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1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
2.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(9): 987-991, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756886

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (pCIA) has been recently described in patients with breast cancer and in its most severe form occurs in up to 10% of these patients. Genetic risk factors associated with pCIA have not been adequately explored. Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with pCIA. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this genetic association study, 215 women with breast cancer treated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy with a follow-up of 1.5 to 10 years after the end of the treatment were recruited retrospectively through 3 hospital oncology units across Spain between 2005 and 2018. Severe pCIA was defined as lack of scalp hair recovery (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, grade 2) 18 months or more after the end of treatment. Patients with grade 2 pCIA were selected as cases, and those with no sign of residual alopecia 12 months after the end of docetaxel treatment were selected as controls. A genome-wide association study in a discovery phase was conducted, and logistic regression was used to identify variants associated with the risk to develop this adverse effect. The validity of the association was addressed through a replication phase. Exposures: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genotypes of single-nucleotide variants associated with pCIA. Results: In total, 215 women with breast cancer (median age, 51.6 years; interquartile range, 44-60 years) were recruited (173 patients for the discovery phase and 42 patients for the replication phase). In the discovery phase, ABCB1 genetic variants were associated with risk to develop pCIA. In particular, single-nucleotide variation rs1202179, a regulatory variant located in an enhancer element that interacts with the ABCB1 promoter, was associated with the occurrence of pCIA. This finding was validated in the replication cohort (combined odds ratio, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.46-6.67; P = 3.946 × 10-8). This variant is associated with ABCB1 mRNA expression, and the risk allele was associated with decreased ABCB1 expression levels (P = 1.64 × 10-20). Conclusions and Relevance: This is the first study, to our knowledge, that identifies an association between a regulatory variant in the ABCB1 gene and the occurrence of pCIA in patients with breast cancer who were treated with docetaxel-based therapies. This finding suggests an important insight into the biological mechanisms underlying pCIA and opens the opportunity to explore personalized treatment of these patients.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 651-664, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929736

