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1.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 747-751, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405421

RESUMO

The ACGME work hour restrictions facilitated increased utilization of service-based advanced practice providers (APPs) to offset reduced general surgery resident work hours. Information regarding attending surgeon perceptions of APP impact is limited. The aim of this survey was to gauge these perceptions with respect to workload, length of stay (LOS), safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment. Attending surgeons on surgical teams that employ service-based APPs at an urban tertiary referral center responded to a survey at the completion of academic year 2016. Perceptions regarding APP impact on workload, LOS, safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment were examined. Twenty-two attending surgeons (40%) responded. Respondents agreed that APPs always/usually decrease their workload (77%), decrease LOS (64%), improve safety (68%), contribute to best practice (82%), and decrease near misses (71%). They also agreed that APPs decrease resident workload (87%), but fewer agreed that APPs contribute to resident education (68%). The majority perceived APPs function at the PGY1/2 (43%) or PGY3 (39%) level and always/usually trust their clinical judgment (72%), and felt there was variability in level of function among APPs (56%). This single-center study illustrates that attending surgeons perceive a positive impact on patient care by service-based APPs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Internato e Residência , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Carga de Trabalho
2.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 595-600, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267899

RESUMO

Interhospital transfer of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients is a common occurrence. Modern individual hospital practices for interhospital transfers have unknown variability. A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database was undertaken from 2013 to 2015. EGS encounters were divided into three groups: encounters not transferred, encounters transferred from a hospital, and encounters transferred to a hospital. In total, 380,405 EGS encounters were identified, including 12,153 (3.2%) encounters transferred to a hospital, 10,163 (2.7%) encounters transferred from a hospital, and 358,089 (94.1%) encounters not transferred. For individual hospitals, percentage of encounters transferred to a hospital ranged from 0 to 30.05 per cent, encounters transferred from a hospital from 0.02 to 14.62 per cent, and encounters not transferred from 69.25 to 99.95 per cent of total encounters at individual hospitals. Percentage of encounters transferred from individual hospitals was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = -0.59), whereas percentage of encounters transferred to individual hospitals was directly correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = 0.51). Individual hospital practices for interhospital transfer of EGS patients have substantial variability. This is the first study to describe individual hospital interhospital transfer practices for EGS.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Maryland , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contrato de Transferência de Pacientes
3.
J Surg Res ; 243: 391-398, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent occurrence of interhospital transfers in emergency general surgery (EGS), rates of transfer of complications are undescribed. Improved understanding of hospital transfer patterns has a multitude of implications, including quality measurement. The objective of this study was to describe individual hospital transfer rates of mortal encounters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database. Two groups of EGS encounters were identified: encounters with death following transfer and encounters with death without transfer. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was defined as the percentage of EGS hospital encounters with mortality initially presenting to a hospital transferred to another hospital before death at the receiving hospital. RESULTS: Overall, 370,242 total EGS encounters were included, with 17,003 (4.6%) of the total EGS encounters with mortality. Encounters with death without transfer encompassed 15,604 (91.8%) of mortal EGS encounters and encounters with death following transfer 1399 (8.2%). EGS disease categories of esophageal varices or perforation, necrotizing fasciitis, enterocutaneous fistula, and pancreatitis had over 10% of these total mortal encounters with death following transfer. For individual hospitals, percentage of mortal encounters transferred ranged from 0.8% to 35.2%. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume for all state hospitals (P < 0.001, r = -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Broad variability in individual hospital practices exists for mortality transferred to other institutions. Application of this knowledge of percentage of mortal encounters transferred includes consideration in hospital quality metrics.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 82(3): 435-443, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28030492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the trauma patient population suggests handsewn (HS) anastomoses are superior to stapled (ST). A recent retrospective study in emergency general surgery (EGS) patients had similar findings. The aim of the current study was to evaluate HS and ST anastomoses in EGS patients undergoing urgent/emergent operations. METHODS: The study was sponsored by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Studies Committee. Patients undergoing urgent/emergent bowel resection for EGS pathology were prospectively enrolled from July 22, 2013 to December 31, 2015. Patients were grouped by HS/ST anastomoses, and variables were collected. The primary outcome was anastomotic failure. Similar to other studies, anastomotic failure was evaluated at the anastomosis level. Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for age and risk factors for anastomotic failure. RESULTS: Fifteen institutions enrolled a total of 595 patients with 649 anastomoses (253 HS and 396 ST). Mean age was 61 years, 51% were men, 7% overall mortality. Age and sex were the same between groups. The overall anastomotic failure rate was 12.5%. The HS group had higher lactate, lower albumin, and were more likely to be on vasopressors. Hospital and intensive care unit days, as well as mortality, were greater in the HS group. Anastomotic failure rates and operative time were equivalent for HS and ST. On multivariate regression, the presence of contamination at initial resection (odds ratio, 1.965; 95% confidence interval, 1.183-3.264) and the patient being managed with open abdomen (odds ratio, 2.529; 95% confidence interval, 1.492-4.286) were independently associated with anastomotic failure, while the type of anastomosis was not. CONCLUSION: EGS patients requiring bowel resection and anastomosis are at high risk for anastomotic failure. The current study illustrates an apparent bias among acute care surgeons to perform HS techniques in higher-risk patients. Despite the individualized application of technique for differing patient populations, the risk of anastomotic failure was equivalent when comparing HS and ST anastomoses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level II.