenge. We expanded its use to the emergency department observation unit, potentially avoiding hospital admission for highly select small bowel obstruction patients. We hypothesized that the emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction protocol would reduce admissions, costs, and the total time spent in the hospital without compromising outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed patients who presented with small bowel obstruction from January 2015 to December 2018. Patients deemed to require urgent surgical intervention were admitted directly and excluded. The emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction guidelines were introduced in November 2016. Patients were divided into pre and postintervention groups based on this date. The postintervention group was further subclassified to examine the emergency department observation unit patients. Cost analysis for each patient was performed looking at number of charges, direct costs, indirect cost, and total costs during their admission. RESULTS: In total, 125 patients were included (mean age 69 ± 14.3 years). The preintervention group (n = 62) and postintervention group (n = 63) had no significant difference in demographics. The postintervention group had a 51% (36.7 hours, P < .001) reduction in median duration of stay and a total cost reduction of 49% (P < .001). The emergency department observation unit subgroup (n = 46) median length of stay was 23.6 hours. The readmission rate was 16% preintervention compared to 8% in the postintervention group (P = .18). CONCLUSION: Management of highly selected small bowel obstruction patients with the emergency department observation unit small bowel obstruction protocol was associated with decreased length of stay and total cost, without an increase in complications, surgical intervention, or readmissions.

4.
Br J Surg ; 108(10): e358, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401907
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(6): 1014-1021, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies of surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) have excluded elderly patients, and no study has exclusively addressed the ≥80-year-old subgroup. We hypothesized that SSRF is associated with decreased mortality in trauma patients 80 years or older. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study involving eight centers. Patients who underwent SSRF from 2015 to 2020 were matched to controls by study center, age, injury severity score, and presence of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients with chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score less than 3, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2, death within 24 hours, and desire for no escalation of care were excluded. A subgroup analysis compared early (0-2 days postinjury) to late (3-7 days postinjury) SSRF. Poisson regression accounting for clustered data by center calculated the relative risk (RR) of the primary outcome of mortality for SSRF versus nonoperative management. RESULTS: Of 360 patients, 133 (36.9%) underwent SSRF. Compared with nonoperative patients, SSRF patients were more severely injured and more likely to receive locoregional analgesia. There were 31 hospital deaths among the entire sample (8.6%). Multivariable regression demonstrated a decreased risk of mortality for the SSRF group, as compared with the nonoperative group (RR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.69; p < 0.01). However, SSRF patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, and had an increased duration of both mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay. There were no differences in discharge destination, although the SSRF group was less likely to be discharged on narcotics (RR, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.90; p = 0.01). There was no difference in adjusted mortality between the early and late SSRF subgroups. CONCLUSION: Patients selected for SSRF were substantially more injured versus those managed nonoperatively. Despite this, SSRF was independently associated with decreased mortality. With careful patient selection, SSRF may be considered a viable treatment option in octogenarian/nonagenarians. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação de Fratura/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico , Fraturas das Costelas/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 5(1): 9, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rib fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) can be performed to mitigate complications. Sarcopenia is in general known to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. We investigated if sarcopenia impacted number of days of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and total hospital stay in patients who underwent SSRF. METHODS: A retrospective single institutional review was performed including patients who underwent SSRF (2009-2017). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was semiautomatically calculated at the L3 spinal level on computed tomography (CT) images and normalized by patient height. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI < 55 cm2/m2 in males and < 39 cm2/m2 in females. Demographics, operative details, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of 238 patients, 88 (36.9%) had sarcopenia. There was no significant difference in number of days of mechanical ventilation (2.8 ± 4.9 versus 3.1 ± 4.3, p = 0.304), ICU stay (5.9 ± 6.5 versus 4.9 ± 5.7 days, p = 0.146), or total hospital stay (13.3 ± 7.2 versus 12.9 ± 8.2 days, p = 0.183) between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients. Sarcopenic patients demonstrated increased modified frailty index scores (1.5 ± 1.1 versus 0.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) compared to nonsarcopenic patients. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who underwent SSRF for rib fractures, sarcopenia did not increase the number of days of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, or total hospital stay. Sarcopenia should not preclude the utilization of SSRF in these patients.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas , Sarcopenia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4324-4334, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928922

