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1.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Corticoid treatment associated with haematologic treatments can lead to ankle osteonecrosis in children's survivors of acute leukemia (ALL). Based on the efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in hip osteonecrosis, we performed an evaluation of this treatment in 51 children and adolescents who had symptomatic ankle osteonecrosis after therapy for haematologic cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 51 patients had a total of 79 osteonecrosis sites on MRI, with 29 talus sites, 18 metaphyseal tibia sites, 12 epiphyseal tibia sites, eight calcaneus sites, six fibula sites, four navicular sites, and two cuboid sites. In this prospective randomized trial, 37 ankles were addressed for cell therapy, 37 others for core decompression alone, and 20 were considered as a control group without treatment. We analyzed the outcome of this treatment osteonecrosis, the number and characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) that could be transplanted, and the risks of tumorigenesis in these patients with haematologic cancers. The patients were operated on over a period of ten years from 2000 to 2010 and were monitored through December 31, 2019. RESULTS: Despite a normal systemic blood cells count, MSCs in the iliac crest (counted as CFU-F) were in low number (1021 MSCs/mL; range 314-3015) and were of host origin after even allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Better clinical outcomes (pain, foot and ankle deformity) and osteonecrosis repair on MRI with absence of collapse were obtained in ankles that received cell therapy as compared with those with core decompression alone or those without initial surgery. No tumour was found on MRI at the sites of injection and this study found no increased risk of recurrence or of new cancer in this population after an average follow-up of 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that autologous MSCs can improve the quality of life of leukemia survivors with ankle osteonecrosis.

2.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860853

RESUMO

PURPOSE: From the eleventh to the thirteenth century, three major events marked surgery in France: the appearance of an epidemic linked to ergotism which led to numerous amputations, the emergence of barber surgeons for civilian practice, and the organization of war surgery for the First Crusade. MATERIAL AND METHODS: If a certain separation between medicine and surgery had appeared at the beginning of the Middle Ages, it would have been from 1215 (at the time of the Lateran Council) that the real separation between medicine and surgery was made. Before this date, the surgery was done by the clergy (monks) who had some experience of surgical practice. After the Council de Lateran, the barbers will take charge of the surgery. RESULTS: In the Middle Ages, the first cause of amputation was linked to poisoning by ergot of rye, intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated bread. Due to ergotamine-related vasoconstriction, many patients will die with a frequency ranging from 10 to 20% in times of starvation. For survivors, gangrenes will lead to amputations made at the beginning by monks, then by the barber surgeons after 1215. With the name of barber surgeon, barbers are initially responsible for small surgical procedures, then for amputations given the epidemics linked to ergotism which led to numerous amputations. By this practice, they will acquire the knowledge of anatomy and the knowledge of the surgery. Apart from this civilian practice of surgery carried out by barber surgeons, the military practice of surgery will appear with the conquests of England and the start of the crusades which will require a more professional organization of surgery. CONCLUSION: After 1371, as only barbers surgeons had some surgical practice, their knowledge surpassed knowledge of the university. This supremacy of the barber surgeon over the surgeons of the university will be demonstrated by Ambroise Paré.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917689

RESUMO

The value of bone marrow aspirate concentrates for treatment of human knee cartilage lesions is unclear. Most of the studies were performed with intra-articular injections. However, subchondral bone plays an important role in the progression of osteoarthritis. We investigated by a literature review whether joint, subchondral bone, or/and scaffolds implantation of fresh autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrated (BMAC) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would improve osteoarthritis (OA). There is in vivo evidence that suggests that all these different approaches (intra-articular injections, subchondral implantation, scaffolds loaded with BMAC) can improve the patient. This review analyzes the evidence for each different approach to treat OA. We found that the use of intra-articular injections resulted in a significant relief of pain symptoms in the short term and was maintained in 12 months. However, the clinical trials indicate that the application of autologous bone marrow concentrates in combination with scaffolds or in injection in the subchondral bone was superior to intra-articular injection for long-term results. The tendency of MSCs to differentiate into fibrocartilage affecting the outcome was a common issue faced by all the studies when biopsies were performed, except for scaffolds implantation in which some hyaline cartilage was found. The review suggests also that both implantation of subchondral BMAC and scaffolds loaded with BMAC could reduce the need for further surgery.

