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1.
J Org Chem ; 85(4): 2426-2437, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922748

RESUMO

The reaction of C60 with pregnen-20-carboxaldehyde, a biologically active synthetic steroid, by using a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction (Prato's protocol) results in the formation of pyrrolidine rings bearing a new stereogenic center on the C2 of the five-membered ring. The formation of the fullerene-steroid hybrids proceeds with preference for the Re face of the 1,3-dipole, with formation of a diastereomeric mixture in 73:15 ratio. The investigation of the chiroptical properties of these conjugates allowed determining the absolute configuration of the new fulleropyrrolidines. In addition, a thorough spectroscopical study permitted to determine the structure of the two mono-cycloadducts. The electrochemical properties of the new hybrids were also evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, both systems exhibit three quasi-reversible reduction waves which are cathodically shifted in regard to the parent C60. Theoretical calculations help supporting the experimental data. A conformational study combining semiempirical methods and density functional theory has predicted the most stable diastereomer. On the basis of this agreement, a possible reaction mechanism is presented. Additionally, a molecular docking simulation has been carried out using the HIV-1 protease as receptor, thus paving the way to study the possible application of these stereoisomers in biomedicine.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 1895-1903, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876150

RESUMO

A series of molecular precursors, containing one (1 and 3) or three (2 and 4) pyrene anchors, covalently linked to porphyrins (free base or Zn), were prepared and characterized. All of them enable their π-π stacking onto low-dimensional nanocarbons including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and nanographene (NG), their individualization, and their characterization. Microscopic (TEM, AFM) and spectroscopic (steady-state UV-vis and fluorescence, spectroelectrochemistry, and transient absorption measurements) techniques were at the forefront of the characterizations and were complemented by Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Of great importance is the Raman analysis, which corroborated n-doping of the nanocarbons due to the interactions with 1-4 when probed in the solid state. In solution, the situation is, however, quite different. Efficient charge separation was only observed for the graphene-based system NG/3.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(22): 3223-3226, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806381

RESUMO

Water-soluble fluorescent graphene quantum dots have been successfully prepared through a top-down approach, that is, starting with graphite, and covalently functionalizing it with π-extended tetrathiafulvalene. Charge transfer investigations reveal noticeably slower charge recombination when compared with exTTF nanoconjugates featuring carbon nanodots, for which a larger presence of trap states is observed.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(4): 1001-1005, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193715

RESUMO

Carbon nanodots (CNDs) were synthesized using low-cost and biocompatible starting materials such as citric acid/urea, under microwave irradiation, and constant pressure conditions. The obtained pressure-synthesized CNDs (pCNDs) were covalently modified with photo- and electroactive π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) by means of a two-step esterification reaction, affording pCND-exTTF. The electronic interactions between the pCNDs and exTTF were investigated in the ground and excited states. Ultrafast pump-probe experiments assisted in corroborating that charge separation governs the deactivation of photoexcited pCND-exTTF. These size-regular structures, as revealed by AFM, are stable electron donor-acceptor conjugates of interest for a better understanding of basic processes such as artificial photosynthesis, catalysis, and photovoltaics, involving readily available fluorescent nanodots.

5.
ACS Omega ; 2(12): 9164-9170, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302636

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) absorbing nanomaterials, built from anionic heptamethine cyanine dyes and single-walled carbon nanotubes or few-layer graphene, are presented. The covalent linkage, using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, results in nanoconjugates that synchronize the properties of both materials, as demonstrated by an in-depth characterization study carried out by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopies further confirmed the unique electronic structure of the novel photoactive nanomaterials.