RESUMO

Adenosquamous cancer of the pancreas (ASCP) is a subtype of pancreatic cancer that has a worse prognosis and greater metastatic potential than the more common pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) subtype. To distinguish the genomic landscape of ASCP and identify actionable targets for this lethal cancer, we applied DNA content flow cytometry to a series of 15 tumor samples including five patient-derived xenografts (PDX). We interrogated purified sorted tumor fractions from these samples with whole-genome copy-number variant (CNV), whole-exome sequencing, and Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) analyses. These identified a variety of somatic genomic lesions targeting chromatin regulators in ASCP genomes that were superimposed on well-characterized genomic lesions including mutations in TP53 (87%) and KRAS (73%), amplification of MYC (47%), and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (40%) that are common in PDACs. Furthermore, a comparison of ATAC-seq profiles of three ASCP and three PDAC genomes using flow-sorted PDX models identified genes with accessible chromatin unique to the ASCP genomes, including the lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 and the pancreatic cancer stem cell regulator RORC in all three ASCPs, and a FGFR1-ERLIN2 fusion associated with focal CNVs in both genes in a single ASCP. Finally, we demonstrate significant activity of a pan FGFR inhibitor against organoids derived from the FGFR1-ERLIN2 fusion-positive ASCP PDX model. Our results suggest that the genomic and epigenomic landscape of ASCP provide new strategies for targeting this aggressive subtype of pancreatic cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide a unique description of the ASCP genomic and epigenomic landscape and identify candidate therapeutic targets for this dismal cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/genética , Cromatina/genética , Epigenoma , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Humanos , Organoides , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Proteína Smad4/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
10.
World J Surg ; 44(12): 3993-3998, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive analysis of trauma care between high-, middle-, and low-income countries (HIC/MIC/LIC) is needed to improve global health. Comparison of HIC and MIC outcomes after damage control laparotomy (DCL) for patients is unknown. We evaluated DCL utilization among patients treated at high-volume trauma centers in the USA and South Africa, an MIC, hypothesizing similar mortality outcomes despite differences in resources and setting. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected trauma databases from participating centers was performed. Injury severity, physiologic, operative data and post-operative outcomes were abstracted. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess differences between HIC/MIC for the primary outcome of mortality. RESULTS: There were 967 HIC and 602 MIC patients who underwent laparotomy. DCL occurred in 144 MIC patients (25%) and 241 HIC (24%) patients. Most sustained (58%) penetrating trauma with higher rates in the MIC compared to the HIC (71 vs. 32%, p = 0.001). Between groups, no differences were found for admission physiology, coagulopathy, or markers of shock except for increased presence of hypotension among patients in the HIC. Crystalloid infusion volumes were greater among MIC patients, and MIC patients received fewer blood products than those in the HIC. Overall mortality was 30% with similar rates between groups (29 in HIC vs. 33% in MIC, p = 0.4). On regression, base excess and penetrating injury were independent predictors of mortality but not patient residential status. CONCLUSION: Use and survival of DCL for patients with severe abdominal trauma was similar between trauma centers in HIC and MIC settings despite increased penetrating trauma and less transfusion in the MIC center. While the results overall suggest no gap in care for patients requiring DCL in this MIC, it highlights improvements that can be made in damage control resuscitation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Injury ; 51(8): 1791-1797, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of extrajudicial "mob justice" and community assault (CA) has been documented in news reports and anecdotes from a number of low- and middle-income countries, but there is little literature on its burden on trauma systems. This study reviews a single center's management of CA victims and compares the spectrum of injuries seen following mob assault with those sustained via other forms of interpersonal violence (IPV). METHODS: Clinical data, injury details, and mortality among injured patients (age≥18) hospitalized in a South African tertiary referral center from 2012-2018 were abstracted. Patients with penetrating injury or missing ISS were excluded. CA was determined at time of admission by either self-designation or by patients' escorts. Univariate analyses compared the presentation and outcomes for CAs and non-CAs. RESULTS: Overall, CA constituted 5% of total trauma admissions and 8% of IPV-related