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1.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(5): E568-E578, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences brain plasticity and feeding behaviour, and it has been linked to anorexia nervosa in numerous studies. Findings in mostly adult patients point to reduced serum BDNF levels in the acute stage of anorexia nervosa and rising levels with weight recovery. However, it is unclear whether this increase leads to normalization or supranormal levels, a difference that is potentially important for the etiology of anorexia nervosa and relapse. METHODS: We measured serum BDNF at admission (n = 149), discharge (n = 130), 1-year follow-up (n = 116) and 2.5-year follow-up (n = 76) in adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa hospitalized for the first time, and in healthy controls (n = 79). We analyzed associations with body mass index, eating disorder psychopathology and comorbidities. RESULTS: Serum BDNF was only nominally lower at admission in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls, but it increased continuously and reached supranormal levels at 2.5-year follow-up. BDNF was inversely associated with eating disorder psychopathology at discharge and positively associated with previous weight gain at 1-year follow-up. LIMITATIONS: We compensated for attrition and batch effects using statistical measures. CONCLUSION: In this largest longitudinal study to date, we found only nonsignificant reductions in BDNF in the acute stage of anorexia nervosa, possibly because of a shorter illness duration in adolescent patients. Supranormal levels of BDNF at 2.5-year follow-up could represent a pre-existing trait or a consequence of the illness. Because of the anorexigenic effect of BDNF, it might play an important predisposing role for relapse and should be explored further in studies that test causality.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661765

RESUMO

Conduct disorder (CD) with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CD/HCU) has been theoretically linked to specific difficulties with fear and sadness recognition, in contrast to CD with low levels of callous-unemotional traits (CD/LCU). However, experimental evidence for this distinction is mixed, and it is unclear whether these difficulties are a reliable marker of CD/HCU compared to CD/LCU. In a large sample (N = 1263, 9-18 years), we combined univariate analyses and machine learning classifiers to investigate whether CD/HCU is associated with disproportionate difficulties with fear and sadness recognition over other emotions, and whether such difficulties are a reliable individual-level marker of CD/HCU. We observed similar emotion recognition abilities in CD/HCU and CD/LCU. The CD/HCU group underperformed relative to typically developing (TD) youths, but difficulties were not specific to fear or sadness. Classifiers did not distinguish between youths with CD/HCU versus CD/LCU (52% accuracy), although youths with CD/HCU and CD/LCU were reliably distinguished from TD youths (64% and 60%, respectively). In the subset of classifiers that performed well for youths with CD/HCU, fear and sadness were the most relevant emotions for distinguishing them from youths with CD/LCU and TD youths, respectively. We conclude that non-specific emotion recognition difficulties are common in CD/HCU, but are not reliable individual-level markers of CD/HCU versus CD/LCU. These findings highlight that a reduced ability to recognise facial expressions of distress should not be assumed to be a core feature of CD/HCU.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371865

RESUMO

(1) Background: Evidence has accumulated that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than healthy controls. In epidemiologic studies, low 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with depression. This study analyzed the relationship between 25(OH)D serum levels in adolescent patients and AN and depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. (2) Methods: 25(OH)D levels and depressive symptoms were analyzed in 93 adolescent (in-)patients with AN from the Anorexia Nervosa Day patient versus Inpatient (ANDI) multicenter trial at clinic admission, discharge, and 1 year follow up. Mixed regression models were used to analyze the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). (3) Results: Although mean 25(OH)D levels constantly remained in recommended ranges (≥50 nmol/L) during AN treatment, levels decreased from (in)patient admission to 1 year follow up. Levels of 25(OH)D were neither cross-sectionally, prospectively, nor longitudinally associated with the BDI-II score. (4) Conclusions: This study did not confirm that 25(OH)D levels are associated with depressive symptoms in patients with AN. However, increasing risks of vitamin D deficiency over the course of AN treatment indicate that clinicians should monitor 25(OH)D levels.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/psicologia , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conduct disorder (CD) rarely occurs alone but is typically accompanied by comorbid psychiatric disorders, which complicates the clinical presentation and treatment of affected youths. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in comorbidity pattern in CD and to systematically explore the 'gender paradox' and 'delayed-onset pathway' hypotheses of female CD. METHODS: As part of the FemNAT-CD multisite study, semistructured clinical interviews and rating scales were used to perform a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of 454 girls and 295 boys with CD (9-18 years), compared to 864 sex- and age-matched typically developing controls. RESULTS: Girls with CD exhibited higher rates of current major depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder, whereas boys with CD had higher rates of current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In line with the 'gender paradox' hypothesis, relative to boys, girls with CD showed significantly more lifetime psychiatric comorbidities (incl. Alcohol Use Disorder), which were accompanied by more severe CD symptoms. Female and male youths with CD also differed significantly in their CD symptom profiles and distribution of age-of-onset subtypes of CD (i.e. fewer girls with childhood-onset CD). In line with the 'delayed-onset pathway' hypothesis, girls with adolescent-onset CD showed similar levels of dimensional psychopathology like boys with childhood-onset CD, while boys with adolescent-onset CD had the lowest levels of internalizing psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Within the largest study of CD in girls performed to date, we found compelling evidence for sex differences in comorbidity patterns and clinical presentation of CD. Our findings further support aspects of the 'gender paradox' and 'delayed-onset pathway' hypotheses by showing that girls with CD had higher rates of comorbid lifetime mental disorders and functional impairments, and they usually developed CD during adolescence. These novel data on sex-specific clinical profiles of CD will be critical in informing intervention and prevention programmes.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 49: 40-53, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813055