5.
Int Orthop ; 45(4): 915-922, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypoxia is a well-known complication in cemented arthroplasty; however, it is not known whether the level of hypoxia is related to the intramedullary pressure or to the age of the patient; therefore, we studied the intramedullary pressure and level of hypoxia in patients undergoing cemented arthroplasty. METHODS: A prospective study was performed during cemented arthroplasties in 25 patients with an average age of 66.2 ± 12.1 years old. The intramedullary pressure (IMP) was measured by placing a pressure transducer within the bone while simultaneously measuring the pulse oximetry arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), pulse, and blood pressure. These variables were obtained immediately after spinal anaesthesia, five minutes after cementation, and 15 minutes after prosthesis insertion. RESULTS: One hundred percent of patients had hypoxia at some level, but 83% of elderly patients (older than 66.5 years) had hypoxia (SpO2 <94%) as compared to only 23% of younger patients (p = 0.006). In the group of young patients, IMP was roughly increased 32 times as compared with baseline level, with as consequences a decrease of 4% of SpO2 (from 98.3 to 94.15%); in the elderly group, the IMP was only increased 20 times, but a decrease of 6% of SpO2 (from 97.25 to 91%) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrated higher hypoxia in elderly healthy patients despite a paradoxical lower femoral increase of intramedullary pressure as compared with younger patients. This hypoxia is probably not only related to the cement but also to the patient's age with decline of maximum oxygen uptake capacity and increase bone porosity. CLINICAL TRIALS: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03930537 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03930537.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Cimentos para Ossos , Cimentação , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sickle cell disease is often associated with osteonecrosis of the humeral head with a risk of progression to humeral head collapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and the effect on the necrosis evolution of humeral head core decompression with autologous bone marrow aspirate injection in these patients. METHODS: Forty shoulders in 23 patients were treated with core decompression with autologous concentrated iliac crest bone marrow aspirate injection. Patients were followed for a minimum of two  years (limits from 2 to 10 years). Functional outcomes metrics included the simple shoulder test (STT) and subjective shoulder value (SSV) as well as assessment of radiographic progression of disease. RESULTS: Shoulder function improved significantly at final follow-up. The STT improved by 2.9 points (p = 0.001) and the SVV improved by 15 % (p = 0.001). However, based on radiologic features, the intervention did not halt the radiographic progression of disease nor did it result in healing of the lesion. The benefits were mainly clinical with diminished pain and functional improvement. CONCLUSION: Improvement in shoulder function was observed following core decompression and bone marrow aspirate injection in patients with sickle cell disease and early humeral head necrosis stages. The procedure should not be considered for grade 3 or greater disease and for asymptomatic cases whatever the grade. Given the lack of radiographic improvement observed in this study, further study in the context of prospective controlled trials should be undertaken before this intervention can be widely recommended.

7.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During the Middle Ages, the Christian church established itself as the dominant force over all aspects of medieval life, including the practice of medicine. As the Church's influence expanded across Europe, the role of lay practitioners in medicine declined, and clerics gradually assumed the role of healers in surgical practice as the cure of the soul was felt to take precedence over cure of bodily ills. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of hospital foundation, old-school surgical techniques still used today was performed during the first part of the Middle Age. RESULTS: The Hospital Hotel Dieu in Paris was founded and remains the oldest worldwide still-operating hospital. The monastery became a resting place for travelers, as well as a place of refuge for the sick. As this role expanded, monks often developed considerable surgical expertise. This led to fierce competition for saintly relics and pilgrims. Among the myriad of saints to whom powers of healing were ascribed, the names of Damian and Cosmas figure prominently in medical history. Old-school medieval surgery was also performed with some bizarre techniques such as lip service by wound suckers, cautery, blood-letting, leech therapy, and maggot therapy. CONCLUSION: This account of surgery before it became scientific is based on a chronology that runs from the Clovis baptism to the reign of Charlemagne; much of the medicine in this period was based on ancient doctrines; indeed, much of the development of medicine in the period called as "Dark Age" was due to the slow and difficult business of recovering and trying to understand ancient medicine.