admissions during the study period. Of 1,323 incidents of blunt injury following IPV, 239 (18%) were CAs. One in two CA victims (n=119, 50%) were struck by an identifiable weapon. Patients injured in CA were more frequently male (97% vs 85%), presented with ISS>15 (28% vs 21%), and had a shock index>0.9 (25% vs 19%) compared to non-CA (all p<0.001). Rates of operative intervention, ICU admission, and mortality did not differ (all p>0.05). CAs were more likely to be complicated by acute kidney injury (9% vs 1%, p<0.001) but less likely to involve neurologic complications (3% vs 10%. P<0.001) compared to non-CAs. Acute kidney injury in CA showed a pattern of significant musculocutaneous injury with rhabdomyolysis. CONCLUSION: CA contributes considerably to the high rates of IPV in a single South African center. Victims of such assaults sustain more severe injury with unique mechanisms and subsequent complications. This evidence supports the need to strengthen local governance and improve law enforcement efforts to prevent such violence.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Justiça Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Violência , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia
12.
World J Surg ; 44(8): 2518-2525, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pediatric resuscitation and trauma outcome (PRESTO) model was developed to aid comparisons of risk-adjusted mortality after injury in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to validate PRESTO using data from a middle-income country (MIC) trauma registry and compare its performance to the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), Revised Trauma Score, and pediatric age-adjusted shock index (SIPA). METHODS: We included children (age < 15 years) admitted to a single trauma center in South Africa from December 2012 to January 2019. We excluded patients missing variables necessary for the PRESTO model-age, systolic blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, neurologic status, and airway support. Trauma scores were assigned retrospectively. PRESTO's previously high-income country (HIC)-validated optimal threshold was compared to MIC-validated threshold using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Prediction of in-hospital death using trauma scoring systems was compared using ROC analysis. RESULTS: Of 1160 injured children, 988 (85%) had complete data for calculation of PRESTO. Median age was 7 (IQR: 4, 11), and 67% were male. Mortality was 2% (n = 23). Mean predicted mortality was 0.5% (range 0-25.7%, AUROC 0.93). Using the HIC-validated threshold, PRESTO had a sensitivity of 26.1% and a specificity of 99.7%. The MIC threshold showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 89.4%. The MIC threshold yielded superior discrimination (AUROC 0.86 [CI 0.78, 0.94]) compared to the previously established HIC threshold (0.63 [CI 0.54, 0.72], p < 0.0001). PRESTO showed superior prediction of in-hospital death compared to PTS and SIPA (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: PRESTO can be applied in MIC settings and discriminates between children at risk for in-hospital death following trauma. Further research should clarify optimal decision thresholds for quality improvement and benchmarking in LMIC settings.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/normas , Ressuscitação/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque/terapia , África do Sul
13.
JHEP Rep ; 2(2): 100068, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biliary tract tumors are uncommon but highly aggressive malignancies with poor survival outcomes. Due to their low incidence, research into effective therapeutics has been limited. Novel research platforms for pre-clinical studies are desperately needed. We sought to develop a patient-derived biliary tract cancer xenograft catalog. METHODS: With appropriate consent and approval, surplus malignant tissues were obtained from surgical resection or radiographic biopsy and implanted into immunocompromised mice. Mice were monitored for xenograft growth. Established xenografts were verified by a hepatobiliary pathologist. Xenograft characteristics were correlated with original patient/tumor characteristics and oncologic outcomes. A subset of xenografts were then genomically characterized using Mate Pair sequencing (MPseq). RESULTS: Between October 2013 and January 2018, 87 patients with histologically confirmed biliary tract carcinomas were enrolled. Of the 87 patients, 47 validated PDX models were successfully generated. The majority of the PDX models were created from surgical resection specimens (n = 44, 94%), which were more likely to successfully engraft when compared to radiologic biopsies (p = 0.03). Histologic recapitulation of original patient tumor morphology was observed in all xenografts. Successful engraftment was an independent predictor for worse recurrence-free survival. MPseq showed genetically diverse tumors with frequent alterations of CDKN2A, SMAD4, NRG1, TP53. Sequencing also identified worse survival in patients with tumors containing tetraploid genomes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series of biliary tract cancer xenografts reported to date. Histologic and genomic analysis of patient-derived xenografts demonstrates accurate recapitulation of original tumor morphology with direct correlations to patient outcomes. Successful development of biliary cancer tumografts is feasible and may be used to direct subsequent therapy in high recurrence risk patients. LAY SUMMARY: Patient biliary tract tumors grown in immunocompromised mice are an invaluable resource in the treatment of biliary tract cancers. They can be used to guide individualized cancer treatment in high-risk patients.