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Emergências , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Grampeamento Cirúrgico , Técnicas de Sutura , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 81(5 Suppl 2 Proceedings of the 2015 Military Health System Research Symposium): S171-S176, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have demonstrated that the early and empiric use of plasma improves survival after hemorrhagic shock. We have demonstrated in rodent models of hemorrhagic shock that resuscitation with plasma is protective to the lungs compared with lactated Ringer's solution. As our long-term objective is to determine the molecular mechanisms that modulate plasma's protective effects in injured bleeding patients, we have used human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock. The goal of the current experiments is to determine if there are significant adverse effects on lung injury when using human versus mouse plasma in an established murine model of hemorrhagic shock and laparotomy. METHODS: Mice underwent laparotomy and 90 minutes of hemorrhagic shock to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 ± 5 mm Hg followed by resuscitation at 1× shed blood using either mouse fresh frozen plasma (FFP), human FFP, or human lyophilized plasma. Mean arterial pressure was recorded during shock and for the first 30 minutes of resuscitation. After 3 hours, animals were killed, and lungs collected for analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in early MAP when mouse FFP was used to resuscitate animals compared with human FFP or human lyophilized plasma. However, despite these differences, analysis of the mouse lungs revealed no significant differences in pulmonary histopathology, lung permeability, or lung edema between all three plasma groups. Analysis of neutrophil infiltration in the lungs revealed that mouse FFP decreased neutrophil influx as measured by neutrophil staining; however, myeloperoxidase immunostaining revealed no significant differences in between groups. CONCLUSION: The study of human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock is feasible but does reveal some differences compared with mouse plasma-based resuscitation in physiologic measures such as MAP postresuscitation. Measures of end organ function such as lung injury appear to be comparable in this acute model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Plasma , Respiração , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 81(1): 131-6, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26891159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The formation of Acute Care Surgery services leads to decreased time to treatment and improved outcomes for emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. However, minimal work has focused on the ideal care delivery system and team structure. We hypothesize that the implementation of a dedicated EGS team (separate from trauma and surgical critical care), with EGS-specific protocols and dedicated operating room (OR) time, will increase productivity and improve mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of financial and EGS registry data from fiscal year (FY) 12 to FY15. Data are from an academic, university-based EGS team composed of two acute care surgery attending surgeons, advanced practitioners (APs), residents, and a fellow. In FY12, processes were implemented to standardize paging of consults, patient sign-out with attending surgeons' and APs' participation, clinical/billing protocols, OR availability, and quality improvement. Outcomes included relative value units (RVUs), surgical case volume, charges/payments, and number of patient encounters. The secondary outcome was mortality. The χ test was used to compare mortality, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Total patient encounters increased from 6,723 in FY 12 to 9,238 in FY 15 (+37%). Relative value units increased from 18,422 in FY 12 to 25,314 in FY 15 (+37%). Charges increased by 76% and payments increased by 60% from FY 12 to FY 15. Charges per encounter increased from $461 in FY 12 to $591 in FY 15 (+28%) Additionally, both inpatient and surgical case loads increased. Mortality remained stable throughout the study period (FY 12, 4.5%; FY 13, 5.2%; FY 14, 5.3%; FY 15, 3.2%: p = 0.177). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of dedicated OR time, defined EGS team structure, practice protocols, and active attending surgeons'/APs' participation was temporally related to increased case volume, patients seen, and revenue, while mortality remained unchanged. Further study is necessary to establish the translatability of these data to other systems. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic/decision, level III.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Baltimore , Emergências , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Perfusion ; 31(6): 508-15, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may cause platelet dysfunction, contributing to bleeding. There are no investigations of how CPB affects platelet mitochondrial respiration and what correlation this has with platelet aggregation and bleeding. METHODS: We studied platelet mitochondrial respiration and aggregation in eighteen adult cardiac surgery patients having CPB. The relationships between respiration, aggregation and postoperative bleeding were analyzed. RESULTS: Platelet respiration, reflected by the respiratory control ratio (RCR), was unchanged after CPB (mean difference in RCR= -0.02 (95% CI=-1.45 to 1.42), p=0.98). Further, there were no significant relationships between indexed adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced aggregation and the RCR (p=0.12 and p=0.41). Only post-CPB ADP - induced aggregation correlated with 24-hr chest tube output (p=0.04), but indexing for platelet count attenuated the effect (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: Platelet mitochondrial respiration is preserved after CPB and is not correlated with aggregation or bleeding. Only post-CPB, ADP-induced aggregation correlates with postoperative bleeding.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Agregação Plaquetária , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
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