8.
EFORT Open Rev ; 5(10): 641-651, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204507

RESUMO

The prognosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) has greatly improved in recent years, resulting in an increased number of patients reporting musculoskeletal complications such as osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be utilized to alleviate the pain associated with this disease.Although it is well known that hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis (AVN) in SCD may represent a challenge for the surgeon, complications are frequent, and no guidelines exist to prevent these complications. Because patients with SCD will frequently undergo THA, we thought it necessary to fulfil the need for guidance recommendations based on experience, evidence and agreement from the literature.For all these reasons this review proposes guidelines that provide clinicians with a document regarding management of patients with SCD in the period of time leading up to primary THA. The recommendations provide guidance that has been informed by the clinical expertise and experience of the authors and available literature.Although this is not a systematic review since some papers may have been published in languages other than English, our study population consisted of 5,868 patients, including 2,126 patients with SCD operated on for THA by the senior author in the same hospital during 40 years and 3,742 patients reported in the literature. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:641-651. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190073.

9.
Int Orthop ; 44(12): 2787-2805, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Three hundred seventy million years ago, bone marrow appeared in skeleton of a fish. More than one hundred years ago, the concept of bone marrow transplantation was proposed to treat human diseases. During the last five decades, this concept became a reality first in hematology and later for orthopaedic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: These advances were possible due to the comprehension of the three major components of bone marrow: the fat part, the haematologic part, and the stroma part. Each part has a different history, but the three parts are linked in physiology as in history. RESULTS: During many centuries, bone marrow was considered just as food; however, one hundred years ago, the concept of bone marrow transplantation to treat humans was proposed by the French physician Brown-Séquard. During the last five decades, this concept became a reality first in haematology and later for orthopaedic diseases. Transferring what was known from experimental animal models to humans was met with many challenges, the atomic bomb research, and many deaths. Yet through the recognition and subsequent understanding of fundamental processes, medical resiliency, and the determination of a few pioneers, local bone marrow transplantation in orthopaedic surgery became a therapeutic option first for a limited number of diseases and patients. Over the last two decades, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been the focus of intense research by acadaemia and industry due to their unique features. MSCs can be easily isolated and expanded through in vitro culture by taking full advantage of their self-renewing capacity. In addition, MSCs exert immunomodulatory effects and can be differentiated into various lineages, which makes them highly attractive for clinical applications in cell-based therapies. CONCLUSION: In this review, we attempted to provide a historical overview of bone marrow history, MSC discovery, characterization, and the first clinical studies conducted.

10.
Orthop Surg ; 12(5): 1340-1349, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015963

RESUMO

The humeral head is the second most common site for nontraumatic osteonecrosis after the femoral head, yet it has attracted relatively little attention. Osteonecrosis is associated with many conditions, such as traumatism, corticosteroid use, sickle cell disease, alcoholism, dysbarism (or caisson disease), and Gaucher's disease. The diagnosis is clinical and radiographic with MRI, with radiographs being the basis for staging. Many theories have been proposed to decipher the mechanism behind the development of osteonecrosis, but none have been proven. Because osteonecrosis may affect patients with a variety of risk factors, it is important that caregivers have a heightened index of suspicion. Early detection may affect prognosis because prognosis is dependent on the stage and location of the disease. In particular, the disease should be suspected in patients with a history of fractures, steroid usage, or sickle cell disease, and in divers. This report reviews osteonecrosis of the humeral head, with an emphasis on causes, clinical evaluation, imaging, and classification.