6.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 11: 1068-78, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26199662

RESUMO

We describe the synthesis and single-molecule electrical transport properties of a molecular wire containing a π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) group and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ. We form single-molecule junctions using the in situ break junction technique using a homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope with a range of conductance between 10 G0 down to 10(-7) G0. Within this range we do not observe a clear conductance signature of the neutral parent molecule, suggesting either that its conductance is too low or that it does not form a stable junction. Conversely, we do find a clear conductance signature in the experiments carried out on the charge-transfer complex. Due to the fact we expected this species to have a higher conductance than the neutral molecule, we believe this supports the idea that the conductance of the neutral molecule is very low, below our measurement sensitivity. This idea is further supported by theoretical calculations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported single-molecule conductance measurements on a molecular charge-transfer species.

7.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 10: 714-21, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778724

RESUMO

The [4 + 2] cycloaddition of o-quinodimethanes, generated in situ from the sultine 4,5-benzo-3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxathiin 2-oxide and its derivative, to La metal-encapsulated fullerenes, La2@C80 or La@C82, afforded the novel derivatives of endohedral metallofullerenes (3a,b, 4a,b and 5b). Molecular structures of the resulting compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods such as MALDI-TOF mass, optical absorption, and NMR spectroscopy. The [4 + 2] adducts of La2@C80 (3a,b, and 4a,b) and La@C82 (5b), respectively, retain diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. Dynamic NMR measurements of 4a at various temperatures demonstrated the boat-to-boat inversions of the addend. In addition, 5b revealed remarkable thermal stability in comparison with the reported [4 + 2] cycloadduct of pentamethylcyclopentadiene and La@C82 (6). These findings demonstrate the utility of sultines to afford thermodynamically stable endohedral metallofullerene derivatives for the use in material science.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(7): 833-5, 2014 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24292504

RESUMO

TCNQ derivatives adsorbed on a metal surface undergo a self-limited decyanation reaction that only affects two out of the four cyano groups in the molecule. Combined Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy experiments and Density Functional Theory calculations relate the self-limiting behavior to the transfer of electrons from the metal to the molecule.

9.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 371(1998): 20120490, 2013 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918719

RESUMO

In this paper, we report on the design, redox potentials, excited state energies and radical ion pair state energies in electron donor-acceptor conjugates comprising the electron-donating π-extended tetrathiafulvalene and several electron-accepting fullerenes. To this end, we contrast an empty fullerene, that is, C60, with two endohedral metallofullerenes, that is, open-shell La@C82 and closed-shell La2@C80, in terms of charge separation and charge recombination dynamics.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(14): 5420-6, 2013 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23473339

RESUMO

We study the stability of molecular junctions based on an oligo(phenylenethynylene) (OPE) diamine using a scanning tunneling microscope at room temperature. In our analysis, we were able to differentiate between junctions most probably formed by either one or several molecules. Varying the stretching rate of the junctions between 0.1 and 100 nm/s, we observe practically no variation of the length over which both kinds of junction can be stretched before rupture. This is in contrast with previously reported results for similar compounds. Our results suggest that, over the studied speed range, the junction breakage is caused purely by the growth of the gap between the gold electrodes and the elastic limit of the amine-gold bond. On the other hand, without stretching, junctions would survive for periods of time longer than our maximum measurement time (at least 10 s for multiple-molecule junctions) and can be considered, hence, very stable.


Assuntos
Diaminas/química , Alquinos/química , Eletrodos , Éteres/química , Ouro/química , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Estrutura Molecular , Temperatura
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(36): 3721-35, 2013 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539514

RESUMO

Graphene is a unique material with outstanding mechanical and electronic properties. For solution processes graphene layers have to be stabilized by means of molecular or supramolecular chemical derivatization, prior to their transfer to solid substrates. The most common chemical methodology for the preparation of graphene involves the formation of graphene oxide under highly oxidizing conditions, which even after reduction, lacks the electronic quality of pristine graphene. Presently, there is increasing concern in the chemical community about the starting material quality, and recent efforts are directed to wet chemical approaches toward high-quality graphene flakes which encompass the use of graphite as initial material. In addition, epitaxial growth of graphene on metallic surfaces is becoming a powerful technique for the production of pristine graphene with a control on its electronic properties, somehow due to the supramolecular interaction with the metallic surface. Current approaches for the preparation of modified pristine graphene are the aim of this review.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(47): 19401-8, 2012 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23116292

