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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338809, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482865

RESUMO

We present a new analytical approach for the analysis of triacylglycerol fatty acyls distribution by normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with APPI+-HRMS. The NPLC method used allows the separation of more than 30 classes of lipids. The energy of the APPI+ source enables the formation of low-intensity ions B fragments ([RC = O+74]+ <3%), characteristic of lipids with a glycerol esterified by one or more fatty acyls. We found the relative intensities of ions B were close to the fatty acyl distribution. To establish the proof of concept, we decided to focus on the triacylglycerols (TGs) class, the major component of plant oils. By either NPLC or FIA, the TGs class appeared as a single peak. In our experimental conditions, ions B are always present in the mass spectra of TGs and each ion B is specific to a fatty acyl group. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer featured high enough resolution and accuracy to identify ions B and distinguish them from other TG fragment ions. A further adjustment of the fatty acyls relative quantities calculation from ions B intensities was computed using weighting coefficients of ions B response. The methodology was developed and validated using plant oils characterized by a GC-FID reference method. NPLC-APPI+-HRMS method offers the advantage of analyzing the fatty acyl composition of complex lipid extracts without the need for sample preparation.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Monoglicerídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Triglicerídeos
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1525: 116-125, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061473

RESUMO

While important advances have been recently achieved in the optimization of lipid classes' separation, information on the specific determination of medium polarity lipids such as sphingolipids (SLs) in highly complex matrices remains fragmentary. In human, disorders of SL metabolism known as sphingolipidoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders affecting primarily the central nervous. Early diagnosis of these conditions is of importance notably when a corrective therapy is available. The diagnosis is generally based on the determination of specific SLs in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). For instance, glucosylceramide (GL1), glucosylsphingosine (Lyso-GL1), sphingosine (Sph), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are proposed as relevant biomarkers for Gaucher disease (GD). Our main objective was to evaluate these biomarker candidates in a cohort of GD patients. However, most of current methods of GL1, Lyso-GL1, Sph, and S1P determination in plasma of GD patients require at least two liquid chromatographic runs. On the other hand, except for GL1 nothing is known concerning the RBC sphingolipid content. Yet, several reversed phase LC-MS methods of SLs separation and/or determination in various media with different sample preparation approaches have been proposed since 2010. Here we focused on stationary phase selection and mobile phase composition as well as on the sample preparation step to optimize and validate an UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the four sphingolipids in both plasma and RBCs. A comparison between seven stationary phases including two RP18, two polar embedded RP18, and three HILIC phases shows that under our conditions polar embedded RP18 phases are the most appropriate for the separation of the four SLs, in terms of efficiency, peak symmetry, and separation time. In the same way, a comparison between a single step extraction with methanol and a liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether, shows that the latter mixture is the most appropriate for the extraction of SLs in terms of recovery and absence of matrix effect. After validation, this method was applied to the evaluation of the targeted SLs in a cohort of 15 known GD patients. The obtained results show that Lyso-GL1 is the only relevant biomarker in both plasma and RBCs for GD diagnosis. As the proposed method is applicable to the determination in such a highly complex matrices of four SLs with a large difference in polarity, and as the sample preparation procedure is freedom of matrix effects, this method can be easily adapted to a large diversity of samples.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Eritrócitos/química , Doença de Gaucher/diagnóstico , Plasma/química , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Doença de Gaucher/sangue , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1041-1042: 151-157, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039812

RESUMO

The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time. In the present study, in order to decrease the analysis time while maintaining good chromatographic separation, we tested different monomeric and polymeric stationary phases and different chromatographic conditions (mobile phase composition and analysis temperature) using Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP-LC). It was demonstrated that mixed polymeric stationary bonded silica with accessible terminal hydroxyl groups leads to very good separation for the pairs of TAGs regioisomers constituted by two saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid (with double bond number: from 1 to 6). A Nucleodur C18 ISIS percolated by isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/2-propanol) at 18°C leads to their separations in less than 15min. The difference of retention times between two regioisomers XYX and XXY are large enough to confirm, as application, the presence of POP, SOP, SOS and PLP and no PPO, SPO, SSO and PPL in Theobroma cacao butter. In the same way, this study respectively shows the presence of SOS, SOP and no SSO, PSO in Butyrospermum parkii butter, POP, SOP, SOS and no PPO, PSO and SSO in Carapa oil and finally POP and no PPO in Pistacia Lentiscus oil.