11.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 106(8): 1561-1568, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head often progresses to femoral head collapse if not treated. Conservative treatment yields highly variable results and is not standardised, mainly because it is typically evaluated in small patient populations. This led us to conduct a large retrospective comparative study with the goals of 1) analysing survival and functional outcomes, 2) looking for differences in survival between core decompression techniques (standard versus augmented), and 3) studying the risk factors for femoral head collapse and revision by arthroplasty. HYPOTHESIS: Core decompression limits the number of patients who suffer femoral head collapse requiring arthroplasty at 2 years' follow-up. METHODS: This multicentre, comparative, retrospective study analysed 330 patient records (1975-2016) where at least 2 years' follow-up was available. Sixty-two patients were excluded from the analysis: 5 had a stage III with collapse, 5 were lost to follow-up, 2 died within 24 months of the procedure and 50 had incomplete data. The study included 263 patients with a mean age of 42 years (15.7-70). In the Ficat classification, there were 51 cases of stage I necrosis, 186 cases of stage II and 22 cases of stage II with crescent sign (transition stage). The Kerboull angle on radiographs was between 5° and 20° in 40 patients, between 20° and 40° in 107 patients, between 40° and 60° in 52 patients and more than 60° in 29 patients. A standard core decompression was done in 79 patients and an augmented one in 184 patients. The more severe AVN cases (stage II) were more likely to be treated by augmented CD (160/184 patients, 87%) than by standard CD (48/79 patients, 61%) (p<0.001). RESULTS: In the 263 patients, the overall survival (no arthroplasty at 2 years) was 73% (196/263). At 2 years, the survival rate (without arthroplasty) was 71% (56/79) in the standard CD group versus 76% (140/184) in the augmented CD group. This difference was significant when adjusted for Ficat stage and Kerboull angle [HR=0.457, 95% CI (0.247-0.844) (p=0.012)]. When the survival data was adjusted to the Ficat stage, augmented CD was better than standard CD with 10-year survival of 58.1% vs. 57.9% (p=0.0082). More than 30% necrosis volume increased the risk of failure [HR=3.291 95%CI (1.494-7.248) (p=0.0031)]. Also, a Kerboull angle above 60° increased the risk of failure [HR=3.148 95%CI (1.346-7.5) (p=0.0083)]. CONCLUSION: After 2 years, CD for non-collapsed femoral head AVN prevents collapse and revision to arthroplasty in 73% of cases (196/268). Augmented CD improves the 2-year survival and the long-term survival after adjusting for preoperative characteristics (Kerboullangle and Ficat stage). The risk of collapse and need for arthroplasty is greater in patients with 30% necrosis volume on MRI and Kerboull angle above 60°. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; retrospective case-control study.

12.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to discuss the mechanical function of subchondral bone cysts and its relationship with Wolff's law. METHODS: One hundred forty symptomatic knees (120 patients) with osteoarthritis were subjected to MRI before high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Subchondral bone cysts (SBCs) were detected on 72 knees of these 140 knees. SBCs, bone marrow lesion (BML), and hip-knee-ankle (HKA) axis were measured by using validated methods. After HTO, the evolution of cysts was evaluated on MRI performed with a five year follow-up on the 72 knees with pre-operative cysts. RESULTS: At baseline, 70 (97%) of these 72 knees had a BML surrounding the SBCs; the maximum cyst volume was 874 mm3 and the average cyst volume 9. 6 ± 4.1 mm3. In the subregions where cysts were present, adjacent cartilage was still present without full thickness defects. The mean pre-operative hip-knee-ankle angle was 7.3 ± 3 degrees (0° to 14°) of varus and differed significantly (p = 0.01) between the 68 knees without cysts (average 3 ± 2 degrees) and the 72 knees with cysts (average 9.2 ± 4 degrees). Five years after HTO, the number of cysts had decreased, the maximum cyst volume was 532 mm3, and the average cyst volume was 6.3 ± 2.8 mm3. CONCLUSION: Regression of subchondral bone cysts may be related to restoration of an appropriate load at the subchondral bone. With applying poroelasticity to bone mechaincs, this finding may suggest that SBCs and BMLs may be a physiological adaptation to mechanic overload. More basic research is needed to prove this matter.

13.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 409-415, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877099

RESUMO

Hip osteonecrosis. Hip osteonecrosis of the is a relatively common pathology, responsible for pain and functional disability mainly affecting young people. It corresponds to bone necrosis of the femoral head, secondary to ischemic and/or cytotoxic mechanisms. They can be unilateral, bilateral or multifocal, thus testifying to the systemic nature of their origin and the importance of the general factors involved in their occurrence. Many risk factors are to be looked for, such as corticosteroid therapy, alcohol abuse, dyslipidemia or sickle cell anemia. MRI is the examination that allows a positive diagnosis and should be offered in the face of any unexplained pain in the young subject, with a normal X-ray. In advanced forms with a collapse of the joint surface and then secondary arthritis, surgical treatment with arthroplasty is the main possible option. The hip prosthesis provides these patients with a comfortable life; but it is not without risk taking into account the pathology which is usually the cause of osteonecrosis: in fact, osteonecrosis of the hip is often associated with serious medical pathologies such as hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia in particular), taking corticosteroids in large doses in connection with organ transplantation or diseases such as lupus erythematosus, autoimmune diseases, hyperlipidemias and excessive alcohol intake. However, there are promising therapeutic advances, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells, which could in the future improve the poor joint prognosis of aseptic osteonecrosis. These conservative treatments are recommended at a stage without collapse of the articular surface.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Osteonecrose/cirurgia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteonecrose/etiologia
14.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852064