RESUMO

An endohedral metallofullerene, La(2)@C(80), is covalently linked to the strong electron acceptor 11,11,12,12-tetracyano-9,10-anthra-p-quinodimethane (TCAQ) by means of the Prato reaction, affording two different [5,6]-metallofulleropyrrolidines, namely 1a and 2a. 1a and 2a were isolated and fully characterized by means of MALDI-TOF mass, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and NMR spectroscopies. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) corroborated the unique redox character of 2a, that is, the presence of the electron-donating La(2)@C(80) and the electron-accepting TCAQ. Although a weak electronic coupling dictates the interactions between La(2)@C(80) and TCAQ in the ground state, time-resolved transient absorption experiments reveal that in the excited state (i.e., π-π* centered at La(2)@C(80)) the unprecedented formation of the (La(2)@C(80))(•+)-(TCAQ)(•-) radical ion pair state evolves in nonpolar and polar media with a quantum efficiency of 33%.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/química , Elétrons , Fulerenos/química , Lantânio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(39): 16103-6, 2012 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22971081

RESUMO

Electron donor-acceptor conjugates of paramagnetic endohedral metallofullerenes and π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) were synthesized, characterized, and probed with respect to intramolecular electron transfer involving paramagnetic fullerenes. UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy complemented by electrochemical measurements attested to weak electronic interactions between the electron donor, exTTF, and the electron acceptor, La@C(82), in the ground state. In the excited state, photoexcitation powers a fast intramolecular electron transfer to yield an ion and radical ion pair state consisting of one-electron-reduced La@C(82) and of one-electron-oxidized exTTF.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(22): 9183-92, 2012 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22574613

RESUMO

Electron donor-acceptor hybrids based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are one of the most promising functional structures that are currently developed in the emerging areas of energy conversion schemes and molecular electronics. As a suitable electron donor, π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) stands out owing to its recognition of SWCNT through π-π stacking and electron donor-acceptor interactions. Herein, we explore the shape and electronic complementarity between different types of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and a tweezers-shaped molecule endowed with two exTTFs in water. The efficient electronic communication between semiconducting SWCNT/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), on one hand, and the water-soluble exTTF nanotweezers 8, on the other hand, has been demonstrated in the ground and excited state by using steady-state as well as time-resolved spectroscopies, which were further complemented by microscopy. Importantly, appreciable electronic communication results in the electronic ground state having a shift of electron density, that is, from exTTFs to CNT, and in the electronic excited state having a full separation of electron density, that is oxidized exTTF and reduced CNT. Lifetimes in the range of several hundred picoseconds, which were observed for the corresponding electron transfer products upon light irradiation, tend to be appreciably longer in MWCNT/8 than in SWCNT/8.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Água/química
15.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(45): 14408-19, 2010 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20518479

RESUMO

A series of [2]rotaxane materials, in which [60]fullerene is linked to a macrocycle and ferrocene (Fc) moieties are placed at the termini of a thread, both of which possess a central Cu(I)-1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(phen)(2)](+) complex, were synthesized by self-assembly using Sauvage metal template methodology. Two types of threads were constructed, one with terminal ester linkages, and a second with terminal 1,2,3-triazole linkages derived from Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" 1,3-cycloaddition reactions. Model compounds lacking the fullerene moiety were prepared in an analogous manner. The ability of the interlocked Fc-[Cu(phen)(2)](+)-C(60) hybrids to undergo electron transfer upon photoexcitation in benzonitrile, dichloromethane, and ortho-dichlorobenzene was investigated by means of time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy, using excitation wavelengths directed at the fullerene and [Cu(phen)(2)](+) subunits. The energies of the electronic excited states and charge separated (CS) states that might be formed upon photoexcitation were determined from spectroscopic and electrochemical data. These studies showed that MLCT excited states of the copper complex in the fullerenerotaxanes were quenched by electron transfer to the fullerene in benzonitrile, resulting in charge separated states with oxidized copper and reduced fullerene moieties, (Fc)(2)-[Cu(phen)(2)](2+)-C(60)(•-). Even though electron transfer from Fc to the oxidized copper complex is predicted to be exergonic by 0.16 to 0.20 eV, no unequivocal evidence in support of such a process was obtained. The conclusion that Fc plays no role in the photoinduced processes in our systems rests on the lack of enhancement of the lifetime of the charge separated state, as measured by decay of C(60)(•-) at ∼1000 nm, since one-electron oxidized Fc is very difficult to detect spectroscopically in the 500-800 nm spectral region.