14.
World J Surg ; 44(5): 1485-1491, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to expand on the global surgical discussion around splenic trauma in order to understand locally and clinically relevant factors for operative (OP) and non-operative management (NOM) of splenic trauma in a South African setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using 2013-2017 data from the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service. All adult patients (≥15 years) were included. Those managed with OP or NOM for splenic trauma were identified and analyzed descriptively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified patients and clinical factors associated with management type. RESULTS: There were 127 patients with splenic injury. Median age was 29 [19-35] years with 42 (33%) women and 85 (67%) men. Blunt injuries occurred in the majority (81, 64%). Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grades included I (25, 20%), II (43, 34%), III (36, 28%), IV (15, 11%), and V (8, 6%). Nine patients expired. On univariate analysis, increasing OIS was associated with OP management, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital and ICU duration of stay, but not mortality. In patients with a delayed compared to early presentation, ICU utilization (62% vs. 36%, p = 0.008) and mortality (14% vs. 4%, p = 0.03) were increased. After adjusting for age, sex, presence of shock, and splenic OIS, penetrating trauma (adjusted odds ratio, 5.7; 95%CI, 1.7-9.8) and admission lactate concentration (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.9) were significantly associated with OP compared to NOM (p = 0.002; area under the curve 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified injury mechanism and admission lactate as factors predictive of OP in South African patients with splenic trauma. Timely presentation to definitive care affects both ICU duration of stay and mortality outcomes. Future global surgical efforts may focus on expanding non-operative management protocols and improving pre-hospital care in patients with splenic trauma.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tratamento Conservador , Baço/lesões , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Esplenectomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(2): 418-425, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether TAP blocks performed at the time of appendectomy resulted in reduced total oral morphine equivalent (OME) prescribed and fewer 30-day opioid prescription (OP) refills. STUDY DESIGN: Single institution review of historical data (2010-2016) was performed. Adults (≥ 18 years) that underwent appendectomy for appendicitis with uniform disease severity (AAST EGS grades I, II) were included. Opioid tolerance was defined as any preoperative OP ordered 1-3 months prior to appendectomy or < 1 month unrelated to appendicitis; opioid naïve patients were without OP. Intraoperative TAP blocks (admixture of liposomal/regular bupivacaine) were performed at surgeon discretion. Risk factors for discharge prescription > 200 OME were assessed using logistic regression and quantified using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULT: There were 960 patients with uniform appendicitis severity. During appendectomy, 145 (15%) patients received TAP blocks. There were 46 patients that were opioid tolerant (5%) and the majority of the cohort received discharge OP (n = 914, 95%) with a median prescription OME volume of 225 [150-300]. Only 76 patients required 30-day opioid prescription refill. On regression, factors associated with a discharge prescription > 200 OME included ≥ 65 years of age (OR 0.64 (95%CI 0.41-0.98)) and no TAP block (OR 1.7 (95%CI 1.2-2.5)) but not preoperative opioid utilization. CONCLUSIONS: TAP blocks in low-grade appendicitis were associated with reduced OME prescribed, hospital duration of stay, and fewer refills without impacting operative time or total hospital costs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais , Apendicite/cirurgia , Bupivacaína , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório
16.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(10): 2088-2093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overwhelming burden of pediatric surgical need in humanitarian settings has prompted mutual interest between humanitarian organizations and pediatric surgeons. To assess adequate fit, we correlated pediatric surgery fellowship case mix and load with acute pediatric surgical relief efforts in conflict and disaster zones. METHODS: We reviewed pediatric (age < 18) cases logged by the Médecins Sans Frontières Operational Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) from a previously validated and published database spanning 2008-2014 and cases performed by American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery graduates from 2008 to 