Assuntos
Gorduras/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/química
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1397: 59-72, 2015 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25895730

RESUMO

Nowadays, the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions to be used in Reversed Phase Liquid Ultra-Performance Flash Purification is still challenging. This is due to four different items. In most cases, flash purification stationary phases are not available with geometry of column used in analytical chromatography. The flash purification columns are single-use only. From the point of view of selectivity and retention, few RPLC phases exist with properties of separation identical for analytical and flash purification supports. Characterization methods and databases used for comparing analytical RPLC columns do not include stationary phases for RP flash purification columns. The goal of this work is to develop a new method development strategy which permits the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions on RP ultra-performance flash purification columns. It relies on the knowledge of any isocratic conditions obtained on any given initial reversed stationary phase. The final conditions to implement on the RP ultra-performance flash purification phase enable either to keep the retention range of a selected solute constant, or to set it around a previously chosen value. The rules of transfer in linear gradient mode are also described. The methodology was valid, whatever the initial RP stationary and mobile phases, for different chemical classes, whatever the bonding, particle diameter, porous or core shell particle, towards different RP alkyl and analogues stationary and mobile phases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Porosidade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855317

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are a large class of neutral lipids that naturally occur in both plant and animal oils and fats. Their analyses in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP) require a mixture of weak solvent (mostly acetonitrile) and strong solvent. In the present work, we have established eluotropic solvent strength scale of several binary mobile phases on C18 bonded silica at different temperatures (acetonitrile/methylene chloride, acetonitrile/acetone, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/propan-2-ol, and acetonitrile/butan-1-ol at 25°C, 43°C, 63°C and 85°C); it is based on the methylene selectivity and the use of homologous series. We show that this scale is well suited to the TAGs analysis. The analysis of nine seed oils (Aleurites fordii, Calophyllum inophyllum, Glycina max, Olea europea, Orbignya olifeira, Pinus koraiensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Punica granatum and Ribes nigrum) in iso-eluotropic conditions leads to propose unambiguously the couple MeCN/BuOH at 25°C as the best system to separate TAGs. The use of butanol, as strong solvent, provides very good TAGs congeners separations and avoids the use of chlorinated solvents which gave to this day the best separations.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Solventes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Butanóis/química , Modelos Químicos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/química
6.
Anal Chem ; 85(20): 9459-68, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23998686

RESUMO

In this paper we propose a method for the evaluation of real separation quality in multidimensional separations based on the nearest neighbor distances (NND). This approach allows us to overcome the principal drawback of the orthogonality measurement which does not evaluate how good the real separation obtained with one system is, especially when compared to another one. Separation quality evaluation takes into account the distances (di(s)) between peaks in whole separation space. The distances between nearest neighbors were calculated in resolution scaled analysis space to overcome statistically different peak widths in each dimension. The obtained separation quality is ranked by harmonic mean (H̅(s)) of the distances di(s). The extent of peak spreading, described by arithmetic mean (A̅(s)), gives an appreciation of the effective analysis space of 2D separation. The classifications of systems obtained with the same retention data using separation quality and orthogonality approaches show important differences in ranking orders depending on two different targets of these evaluations: the separation potential of a 2D system and the divergence of selectivity between both separation directions. This study shows separation quality and orthogonality merit to be evaluated in parallel for the same systems. The other new threshold descriptor, minimal limit distance (dilim) derived from resolution dependent peak capacity scale, was used to predict the separation quality as a function of desired resolution. We also introduce here a composed descriptor for 2D systems: the optimality coefficient (Oc), which may be useful in the 2D separation optimization process. It takes into account the maximization of homogeneity of peak spreading (H̅(s)/A̅(s)) and the minimization of effective analysis space (or compactness, dilim/A̅(s)) terms.

7.
Anal Chem ; 85(20): 9449-58, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24066841

RESUMO

We propose here a new approach to the evaluation of two-dimensional and, more generally, multidimensional separations based on topological methods. We consider the apex plot as a graph, which could further be treated using a topological tool: the measure of distances between the nearest neighbors (NND). Orthogonality can be thus defined as the quality of peak dispersion in normalized separation space, which is characterized by two factors describing the population of distances between nearest neighbors: the lengths (di(o)) of distances and the degree of similarity of all lengths. Orthogonality grows with the increase of both factors. The NND values were used to calculate a number of new descriptors. They inform about the extent of peak distribution, like the arithmetic mean (A̅(o)) of NNDs, as well as about the homogeneity of peak distribution, like the geometric mean (G̅(o)) and the harmonic mean (H̅(o)). Our new, NND-based approach was compared with another recently published method of orthogonality evaluation: the fractal dimensionality (DF). The comparison shows that the geometric mean (G̅(o)) is the descriptor behaving in the most similar way to dimensionality (DF) and the harmonic mean (H̅(o)) displays superior sensitivity to the shortest, critical distances between peaks. The latter descriptor (H̅(o)) can be considered as sufficient to describe the degree of orthogonality based on NND. The method developed is precise, simple, easy to implement, and possible to use for the description of separations in a true or virtual system of any number of dimensions.