Assuntos
Processos Fotoquímicos , Rotaxanos/química , Rotaxanos/síntese química , Cor , Eletroquímica , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Fulerenos/química , Metalocenos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(26): 9078-86, 2010 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20536130

RESUMO

We report for the first time the versatile Ce(2)@I(h)-C(80) building block toward synthesizing a novel electron donor-acceptor conjugate, Ce(2)@I(h)-C(80)-ZnP (1). A systematic investigation of the charge transfer chemistry documents a reductive charge transfer (i.e., formation of (Ce(2)@I(h)-C(80))(*-)-(ZnP)(*+)) in nonpolar media (i.e., toluene/THF), while an oxidative charge transfer (i.e., formation of (Ce(2)@I(h)-C(80))(*+)-(ZnP)(*-)) dominates in polar media (i.e., benzonitrile/DMF). Reduction of the [Ce(2)](6+) cluster, which is highly localized and collinearly arranged with respect to the quaternary bridge carbon, is sufficiently exothermic in all solvents. Notably weak is the electronic coupling between the [Ce(2)](6+) cluster and the electron-donating ZnP. The oxidation of C(80)(6-) and the simultaneous reduction of ZnP, on the other hand, necessitate solvent stabilization. In such a case, the strongly exothermic (Ce(2)@I(h)-C(80))(*-)-(ZnP)(*+) radical ion pair state formation is compensated within the framework of a nonadiabatic charge transfer by a C(80)(6-)/ZnP electronic matrix element, as the sum of good overlap and short distance, that exceeds that for [Ce(2)](6+)/ZnP.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(23): 8048-55, 2010 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20491484

RESUMO

Stable donor-acceptor conjugates (2, 3) involving an endohedral metallofullerene, La(2)@I(h)-C(80), and pi-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) have been synthesized by highly regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of exTTF-containing azomethine ylides to the endofullerene, yielding exclusively [5,6] metallofulleropyrrolidines with C(1) symmetry in high yields (68-77%). The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the conjugates reveal the redox active character of the system due to the presence of both donor and acceptor groups, that is, exTTF and La(2)@I(h)-C(80), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemically reversible character of the endofullerene confirms the presence of the [5,6] adduct. Despite the relatively close proximity between the exTTF and the endohedral metallofullerene (EMF), only a weak electronic interaction was observed in the ground state, as evidenced by absorption spectroscopy and CV measurements of 2 and 3. On the other hand, in the excited state the fast formation of a radical ion-pair state (i.e., 6.0 x 10(10) s(-1)), that is, the reduction of the electron accepting La(2)@C(80) and the oxidation of exTTF, evolves with lifetimes as long as several ns (3.0 x 10(8) s(-1)) in toluene. Transient absorption spectroscopy experiments confirmed these observations.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Lantânio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Azo/química , Eletroquímica , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Fotólise , Análise Espectral , Tiossemicarbazonas/química
18.
Chemistry ; 16(18): 5343-53, 2010 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20209515