RESUMO

Short and long-term stabilities of cementless implants are strongly determined by the interfacial load transfer between implants and bone tissue. Stress-shielding effects arise from shear stresses due to the difference of material properties between bone and the implant. It remains difficult to measure the stress field in periprosthetic bone tissue. This study proposes to investigate the dependence of the stress field in periprosthetic bone tissue on (i) the implant surface roughness, (ii) the material properties of bone and of the implant, (iii) the bone-implant contact ratio. To do so, a microscale two-dimensional finite element model of an osseointegrated bone-implant interface was developed where the surface roughness was modeled by a sinusoidal surface. The results show that the isostatic pressure is not affected by the presence of the bone-implant interface while shear stresses arise due to the combined effects of a geometrical singularity (for low surface roughness) and of shear stresses at the bone-implant interface (for high surface roughness). Stress-shielding effects are likely to be more important when the bone-implant contact ratio value is low, which corresponds to a case of relatively low implant stability. Shear stress reach a maximum value at a distance from the interface comprised between 0 and 0.1 time roughness wavelength λ and tend to 0 at a distance from the implant surface higher than λ, independently from bone-implant contact ratio and waviness ratio. A comparison with an analytical model allows validating the numerical results. Future work should use the present approach to model osseointegration phenomena.

15.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is an increasing number of reports on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, it is not known what would better drive osteoarthritis stabilization to postpone total knee arthroplasty (TKA): targeting the synovial fluid by injection or targeting on the subchondral bone with MSCs implantation. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out between 2000 and 2005 in 120 knees of 60 patients with painful bilateral knee osteoarthritis with a similar osteoarthritis grade. During the same anaesthesia, a bone marrow concentrate of 40 mL containing an average 5727 MSCs/mL (range 2740 to 7540) was divided in two equal parts: after randomization, one part (20 mL) was delivered to the subchondral bone of femur and tibia of one knee (subchondral group) and the other part was injected in the joint for the contralateral knee (intra-articular group). MSCs were counted as CFU-F (colony fibroblastic unit forming). Clinical outcomes of the patient (Knee Society score) were obtained along with radiological imaging outcomes (including MRIs) at two year follow-up. Subsequent revision surgeries were identified until the most recent follow-up (average of 15 years, range 13 to 18 years). RESULTS: At two year follow-up, clinical and imaging (MRI) improvement was higher on the side that received cells in the subchondral bone. At the most recent follow-up (15 years), among the 60 knees treated with subchondral cell therapy, the yearly arthroplasty incidence was 1.3% per knee-year; for the 60 knees with intra-articular cell therapy, the yearly arthroplasty incidence was higher (p = 0.01) with an incidence of 4.6% per knee-year. For the side with subchondral cell therapy, 12 (20%) of 60 knees underwent TKA, while 42 (70%) of 60 knees underwent TKA on the side with intra-articular cell therapy. Among the 18 patients who had no subsequent surgery on both sides, all preferred the knee with subchondral cell therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of MSCs in the subchondral bone of an osteoarthritic knee is more effective to postpone TKA than injection of the same intra-articular dose in the contralateral knee with the same grade of osteoarthritis.