2018. Non-operative management for trauma, endoscopic procedures, and basic wound care were excluded as they were not tracked in either dataset. ACGME procedures were classified under 1 of 32 MSF pediatric surgery procedure categories and compared using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: ACGME fellows performed procedures in 44% of tracked MSF-OCB categories. Major MSF-OCB pediatric cases were comprised of 62% general surgery, 23% orthopedic surgery, 9% obstetrical surgery, 3% plastic/reconstructive surgery, 2% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. In comparison, fellows' cases were 95% general surgery, 0% orthopedic surgery, 0% obstetrical surgery, 5% urogynecologic surgery, and 1% specialty surgery. Fellows more frequently performed abdominal, thoracic, other general surgical, urology/gynecologic, and specialty procedures, but performed fewer wound and burn procedures (all p < 0.05). Fellows received no experience in Cesarean section or open fracture repair. Fellows performed a greater proportion of surgeries for congenital conditions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: While ACGME pediatric surgical trainees receive significant training in general and urogynecologic surgical techniques, they lack sufficient case load for orthopedic and obstetrical care - a common need among children in humanitarian settings. Trainees and program directors should evaluate the fellow's role and scope in a global surgery rotation or provide advanced preparation to fill these gaps. Upon graduation, pediatric surgeons interested in humanitarian missions should seek out additional orthopedic and obstetrical training, or select missions that do not require such skillsets. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Bolsas de Estudo , Pediatras , Cirurgiões , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(2): 101-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In military settings, utilizing warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) was associated with reduced mortality; however, there are multiple challenges for administering WFWB to civilians. The authors aimed to determine barriers to hospital employees emergently donating to civilian WFWB programs. METHODS: We surveyed hospital employee willingness to donate emergently, familiarity with blood donation, and queried baseline demographics. The electronic survey was disseminated to a random sample of employees. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Three thousand surveys were sent; 883 were returned (28 percent). The majority of respondents were female (n = 630, 71 percent). Respondent familiarity with WFWB donation included very/somewhat familiar (n = 381, 43 percent) and somewhat-not/not-at-all familiar (n = 356, 40 percent). Most were definitely or somewhat willing to emergently donate (n = 660, 75 percent). Four hundred and sixty would drive from home to donate (52 percent). The majority worked day-time shifts (n = 754, 85 percent). In regards to donation history, 366 (41 percent) had donated blood more than ten times, but 138 (16 percent) had never donated. Barriers to emergent donation were identified (55 percent), with the most common being childcare responsibilities (n = 242; 27 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital employees are willing to donate WFWB emergently, but program implementation must address donor availability and logistical barriers. Future research should assess feasibility of a civilian WFWB program by determining regulatory challenges, development of a quality system for emergency donations, assessment of optimal workforce structure, potential impact to the general blood inventory, as well as patient and community perspectives regarding untested blood units.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doadores de Sangue , Desastres , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Transfusão de Sangue , Planejamento em Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
World J Surg ; 43(12): 3027-3034, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) severity has been associated with important clinical outcomes. However, the impact of ASBO severity on hospitalization cost is unknown. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) developed an Emergency General Surgery (EGS) disease severity grading system for ASBO. We stratified patients' ASBO severity and captured hospitalization costs hypothesizing that increased disease severity would correlate with greater costs. METHODS: This was a single-center study of hospitalized adult patients with SBO during 2015-2017. Clinical data and estimated total cost (direct + indirect) were abstracted. AAST EGS grades (I-IV) stratified disease severity. Costs were normalized to the median grade I cost. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluated the relationship between normalized cost and AAST EGS grade, length of hospital and ICU stay, operative time, and Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: There were 214 patients; 119 (56%) were female. AAST EGS grades included: I (62%, n = 132), II (23%, n = 49), III (7%, n = 16), and IV (8%, n = 17). Relative to grade I, median normalized cost increased by 1.4-fold for grade II, 1.6-fold for grade III, and 4.3-fold for grade IV disease. No considerable differences in patient comorbidity between grades were observed. Pair-wise comparisons demonstrated that grade I disease cost less than higher grades (corrected p < 0.001). Non-operative management was associated with lower normalized cost compared to operative management (1.1 vs. 4.5, p < 0.0001). In patients who failed non-operative management, normalized cost was increased 7.2-fold. Collectively, the AAST EGS grade correlated well with cost (Spearman's p = 0.7, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for covariates, AAST EGS grade maintained a persistent relationship with cost. CONCLUSION: Increasing ASBO severity is independently associated with greater costs. Efforts to identify and mitigate costs associated with this burdensome disease are warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, economic/decision.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstrução Intestinal/economia , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Aderências Teciduais/economia , Idoso , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Aderências Teciduais/terapia , Estados Unidos
19.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(12): 2621-2626, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of injury severity and appropriate triage are critical to effective surgical care, especially where medical and surgical resources are strained. We hypothesized that pediatric age-adjusted shock index (SIPA) would outperform traditional shock index (SI) in a middle-income country (MIC) setting. METHODS: Injured children hospitalized in two trauma centers (South Africa and the United States) from 2012 to 2017 were reviewed. Maximum heart rate and minimum systolic blood pressure defined SI. SI > 0.9 defined elevation. SIPA elevation was based on SI stratified by age: 1-6 years (SI > 1.22), 7-12 years (SI > 1.0), and 13-17 years (SI > 0.9). SI and SIPA were compared using univariate analyses and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). RESULTS: 1648 patients (741 MIC and 907 high-income country (HIC)) were evaluated with a median [IQR] age of 11 [6-15] years. SI was elevated in 377 (51%) MIC children, whereas SIPA was elevated in 248 (34%). In both the HIC and MIC, elevated SIPA was more associated with ISS ≥ 25, ICU admission, and mortality. In MIC patients specifically, elevated SIPA improved discrimination for in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.66 vs AUROC 0.57, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In a multinational cohort including MIC patients, SIPA facilitated identification of injured children with altered physiology, reflecting greater injury severity and poorer outcomes. Use of SIPA has the potential for more effective resource utilization in MICs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Assuntos
Choque , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/fisiopatologia , África do Sul , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Surgery ; 166(4): 556-563, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term impact of vaccination on any postoperative infection in adults who underwent splenectomy. METHODS: All adults (≥18 years) who underwent splenectomy from 1965 to 2011 in Olmsted County, MN were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazard ratios were performed. RESULTS: There were 724 patients who underwent splenectomy; 47% were female with a median age of 55 (35-69) years. Overall vaccination rate (pneumococcal, H influenza, meningococcal) was 62% (n = 449). There were 268 (36%) patients who developed a post-splenectomy infection; most presented with sepsis 148 (55%). The 3 most common infections included pneumonia (124, 17%), bloodstream (67, 9%), and urinary tract infection (49, 7%). Median time to infection was quicker in non-vaccinated compared with vaccinated patients (1.5 [0.1-4.3] vs 3.3 [1.9-9.8] years, P = .01). CONCLUSION: In this population-based study, the highest risk of infection after splenectomy was in patients who did not receive complete vaccination. Lack of complete vaccination was associated with a reduced time to infection and increased rates of bloodstream infections at 5 years. Infectious complication risk reduced as vaccination protocols improved for all indications except for malignancy. Adults who underwent a splenectomy should continue to receive booster vaccines.


Assuntos
Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esplenectomia/métodos
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