8.
Analyst ; 138(19): 5801-10, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23897114

RESUMO

A comparison of chromatograms obtained in a series of separation conditions for a given complex mixture may be done with a series of chromatographic descriptors. In this study, we used two descriptors: the number of critical pairs and symmetry of peaks, further rescaled and converted to the corresponding critical pairs' coefficient (CPc) and symmetry coefficient (Sc). Considering the difficulty of appreciating global separation quality using CPc and Sc criteria separately, as their respective values are usually uncorrelated, a double-criteria cross-evaluation system was required. For that purpose we tested the commonly used multi-criteria decision-making method - Derringer's desirability function (D) - as well as the recently introduced sum of ranking differences (SRD). To facilitate the graphical comparison of both approaches, the desirability function (D) was used in the inverse form (Dinv). The advantages and drawbacks of both evaluation methods, especially the respective under- or over-evaluation of outliers, caused us to introduce a new ranking approach, separation system suitability (3S). The obtained suitability rankings for the three tested approaches (Dinv, SRD and 3S) are different; nevertheless, 3S appears to be the most balanced and the easiest to interpret as well. The approach developed for selection of suitable systems was applied to the problem of separation of complex mixtures through the analysis of a series of standards of anthraquinone derivatives. To judge the pertinence of this evaluation, a sample containing a number of natural anthraquinones extracted from the bark of Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) was analysed. In conclusion, the proposed methodology for the cross-evaluation of the series of chromatograms using single specific descriptors (CPc and Sc) through a global composite descriptor (3S) significantly simplifies the decision that separation systems are the most suitable for the separation of complex target mixtures of compounds.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 722: 80-6, 2012 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22444537

RESUMO

The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Triglicerídeos/análise , Cinética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/normas , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica , Triglicerídeos/normas
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(31): 5087-100, 2011 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21696745

RESUMO

A new simple strategy to identify triacylglycerols (TAGs) in oils and fats was performed using on line coupling of non aqueous reversed phase chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (NARP-LC-ESI-MS(2)) with silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) as post-column additive, and chromatographic data (partition number information and both the graphs of log k vs. number of double bond (DBN) and carbon number (CN)). NARP liquid chromatography permitted to separate TAGs composed of Δ5 and Δ9 but not from Δ11 double bond location on alkyl chain of fatty acid residues. Silver cationization improved the sensitivity by a factor one hundred. MS(2) information gave unambiguously the nature of three fatty acid residues bonded to glyceryl backbone of TAGs while log k against DBN and CN curves discriminated between the same molecular mass TAG isomers (whose constitutive fatty acid residues are double bond position and configuration isomers). Combination of structural information given by MS with chromatographic retention laws led to the development of a general methodology for determination of the structure of TAGs in lipids. This methodology was applied to Pinus koraiensis seed oil for which some uncommon TAGs are present. It permitted the identification of 58 TAGs in this oil. The experimental proof of 29 uncommon TAGs as component of this oil is demonstrated. Among them 26 were minor constituents.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Pinus/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(23): 3636-47, 2011 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21529815

RESUMO

A series of reversed phases bonded with several functional groups was investigated for separation of anthraquinone derivatives, following the previous work, dedicated to the selectivity of octadecyl silica bonded phases. Considering wide diversity of substitutions in hydrophobic anthraquinone skeleton, interactions like dipole-dipole, π-π or H-bond acceptor/donor, as well as inclusion complexes formation can be employed to improve separation. In this study, several phases with grafts like cyano, nitro, aromatic, PEG, diol, calixarene and cyclodextrin were used with water-acetonitrile gradient for separation of thirty anthraquinoids' standards. The evaluation of performances was measured using the symmetry parameter and the number of critical pairs of peaks formed. The results point out the aromatic and calixarene bonded silica as the most interesting in terms of symmetry and critical pairs number. Finally we tested the performance of Caltrex Resorcinaren, Pursuit XRs DP and Luna Phenyl-Hexyl on real samples of anthraquinone natural dye extracted from a red thread taken from a 15th C. tapestry. We observed and compared the retention behaviour of some new anthraquinoids additional to our standards set and showing behaviour particular to substituted anthraquinone carboxylic acids.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Corantes/análise , Têxteis/análise , Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Arte/história , Corantes/história , História do Século XV , Dióxido de Silício , Têxteis/história
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(6): 778-86, 2011 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21227440