16.
Int Orthop ; 44(10): 1905-1913, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The long incubation period and asymptomatic spread of COVID-19 present considerable challenges for health care institutions when patients return to elective surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of the first adult elective cases performed between May 18, 2020 and June 14, 2020, after the end of lockdown was analysed in Belgium to answer the following questions: (1) for the 236 cancelled patients during the outbreak, how easy was rescheduling? (2) How useful was universal RT-PCR testing and chest CT scan for the 211 orthopaedic and trauma admissions? (3) How were surgical difficulty category, number of operations and complications different when compared to the pre-COVID period? (4) How would patients balance the benefit of surgery against the unknown risk of developing COVID-19? RESULTS: Before surgery, blood tests for anaesthesiology and imaging related to the surgical procedure were scheduled prior to universal testing (COVID-19 PCR and chest CT) performed 72-120 hours before surgery. Among the 211 asymptomatic patients who were tested before surgery, six had positive PCR, while no abnormality was found on the chest CT scan of all the patients. With this timing for tests, the 104 patients included in the current study for elective surgery were free of disease before undergoing surgery and remained without COVID-19 after surgery. Among the 366 cancelled patients during the outbreak, only 12% of the patients accepted to proceed with rescheduling immediately. Therefore, this resulted in a 70% reduction for elective surgery and in a 50% reduction for arthroplasties as compared to pre-COVID period. The rate of complications was not increased during the post-COVID period. A portion of patients have confused idea of screening and have difficulty to perceive the new rules of health organization. CONCLUSIONS: Resumption of elective surgical procedures appears more difficult for patients than for surgeons with a low percentage of cancelled patients accepting to reschedule surgery. Universal testing allowed securing patients; however, surgeons must explore better patient perceptions regarding COVID-19 to facilitate a fully informed decision in the current period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Orthop ; 44(8): 1571-1580, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Based on the recent literature, chest computed tomography (CT) examination could aid for management of patients during COVID-19 pandemic. However, the role of chest CT in management of COVID-19 patients is not exactly the same for medical or surgical specialties. In orthopaedic or trauma emergency, abdomen, pelvis, cervical, dorsal, and lumbar spine CT are performed to investigate patients; the result is a thoracic CT scan incorporating usually the thorax; however, information about lung parenchyma can be obtained on this thorax CT, and manifestations of COVID-19 can be diagnosed. The objective of our study was to evaluate this role in orthopedic patients to familiarize orthopaedists with the value and limits of thoracic CT in orthopaedic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 1397 chest CT scans performed during the pandemic period from 1 March 2020 to 10 May 2020, in two centres with orthopaedic surgery, we selected all the 118 thoracic or chest CT performed for patients who presented to the Emergency Department of the hospital with a diagnosis of trauma for orthopaedic surgical treatment. Thirty-nine of these 118 patients were tested with PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Depending on clinical status (symptomatic or non-symptomatic), the information useful for the orthopaedist surgeon and obtained from the Chest CT scan according to the result of the PCR (gold standard) was graded from 0 (no or low value) to 3 (high value). The potential risks of chest CT as exposure to radiation, and specific pathway were analyzed and discussed. A group of patients treated during a previous similar period (1 March 2018 to 15 April 2018) was used as control for evaluation of the increase of CT scanning during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 118 patients with chest CT, there were 16 patients with positive COVID-19 chest CT findings, and 102 patients with negative chest CT scan. With PCR results as reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value of chest CT in indicating COVID-19 infection were 81%, 93%, and 86%, respectively (p = 0.001). A useful information for the orthopaedic surgeon (graded as 1 for 71 cases, as 2 for 5 cases, and as 3 for 11 cases) was obtained from 118 chest CT scans for 87 (74%) patients, while the CT was no value in 30 (25%) cases, and negative value in one (1%) case. Roughly 20% of the total number of CT scanner performed over the pandemic period was dedicated to COVID-19, but only 2% were for orthopaedic or trauma patients. However, this was ten times higher than during the previous control period of comparison. CONCLUSION: Although extremely valuable for surgery management, these results should not be overstated. The CT findings studied are not specific for COVID-19, and the positive predictive value of CT will be low unless disease prevalence is high, which was the case during this period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ortopedia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiografia Torácica , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int Orthop ; 44(8): 1473-1480, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 is the biggest challenge for national health systems for a century. While most medical resources are allocated to treat COVID-19 patients, fractures still need to be treated, as some patients with non-deferrable pathologies. The aim of this paper is to report the early experience of an integrated team of orthopaedic surgeons during this period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a mono-geographic, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. We collected data from the beginning of the epidemic (1 March 2020), during the pandemic lockdown period (declared in the country on March 16, 2020) until the end of our study period on April 15, 2020. All the 140 patients presented to the Emergency Department of the hospital during this period with a diagnosis of fracture, or trauma (sprains, dislocations, wounds) were included in the cohort. In addition, 12 patients needing hospitalization for planning a non-deferrable elective surgical treatment were included. A group of patients from the two same hospitals and treated during the same period (1st March 2018 to April 15, 2018) but previously was used as control. RESULTS: Of these 152 patients (mean age 45.5 years; range 1 to 103), 100 underwent a surgical procedure and 52 were managed non-operatively. Twenty-eight were children and 124 were adults. The COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed for four patients. The frequency of patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis among this population treated in emergency was ten fold higher (2.6%; 4 among 152) than in the general population (0.30%) of the country. The mortality rate for patients with surgery was 2% (2 of 100 patients) and 50% (2 of 4) for those older than 60 years with COVID-19; it was null for patients who were managed non-operatively. As compared to the year 2018, the number of patients seen with trauma had decreased of 32% during the epidemic. CONCLUSION: Staying home during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased trauma frequency of 32%. The structural organization in our hospital allowed us to reduce the time to surgery and ultimately hospital stay, thereby maximizing the already stretched medical resources available to treat all the patients who needed orthopedic care during this period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as potential treatment modalities for knee osteoarthritis. However, indications and long-term results have not been frequently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone marrow lesion on MRI are predictive of risk progression to total knee arthroplasty during the first ten years after subchondral cell therapy. METHODS: This study included 140 adults aged 65 to 90 years. These 140 patients (mean age 75.4 ± 14.2 years) planned to undergo staged-bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for medial osteoarthritis, had "comparable" pain in both knees, and accepted randomization of the knees for surgery. They received TKA on one side and a subchondral injection of MSCs (from iliac bone marrow concentrate) on the contralateral knee during the same anaesthetic. The bone marrow graft of 20 cm3 volume (10 cc in the tibia and 10 cc in the femur) contained average 7800 MSCs/mL (range 3120 to 11,560). The baseline volume of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) on the tibia and on the femoral condyle determined on MRI was average 3.4 cm3 (range 0.4 to 6.4 cm3). The risk of subsequent knee arthroplasty due to absence of bone marrow lesions regression as well as osteoarthritis (OA) grade was evaluated with Cox proportional-hazards ratio after control of baseline variables (number of cells injected, age, knee alignment). RESULTS: After treatment with MSCs injection in bone marrow lesions of the subchondral bone, medial femorotibial compartment BML volume experienced regression over 24 months (mean regression 1.5 cm3, range 0.8 to 3.2 cm3). At the most recent follow up (average of 15 years, range 10 to 20 years), a total of 25 (18%) of the 140 patients underwent total knee arthroplasty performed at a mean of ten years (range, 5 to 15 years) after the date of the cell therapy. The overall incidence of knee arthroplasty after cell therapy was 1.19% per person-year which was equivalent to the risk of a revision for a primary TKA in the contralateral knees of the same patient population (21 revisions, corresponding to 1.00% revision per person-year; p = 0.34). After adjusting for confounders, persistent BMLs larger than 3 cm3 after cell therapy was a strong independent risk factor for total knee arthroplasty (hazard ratio HR = 4.42 [95% CI = 2.34 to 7.21]; p < 0.001), regardless of OA grade, with higher risks demonstrated for larger BMLs. Incidence rates of arthroplasty were also higher for young patients and for knees presenting severe malalignment. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that subchondral bone marrow concentrate (as compared with TKA) had a sufficient effect on pain to postpone or avoid the TKA in the contra lateral joint of patients with bilateral osteoarthritis. Bone marrow lesions were predictive factors for future knee arthroplasty in the knee with subchondral cell therapy at ten years follow-up.