RESUMO

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. The stress hormone system has frequently been investigated as a neurobiological correlate of CD, while other interacting neuroendocrine biomarkers of sex hormone or neuropeptide systems have rarely been studied, especially in females. We examined multiple basal neuroendocrine biomarkers in female and male adolescents with CD compared to healthy controls (HCs), and explored whether they mediate effects of environmental risk factors on CD. Within the FemNAT-CD study, salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), estradiol, progesterone, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin were measured under basal conditions in 166 pubertal adolescents with CD, and 194 sex-, age-, and puberty-matched HCs (60% females, 9-18 years). Further, environmental risk factors were assessed. Single hormone analyses showed higher DHEA-S, and lower estradiol and progesterone levels in both females and males with CD relative to HCs. When accounting for interactions between neuroendocrine systems, a male-specific sex hormone factor (testosterone/DHEA-S) predicted male CD, while estradiol and a stress-system factor (cortisol/alpha-amylase) interacting with oxytocin predicted female CD. Estradiol, progesterone, and oxytocin partly explained associations between early environmental risk and CD. Findings provide evidence for sex-specific associations between basal neuroendocrine measures and CD. Especially altered sex hormones (androgen increases in males, estrogen reductions in females) robustly related to CD, while basal stress-system measures did not. Early environmental risk factors for CD may act partly through their effects on the neuroendocrine system, especially in females. Limitations (e.g., basal neuroendocrine assessment, different sample sizes per sex, pubertal participants, exploratory mediation analyses) are discussed.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924294

RESUMO

Approximately one-fifth to one-third of patients with adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) need intensive care in the course of their illness. This article provides an update and discussion on different levels of intensive care (inpatient treatment (IP), day patient treatment (DP) and home treatment (HoT)) in different health care systems based on recently published literature. Important issues discussed in this article are new recommendations for the refeeding process and the definition of target weight as well as principles of medical stabilization and psychotherapeutic approaches. The pros and cons of longer or shorter hospitalization times are discussed, and the advantages of stepped care and day patient treatment are described. A new promising intensive treatment method involving the patient, their caregivers and the direct home environment is introduced. Parents and caregivers should be included in treatment research to foster collaborative work with the attending clinicians. There is an urgent need to evaluate the mid- to long-term outcomes of various intensive treatment programs to compare their effectiveness and costs across different health care systems. This could help policy makers and other stakeholders, such as public and private insurances, to enhance the quality of eating disorder care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anorexia Nervosa/mortalidade , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidadores , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pais , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Participação dos Interessados , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(3): 499-513, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no generally accepted definitions or markers of treatment nonresponse in eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this paper was to examine how the duration of illness and other potential prognostic markers impacted on nonresponse and drop-out from treatment across different EDs subtypes. METHODS: A total sample of 1199 consecutively treated patients with EDs, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria, participated in this study. Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated for each ED diagnosis in which the probability of recovery was plotted against the duration of illness. RESULTS: Full remission was more likely for people with binge eating disorder (BED; 47.4%) and anorexia nervosa (AN; 43.9%) compared to bulimia nervosa (BN; 25.2%) and other specified feeding and EDs (OSFED; 23.2%). The cut-off points for the duration of the illness related with high likelihoods of poor response was 6-8 years among OSFED, 12-14 years among AN and BN and 20-21 years among BED. Other variables predicting nonresponse included dysfunctional personality traits. CONCLUSIONS: Nonresponse to treatment is associated with duration of illness which is in turn associated with poor response to previous treatment. However, there was no evidence for staging the illness using specific duration of illness criteria. Nevertheless, the shorter temporal trajectory for OSFED suggests that early interventions may be of importance for this group.