RESUMO

Chromatographic study of natural products helps to determine their molecular composition and to identify their sources (biological, geographical, etc.). However, identifying anthraquinoids is still a challenge because this chemical family is composed of more than half a thousand molecules. In the present work, a series of C18 stationary phases were systematically studied to evaluate their separation potential for these compounds in high performance reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). The stationary phases with various physicochemical properties were evaluated with respect to the separation of 30 standards. Selectivity of the studied stationary phases and symmetry of the obtained peaks were chosen as the evaluation criteria. Calculations of symmetry and separation capacity parameters have been proposed. These parameters are not dependent on the dimensions of the columns and were used for the classifications of phases. In conclusion, this study is intended to be a guide as to which stationary phases analysts can use for resolving separation of a complex mixture of anthraquinoids.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Antraquinonas/química , Corantes/química , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular
13.
J Mass Spectrom ; 45(3): 284-96, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20049691

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) provide a challenge for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis because of their complexity. In particular, for dietary, nutritional and metabolic purposes, the positional placement of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone of TAGs is a crucial aspect. To solve this problem, we have investigated the TAGs' fragmentation patterns using an ion trap mass spectrometer. A series of pure regioisomeric pairs of TAGs (POP/PPO, POO/OPO and OSO/SOO) were cationized by Ag(+) after their separation by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography (NARP-LC) before MS to improve MS sensitivity. Electrospray ionization-MS (ESI-MS) conditions were optimized in order to produce characteristic [M + Ag + AgNO(3)](+) ions from each TAG, which were then fragmented to produce MS/MS spectra and then fragmented further to produce up to MS(5) spectra. The observation of ions produced by LC-MS(5) of on-line Ag(+)-cationized TAG provided unambiguous information on the fatty acid distribution on the glycerol backbone. These strategies of MS to MS(5) experiments were applied to identify components and to determine the regiospecificity of TAG within a complex mixture of lipids in natural oils.

14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1161(1-2): 152-6, 2007 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17583717

RESUMO

A new method for quantitative analyses using an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) is proposed. It is based on the preliminary determination of the calibration curve of an ELSD which correlates coefficient b and loga, the two coefficients from the equation: A=am(b), that characterize the law of the quantitative response for an ELSD. Dilutions of the mixture to be analyzed allow the determination of coefficient b for each component of the mixture. The knowledge of the b value and the experimental relationship correlating b with loga allows to determine the loga value and consequently to quantify each compound of the mixture. This method is an alternative to the quantitative method which uses an internal normalization without any response coefficient. This internal normalization method used with an ELSD provides inaccurate results and this inaccuracy increases when the analytes are in very different proportions. The relevance of the new method proposed in this work lies in the quantification of all the components present in a complex mixture when some of them are not available as standards.


Assuntos
Espalhamento de Radiação , Calibragem , Luz , Padrões de Referência
15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 39(1-2): 104-10, 2005 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15936162

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography method for the characterization of base deactivated columns was investigated in a collaborative study involving six laboratories. This work was carried out on two chromatographic supports (Xterra RP 18 and Symmetry Shield). Different cooling systems, namely water bath and air oven, were tested and it was shown that column thermoregulation did not significantly influence chromatographic data. In order to control the mobile phase composition, the latter was prepared by weight rather than volume. Thanks to the injection of a set of selected neutral compounds, extra-column effects were evaluated in each of the participating laboratories. The results showed that chromatographic supports tested in different laboratories and following the same test protocol could be effectively compared.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Laboratórios
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1035(2): 221-5, 2004 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15124815

RESUMO

The non-linear response is generally the main limitation to the general quantitative use of evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). In the particular case of triacylglycerol (TG) analysis, we present a preliminary paper dealing with the use of post-column additives as a means of monitoring the response of such a detector. As TG can form molecular association complexes (ligand-ligate associations) with either cholesterol, urea or silver nitrate, we report the influence of the concentration of each of these chemical compounds in the liquid phase directed towards the ELSD system. The results show that the response coefficient b of the calibration curve either decreases from 1.25-1.30 to 0.51 or increases from 1.25-1.30 to 1.78 according to the nature and concentration of post-column additive. The use of cholesterol as additive, at a discrete concentration, may lead to a linear response curve (b = 1), i.e. to the direct proportionality of ELSD response versus the TG concentration, making quantitative analysis of such solutes easier. On the other hand, to improve sensitivity, the addition of silver nitrate may be chosen for an increase in b value.


Assuntos
Triglicerídeos/química , Colesterol/química , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação , Nitrato de Prata/química , Ureia/química
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