20.
J Orthop Translat ; 21: 100-110, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309135

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common and refractory disease in orthopaedic clinics. The number of patients with ONFH is increasing worldwide every year. There are an estimated 8.12 million patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis in China alone. Treatment of nontraumatic osteonecrosis has always been a clinical challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. To further standardize diagnosis and treatment of ONFH, these guidelines provide not only basic diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation systems for ONFH but also expert advice and standards in many aspects, including epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostic criteria, pathological staging, prevention and treatment options, and postoperative rehabilitation. The aetiological factors of ONFH can currently be divided into two major categories: traumatic and nontraumatic; however, the specific pathological mechanism of ONFH is not completely clear. Currently, the staging system of ONFH formulated by the Association Research Circulation Osseous is widely used in clinical practice. Based on the changes in the intraosseous blood supply at different stages, the corresponding nonsurgical and surgical treatments are recommended, and when there are risk factors for possible ONFH, certain preventive measures to avoid the occurrence of osteonecrosis are recommended. These guidelines provide brief classification criteria and treatment regimen for osteonecrosis. Specification of the aetiology, treatment plan based on comprehensive consideration of the different stages of osteonecrosis, hip function, age, and occupation of the patients are important steps in diagnosis and developing treatment strategies. Translational potential of this article: New advances in the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, imaging, diagnosis and treatment of ONFH have been renewed in this revision. This guideline can be used for reference by orthopedic professionals and researchers, and for standardized diagnosis and treatment management under the clinical guidance, which is conducive to the prevention, treatment and further research of ONFH, improving the diagnosis and treatment level, making patients' symptoms under good control, and improving their quality of life.

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