8.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(3): 316-328, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) often has its onset in childhood or adolescence. However, there is insufficient knowledge regarding access to and utilisation of age-specific clinical diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: A literature review covering the last 10 years was conducted to provide a narrative review of the current state of research on the detection and treatment of young patients with AN in primary and secondary care. RESULTS: Most articles were of Western European or US origin. Timely diagnosis of the eating disorder (ED) and treatment options more often depend on the structure and quality of the national health care system than on scientific evidence. Regular paediatric health check-ups and age-appropriate eating disorder services appear to facilitate early diagnosis. Age-specific treatment that also involves the carers is often associated with a higher continuity of care and a better outcome. Although many adolescents require an extension of treatment into young adulthood, individual and health care system-related obstacles in many countries prevent a smooth transition. CONCLUSION: To improve outcomes in childhood and adolescent AN, age-specific and timely diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are urgently needed.

9.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 103-116, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685971

RESUMO

Brain-to-brain synchrony has been proposed as an important mechanism underlying social interaction. While first findings indicate that it may be modulated in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no study to date has investigated the influence of different interaction partners and task characteristics. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning, we assessed brain-to-brain synchrony in 41 male typically developing (TD) children (8-18 years; control sample), as well as 18 children with ASD and age-matched TD children (matched sample), while performing cooperative and competitive tasks with their parents and an adult stranger. Dyads were instructed either to respond jointly in response to a target (cooperation) or to respond faster than the other player (competition). Wavelet coherence was calculated for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin brain signals. In the control sample, a widespread enhanced coherence was observed for parent-child competition, and a more localized coherence for parent-child cooperation in the frontopolar cortex. While behaviorally, children with ASD showed a lower motor synchrony than children in the TD group, no significant group differences were observed on the neural level. In order to identify biomarkers for typical and atypical social interactions in the long run, more research is needed to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of reduced synchrony in ASD.

10.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(3): 427-442, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this pilot study to apply a novel eating disorder (ED)-specific home treatment (HoT) to adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to investigate its feasibility, effects and safety. METHOD: Twenty-two patients consecutively admitted to the hospital and fulfilling DSM-5 criteria for typical or atypical AN received HoT after 4-8 weeks of inpatient treatment. During the first two months of HoT, the patient and her family were visited on average three to four times per week, during the third and fourth months of HoT once or twice a week by a multi-professional team. Body mass index, ED and general psychopathology, quality of life and treatment satisfaction were assessed in the patients at admission, start and end of HoT and the 1-year follow-up as well as carers' skills and burden. RESULTS: The majority of patients successfully achieved target weight within HoT and maintained it successfully at the 1-year follow-up. ED and general psychopathology in the patients and carers' skills improved significantly associated with a high treatment satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: HoT seems to be a promising new tool to improve outcome in adolescent AN and to reduce time of hospitalisation. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to generalise these results.

11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(6): 969-980, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota are linked to metabolic function, body weight regulation, and brain and behavioral changes. Alteration of gut microbiota is repeatedly demonstrated in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) and transplantation of stool from adult patients with AN reduces weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency in germ-free mice. No similar data are available for adolescents, who might differ from adults due to their shorter duration of illness. METHOD: Nineteen female adolescent patients with AN at admission and after short-term weight recovery were included in a longitudinal study and compared to 20 healthy controls (HC). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. Group comparisons, indicator genera and simper analysis were applied. Taxon abundances at admission was used to predict inpatient treatment duration. RESULTS: Alpha diversity is increased in patients with AN after short-term weight recovery, while beta diversity shows clear group differences with HC before and after weight gain. A reduction in Romboutsia and taxa belonging to Enterobacteriaceae at both timepoints and an increase in taxa belonging to Lachnospiraceae at discharge are most indicative of patients. Lachnospiraceae abundance at admission helped to predict shorter inpatient treatment duration. DISCUSSION: This pilot study provides first evidence of gut microbiota alterations in adolescent patients with AN that do not normalize with weight gain. If verified in larger studies, the predictive power of taxa belonging to Lachnospiraceae for clinical outcome could complement known predictors at admission, inform clinicians and serve as a target for nutritional interventions.