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) provide some of the clearest genetic evidence for the critical role of metabolism in the tumorigenesis process. Approximately 40% of PPGLs are caused by driver germline mutations in 16 known susceptibility genes, and approximately half of these genes encode members of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Taking as a starting point the involvement of the TCA cycle in PPGL development, we aimed to identify unreported mutations that occurred in genes involved in this key metabolic pathway and that could explain the phenotypes of additional individuals who lack mutations in known susceptibility genes. To accomplish this, we applied a targeted sequencing of 37 TCA-cycle-related genes to DNA from 104 PPGL-affected individuals with no mutations in the major known predisposing genes. We also performed omics-based analyses, TCA-related metabolite determination, and 13C5-glutamate labeling assays. We identified five germline variants affecting DLST in eight unrelated individuals (∼7%); all except one were diagnosed with multiple PPGLs. A recurrent variant, c.1121G>A (p.Gly374Glu), found in four of the eight individuals triggered accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate, both in tumors and in a heterologous cell-based assay designed to functionally evaluate DLST variants. p.Gly374Glu-DLST tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity, and their methylation and expression profiles are similar to those of EPAS1-mutated PPGLs; this similarity suggests a link between DLST disruption and pseudohypoxia. Moreover, we found positive DLST immunostaining exclusively in tumors carrying TCA-cycle or EPAS1 mutations. In summary, this study reveals DLST as a PPGL-susceptibility gene and further strengthens the relevance of the TCA cycle in PPGL development.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinogênese , Domínio Catalítico , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 167(1): 249-256, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines are widely used chemotherapeutic drugs that can cause progressive and irreversible cardiac damage and fatal heart failure. Several genetic variants associated with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) have been identified, but they explain only a small proportion of the interindividual differences in AIC susceptibility. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the association of low-frequency variants with risk of chronic AIC using the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in a discovery cohort of 61 anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with replication in a second independent cohort of 83 anthracycline-treated pediatric cancer patients, using gene-based tests (SKAT-O). RESULTS: The most significant associated gene in the discovery cohort was ETFB (electron transfer flavoprotein beta subunit) involved in mitochondrial ß-oxidation and ATP production (P = 4.16 × 10-4) and this association was replicated in an independent set of anthracycline-treated cancer patients (P = 2.81 × 10-3). Within ETFB, we found that the missense variant rs79338777 (p.Pro52Leu; c.155C > T) made the greatest contribution to the observed gene association and it was associated with increased risk of chronic AIC in the two cohorts separately and when combined (OR 9.00, P = 1.95 × 10-4, 95% CI 2.83-28.6). CONCLUSIONS: We identified and replicated a novel gene, ETFB, strongly associated with chronic AIC independently of age at tumor onset and related to anthracycline-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Although experimental verification and further studies in larger patient cohorts are required to confirm our finding, we demonstrated that exome array data analysis represents a valuable strategy to identify novel genes contributing to the susceptibility to chronic AIC.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 49(2): 474-81, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23021931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is regarded as an intermediate phenotype in breast cancer development. This association study investigated the influence of 14 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified through previous genome-wide association studies on MD among the participants in the "Determinants of Density in Mammographies in Spain" (DDM-Spain) study. METHODS: Our study covered a total of 3348 Caucasian women aged 45-68years, recruited from seven Spanish breast cancer screening centres having DNA available. Mammographic density was blindly assessed by a single reader using a semiquantitative scale. Ordinal logistic models, adjusted for age, body mass index and menopausal status, were used to estimate the association between each genotype and MD. RESULTS: Evidence of association with MD was found for variant rs3803662 (TOX3) (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.03-1.25), and marginal evidence of association for susceptibility loci rs3817198 (LSP1) (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.00-1.20) and rs2981582 (FGFR2) (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.84-1.01). Two other loci were associated with MD solely among pre-menopausal women, namely, rs4973768 (SLC4A7) (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.70-1.00) and rs4415084 (MEPS30) (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.00-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings lend some support to the hypothesis which links these susceptibility loci to MD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Densidade da Mama , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Transativadores
7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 16(8): 2351-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19449077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the key regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia and presumably plays a central role in the control of tumor growth. Polymorphisms or mutations increasing its activity and stability in vitro under normoxia have recently been identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of C1772T and G1790A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the exon 12 of HIF-1alpha on the prognosis of early stages of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: The frequency of C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP in 139 DNA samples from healthy volunteers and 74 patients with surgically treated T1/2 N0 OSCC. The impact of HIF-1alpha SNPs on tumor size, invasive depth, pathological features, and histological grade was studied. Correlations between genotype and relapse and/or disease-specific survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. RESULTS: Concerning G1790A SNP, the frequencies of GA heterozygous and AA variant homozygous genotypes were significantly higher in patients than in healthy volunteers (32.8% vs. 6.5% and 4.7% vs. none, respectively) (P < .0001). Also, the presence of the variant allele A was associated to disease-relapse (P = .02) and shorter disease-free survival (P = .04). The genotype distribution of C1772T did not diverge between patients and healthy subjects, and no differences were observed with respect to disease-free or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G1790A polymorphism in the HIF-1alpha gene might confer susceptibility to OSCC and could be a marker of disfavorable prognosis at early stages.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Oncol ; 34(1): 219-29, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19082493

RESUMO

In the present study we explored the effect of three polymorphisms of the TS gene on overall and progression- free survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients subjected to 5FU chemotherapy. A 28 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), a G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and a deletion of 6 bp at position 1494 were studied. The possible combined effect of these DNA polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of patients was also evaluated. A retrospective study was carried out on paraffin-embedded sections from 113 patients diagnosed of advanced CRC. TS genotyping methods were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for VNTR and PCR, followed by restriction length fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for SNP and ins/del 6 bp. To study the combined effect of TS polymorphisms, four categories were defined accordingly to the level of expression attributed to SNP and ins/del 6 bp genotypes: C&allele 6-, C&6+/6+, G&allele6- and G&6+/6+. VNTR and ins/del 6 bp genotypes varied with tumour anatomical site: 2R/2R genotype was rare in left-sided tumours (7.0% vs. 26.3% of right-sided and 24.1% of rectal cancers; P<0.01), where the variant allele 6- was very frequent (69.0%). Instead, most patients with right-sided tumours were wild-type homozygous 6+/6+ (63.9%) (P<0.01). Heterozygous 6+/6- genotype was more frequent among tumours classified as C (50.0%) and D (76.5%) Dukes stages (P=0.05). None of the studied polymorphisms alone affected overall or progression-free survival (PFS). C&6+/6+ and G&6+/6+ combined genotypes were respectively associated to the best and worst PFS (P=0.03 when compared with each other), while combinations carrying the allele 6- determined an intermediate evolution that might be indicative of a variable response to chemotherapy. The rate of Dukes B stage tumours was unexpectedly high (59.1%) among patients with the unfavourable G&6+/6+ combination. In our study the combination of high TS expression genotypes G&6+/6+ identifies a group of high risk within CRC patients treated with 5FU.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Taxa de Sobrevida
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