RESUMO

The decakis(trifluoromethyl)fullerene C(1)-C(70)(CF(3))(10), in which the CF(3) groups are arranged on a para(7)-meta-para ribbon of C(6)(CF(3))(2) edge-sharing hexagons, and which has now been prepared in quantities of hundreds of milligrams, was reacted under standard Bingel-Hirsch conditions with a bis-pi-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) malonate derivative to afford a single exTTF(2)-C(70)(CF(3))(10) regioisomer in 80 % yield based on consumed starting material. The highly soluble hybrid was thoroughly characterized by using 1D (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR, 2D NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopy; matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry; and electrochemistry. The cyclic voltammogram of the exTTF(2)-C(70)(CF(3))(10) dyad revealed an irreversible second reduction process, which is indicative of a typical retro-Bingel reaction; whereas the usual phenomenon of exTTF inverted potentials (E1ox>E2ox), resulting in a single, two-electron oxidation process, was also observed. Steady-state and time-resolved photolytic techniques demonstrated that the C(1)-C(70)(CF(3))(10) singlet excited state is subject to a rapid electron-transfer quenching. The resulting charge-separated states were identified by transient absorption spectroscopy, and radical pair lifetimes of the order of 300 ps in toluene were determined. The exTTF(2)-C(70)(CF(3))(10) dyad represents the first example of exploitation of the highly soluble trifluoromethylated fullerenes for the construction of systems able to mimic the photosynthetic process, and is therefore of interest in the search for new materials for photovoltaic applications.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Oxidantes/química , Absorção , Ciclização , Eletroquímica , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Análise Espectral , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Chemistry ; 16(1): 114-25, 2010 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19998436

RESUMO

A novel series of double-decker lanthanide(III) bis(phthalocyaninato)-C(60) dyads [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')]-C(60) (M=Sm, Eu, Lu; Pc=phthalocyanine) (1 a-c) have been synthesized from unsymmetrically functionalized heteroleptic sandwich complexes [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] (Ln=Sm, Eu, Lu) 3 a-c and fulleropyrrolidine carboxylic acid 2. The sandwich complexes 3 a-c were obtained by means of a stepwise procedure from unsymmetrically substituted free-base phthalocyanine 5, which was first transformed into the monophthalocyaninato intermediate [Ln(III)(acac)(Pc)] and further reacted with 1,2-dicyanobenzene in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). (1)H NMR spectra of the bis(phthalocyaninato) complexes 3 a-c and dyads 1 a-c were obtained by adding hydrazine hydrate to solutions of the complexes in [D(7)]DMF, a treatment that converts the free radical double-deckers into the protonated species, that is, [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')H] and [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')H]-C(60). The electronic absorption spectra of 3 a-c and 1 a-c in THF exhibit typical transitions of free-radical sandwich complexes. In the case of dyads 1 a-c, the spectra display the absorption bands of both constituents, but no evidence of ground-state interactions could be appreciated. When the UV/Vis spectra of 3 a-c and 1 a-c were recorded in DMF, typical features of the reduced forms were observed. Cyclic voltammetry studies for 3 a-c and 1 a-c were performed in THF. The electrochemical behavior of dyads 1 a-c is almost the exact sum of the behavior of the components, namely the double-decker [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] and the C(60) fullerene, thus confirming the lack of ground-state interactions between the electroactive units. Photophysical studies on dyads 1 a-c indicate that only after irradiation at 387 nm, which excites both C(60) and [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] components, a photoinduced electron transfer from the [Ln(III)(Pc)(Pc')] to C(60) occurs.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Indóis/síntese química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Indóis/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Soluções , Estereoisomerismo
20.
J Org Chem ; 74(17): 6902-5, 2009 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19663505

RESUMO

The Diels-Alder reaction of C(1)-C(70)(CF(3))(10) and 3,6-dimethoxy-1,2-quinodimethane leads regioselectively to the formation of a new cycloadduct that has been fully characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods as well as by X-ray diffraction.

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