12.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(8-09): 604-610, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352585

RESUMO

Adolescent mothers and their children represent a high-risk group for unfavorable developmental outcomes. There are early health and support services for this group. The aim of the current study was to investigate and compare the use of these interventions by adolescent mother-child dyads compared to adult mothers and their children. N=99 mothers (age of children: 5.3±1.0 months) were interviewed regarding early interventions, which were sorted into three groups ("interaction interventions", "child development" and "maternal support interventions") and pooled according to costs. Group differences in utilization and, exploratively, differences in allocation paths between adolescent and adult mothers were investigated. "Interaction interventions" were significantly more frequently used by adolescent mothers (U: 605.50, p<0.001). Interventions concerning "child development" (U: 633.50, p<0.001) and "maternal support" (U: 477.50, p<0.001) and interventions to be paid for (U: 582.00, p<0.001) by adult mothers. Social contacts (U: 817.00, p=0.003) and general practitioners (GP)/gynecologists (U: 879.00, p = 0.054) directed the adult mothers significantly more often to interventions, whereas adolescent mothers significantly more frequently were directed to other professional contacts (U: 877.50, p=0.01) and the youth welfare service (U: 962.50, p=0.021) as intermediaries. Early interventions for child and maternal health and interventions with costs were used significantly less frequently by adolescent mothers. Healthcare professionals such as GPs, gynecologists and pediatricians, should expand their counselling services on health interventions and support services in the high-risk group of adolescent mothers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 156-165, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341454

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder that leads to brain volume reduction and is difficult to treat since the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. The human gut microbiota is known to be involved in host metabolism, appetite- and bodyweight regulation, gut permeability, inflammation and gut-brain interactions. In this study, we used a translational activity-based anorexia (ABA) rat model including groups with food restriction, running-wheel access and a combination to disentangle the influences on the gut microbiota and associated changes in brain volume parameters. Our data demonstrated that chronic food restriction but not running-wheel activity had a major influence on the gut microbiota diversity and composition and reduced brain volume. Negative correlations were found between global brain weight and α-diversity, and astrocyte markers and relative abundances of the genera Odoribacter and Bifidobacterium. In contrast, the presence of lactobacilli was positively associated with white and grey brain matter volume. ABA and food-restricted rats are an interesting pre-clinical model to assess the causal influence of starvation on the gut microbiome and gut-brain interactions and can help to dissect the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Anorexia , Encéfalo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287577

RESUMO

Feeding and eating disorders in ICD-11 Abstract. Innovations in ICD-11 include the adoption of a lifespan approach and culture-related guidance for each disorder. We describe the changes made to the chapter Feeding and Eating Disorders and compared them to the ICD-10. In addition to illustrating the revision of the guidelines for each disorder, we also comment on the inclusion of a new set of diagnoses, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) and binge-eating disorder (BED).

15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180540

RESUMO

Reduced responsiveness to emotions is hypothesized to contribute to the development of conduct disorder (CD) in children and adolescents. Accordingly, blunted psychophysiological responses to emotions have been observed in boys with CD, but this has never been tested in girls. Therefore, this study compared psychophysiological responses to sadness in girls and boys with and without CD, and different clinical phenotypes of CD: with versus without limited prosocial emotions (LPE), and with versus without comorbid internalizing disorders (INT). Nine-hundred and 27 girls (427 CD, 500 controls) and 519 boys (266 CD, 253 controls) aged 9-18 years participated. Psychophysiological responses were measured while participants watched two validated sad film clips, specifically: heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; indexing parasympathetic activity), preejection period (PEP; indexing sympathetic activity). Girls and boys with CD showed larger HR responses to sadness than controls. This effect was rendered nonsignificant, however, after controlling for covariates. We observed aberrant RSA responses to sadness in CD compared with controls. Similarly, we found a significant positive association between RSA responsivity and antisocial behavior when assessed dimensionally. The effects were very small, though. Results were similar for boys and girls. We found no evidence for emotional underresponsiveness in CD in the largest psychophysiological study to date in this field. More research is needed to explore whether this is specific to sadness or generalizes to other emotions. Furthermore, we recommend that studies on emotion processing in CD assess different physiological measures to help disentangle CD-related effects on sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

16.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126427

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) can probably be regarded as a "model" for studying the interaction of nutrition with the gut-brain axis, which has drawn increased attention from researchers and clinicians alike. The gut microbiota influences somatic effects, such as energy extraction from food and body weight gain, as well as appetite, gut permeability, inflammation and complex psychological behaviors, such as depression or anxiety, all of which play important roles in AN. As nutrition is one of the main factors that influence the gut microbiota, nutritional restriction and selective eating in AN are likely influencing factors; however, nutritional rehabilitation therapy is surprisingly understudied. Here, we review the general mechanisms of the interactions between nutrition, the gut microbiota and the host that may be relevant to AN, paying special attention to the gut-brain axis, and we present the first specific findings in patients with AN and corresponding animal models. In particular, nutritional interventions, including food selection, supplements, and pre-, pro- and synbiotics that have the potential to influence the gut microbiota, are important research targets to potentially support future AN therapy.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/dietoterapia , Anorexia Nervosa/microbiologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667856

RESUMO

The classification of dissociative disorders and bodily distress disorder: A comparison of ICD-10 and ICD-11 Abstract. There have been some major changes in the classification of dissociative disorders in the transition from ICD-10 to ICD-11. One important revision is the elimination of the term "conversion disorder" from the grouping title as well as the omission of any appraisal of the patient´s behavior or motivation. In ICD-11, the dissociative neurological symptom disorder has gained in importance, reflected in its presentation in the first place of this category. In contrast to ICD-10, dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder) has become a single disorder. Bodily distress disorder has replaced the somatoform disorders of ICD-10 and now includes neurasthenia, while hypochondria was eliminated from this category altogether. Bodily distress disorder is defined by distinct psychological features such as extreme distress but not by the presence or absence of medical findings.

18.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-14, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646526

RESUMO

Children of adolescent mothers are a high-risk group for negative child development. Previous findings suggest that early interventions may enhance child development by improving mother-child interaction. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a mother-child intervention (STEEP-b) program in high-risk adolescent mother-infant dyads (N = 56) within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Mother-child interaction was assessed at baseline (T1), postintervention (T2), and follow-up (T3). The primary outcome was the change in maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness from T1 to T2 that was measured by blinded ratings of videotaped mother-child-interaction with the Emotional Availability Scales. A modified intention-to-treat analysis was performed to examine the data. No intervention effect was found for maternal sensitivity, 95% CI [-0.59-0.60], p = .99, and child responsiveness, 95% CI [-0.51-0.62], p = .84. Maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness did not change over time in both groups (all ps > .05). A statistically nonsignificant, but potentially clinically meaningful difference emerged between rates of serious adverse events, SC: 4 (14.8%), STEEP-b: 1 (3.4%), possibly driven by different intensity of surveillance of dyads in the treatment groups. The current findings question the effectiveness of STEEP-b for high-risk adolescent mothers and do not justify the broad implementation of this approach.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666204

RESUMO

Both DSM-5 and ICD-11 have provided weight cut-offs and severity specifiers for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The aims of the current study focusing on inpatients aged < 19 years were to assess (1) the relationship between age and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), BMI-centiles, BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and body height-SDS at referral, (2) the percentages of patients fulfilling the DSM-5 and ICD-11 weight criteria and severity categories for AN, and (3) the validity of the AN severity specifiers via analysis of both weight related data at discharge and inpatient treatment duration. The German Registry for Anorexia Nervosa encompassed complete data sets for 469 female patients (mean age = 15.2 years; range 8.9-18.9 years) with a diagnosis of AN (n = 404) or atypical AN (n = 65), who were ascertained at 16 German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals. BMI at referral increased up to age 15 to subsequently plateau. Approximately one tenth of all patients with AN had a BMI above the fifth centile. The ICD-11 specifier based on a BMI-centile of 0.3 for childhood and adolescent AN entailed two equally sized groups of patients. Discharge data revealed limited validity of the specifiers. Height-SDS was not correlated with age thus stunting had no impact on our data. We corroborate the evidence to use the tenth instead of the fifth BMI-centile as the weight criterion in children and adolescents. Weight criteria should not entail major diagnostic shifts during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The severity specifiers based on BMI or BMI-centiles do not seem to have substantial clinical validity.

20.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(4): 289-302, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614279

RESUMO

Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness Abstract. Objective: Previous studies reported increased rates of autistic symptoms in children with impaired visual abilities (IV). However, the application of existing screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) proved problematic, as intact visual abilities are typically required. The current study examines the general applicability of three autism-screening questionnaires in children with congenital blindness. Methods: Autistic symptoms were assessed in 15 children with congenital blindness, 15 children with ASD (without IV), and 20 typically developing controls (aged from 8 to 14 years), using the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Marburg Rating Scale for Asperger's Syndrome, and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Results: Items assessing motor, mimic/gesture-related, or joint attention deficits were identified as highly prevalent in children with congenital blindness. These children scored, in general, higher on ASD-screening questionnaires than typically developing controls but lower than sighted children with ASD. Depending on the screening questionnaire used, between 23 % and 67 % of the sample with congenital blindness reached clinical cutoff scores for ASD. SRS total score was negatively correlated to cognitive empathy and verbal IQ in those children. Conclusions: Mothers of children with congenital blindness reported increased autistic symptoms in ASD-screening questionnaires. ASD and IV might share a broad range of symptoms. Future development and validation of screening instruments specifically adapted to the needs of persons with impaired visual abilities seem necessary.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/complicações , Adolescente , Síndrome de Asperger/complicações , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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