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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29048, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) have increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, including musculoskeletal disorders. Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD, <20 ng/ml) and its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in long-term CCS. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors for VDD in a large, diverse population of long-term CCS, and examined the association between VDD and BMD in patients who underwent guideline-recommended dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 446 consecutive CCS seen from March 2018 to September 2020. Univariate analyses examined associations between CCS demographics, socioeconomic status, and treatment exposures and VDD. Multivariable logistic regressions identified factors associated with odds of VDD and reduced BMD. RESULTS: Median age at evaluation was 27.5 years (range 7-67 years); median time from completing therapy was 14.2 years (range 2-65 years). Fifty percent were female, and 45% were Hispanic. Twenty-four percent had VDD. In multivariable analysis, overweight and obese BMI were associated with VDD (overweight: OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.07, p = 0.04; obese: OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.39-4.13, p < 0.01; reference: normal/underweight), as was Hispanic or black race/ethnicity (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.41-4.09, p < 0.01; reference: non-Hispanic white). In the 118 CCS with DXA results, VDD was independently associated with reduced BMD (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.33-9.59, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CCS have a high prevalence of VDD. High BMI and Hispanic or black race/ethnicity were associated with VDD. Survivors with VDD had a greater than threefold risk of reduced BMD. Risk-based screening may facilitate timely interventions to mitigate VDD and improve BMD in CCS.

2.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 53, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823911

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is a zoonotic parasite endemic in the southern US and the Americas, which may frequently infect dogs, but limited information is available about infections in cats. We surveyed a convenience sample of 284 shelter cats from Southern Louisiana to evaluate T. cruzi infection using serological and PCR tests. Parasites from PCR positive cats were also genotyped by PCR and deep sequencing to assess their genetic diversity. We detected a seropositivity rate for T. cruzi of at least 7.3% (17/234), and 24.6% of cats (70/284) were PCR positive for the parasite. Seropositivity increased with cat age (R2 = 0.91, P = 0.011), corresponding to an incidence of 7.2% ± 1.3 per year, while PCR positivity decreased with age (R2 = 0.93, P = 0.007). Cats were predominantly infected with parasites from TcI and TcVI DTUs, and to a lesser extent from TcIV and TcV DTUs, in agreement with the circulation of these parasite DTUs in local transmission cycles. These results indicate that veterinarians should have a greater awareness of T. cruzi infection in pets and that it would be important to better evaluate the risk for spillover infections in humans.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669197

RESUMO

Chagas disease is an important vector-borne neglected tropical disease that causes great health and economic losses. The etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is a protozoan parasite endemic to the Americas, comprised by important diversity, which has been suggested to contribute to poor serological diagnostic performance. Current nomenclature describes seven discrete typing units (DTUs), or lineages. We performed the first large scale analysis of T. cruzi diversity among 52 previously published genomes from strains covering multiple countries and parasite DTUs and assessed how different markers summarize this genetic diversity. We also examined how seven antigens currently used in commercial serologic tests are conserved across this diversity of strains. DTU structuration was confirmed at the whole-genome level, with evidence of sub-DTU diversity, associated in part to geographic structuring. We observed very comparable phylogenetic tree topographies for most of the 32 markers investigated, with clear clustering of sequences by DTU, and a few of these markers suggested some degree of intra-lineage diversity. At least three of the currently used antigens represent poorly conserved sequences, with sequences used in tests quite divergent from sequences in many strains. Most markers are well suited for estimating parasite diversity to DTU level, and a few are particularly well-suited to assess intra-DTU diversity. Analysis of antigen sequences across all strains indicates that antigenic diversity is a likely explanation for limited diagnostic performance in Central and North America.

4.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540576

RESUMO

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 can progress toward multiple clinical outcomes, and the identification of factors associated with disease severity would represent a major advance to guide care and improve prognosis. We tested for associations between SARS-CoV-2 genomic variants from an international cohort of 2508 patients and mortality rates. Findings were validated in a second cohort. Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences revealed four well-resolved clades which had significantly different mortality rates, even after adjusting for patient demographic and geographic characteristics. We further identified ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SARS-CoV-2 genome that were associated with patient mortality. Three SNPs remained associated with mortality in a generalized linear model (GLM) that also included patient age, sex, geographic region, and month of sample collection. Multiple SNPs were confirmed in the validation cohort. These SNPs represent targets to assess the mechanisms underlying COVID-19 disease severity and warrant straightforward validation in functional studies.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Genoma Viral , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , /genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia
5.
Acta Parasitol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a vector-borne disease with a major disease burden in the Americas, with over 6 million cases. There are about 200,000 cases in Ecuador, but the epidemiology of the disease is poorly understood, particularly in the Amazon region, making surveillance and control challenging. METHODS: We determined here the seroprevalence of T. cruzi antibodies in a cohort of 516 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years from Chontapunta parish, in the Napo province, Ecuador, using ELISA and indirect hemaglutination tests. RESULTS: We detected a seroprevalence of 0.77% (95% confidence interval 0.31-1.97%), with some significant variation among the three studied communities. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence of the ongoing transmission of T. cruzi in this area, and support the need to strengthen epidemiological surveillance and patient care.

6.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 5907591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282962

RESUMO

Chronic consumption of ß-sitosterol-ß-D-glucoside (BSSG), a neurotoxin contained in cycad seeds, leads to Parkinson's disease in humans and rodents. Here, we explored whether a single intranigral administration of BSSG triggers neuroinflammation and neurotoxic A1 reactive astrocytes besides dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We injected 6 µg BSSG/1 µL DMSO or vehicle into the left substantia nigra and immunostained with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) together with markers of microglia (OX42), astrocytes (GFAP, S100ß, C3), and leukocytes (CD45). We also measured nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation (LPX), and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6). The Evans blue assay was used to explore the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. We found that BSSG activates NO production on days 15 and 30 and LPX on day 120. Throughout the study, high levels of TNF-α were present in BSSG-treated animals, whereas IL-1ß was induced until day 60 and IL-6 until day 30. Immunoreactivity of activated microglia (899.0 ± 80.20%) and reactive astrocytes (651.50 ± 11.28%) progressively increased until day 30 and then decreased to remain 251.2 ± 48.8% (microglia) and 91.02 ± 39.8 (astrocytes) higher over controls on day 120. C3(+) cells were also GFAP and S100ß immunoreactive, showing they were neurotoxic A1 reactive astrocytes. BBB remained permeable until day 15 when immune cell infiltration was maximum. TH immunoreactivity progressively declined, reaching 83.6 ± 1.8% reduction on day 120. Our data show that BSSG acute administration causes chronic neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia, neurotoxic A1 reactive astrocytes, and infiltrated immune cells. The severe neuroinflammation might trigger Parkinson's disease in BSSG intoxication.

7.
Evol Appl ; 13(10): 2663-2672, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294015

RESUMO

Introduction: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health problem in the Americas, and existing drugs have severe limitations. In this context, a vaccine would be an attractive alternative for disease control. One of the difficulties in developing an effective vaccine lies in the high genetic diversity of T. cruzi. In this study, we evaluated the level of sequence diversity of the leading vaccine candidate Tc24 in multiple parasite strains. Methods and Results: We quantified its level of polymorphism within and between T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) and how this potential polymorphism is structured by different selective pressures. We observed a low level of polymorphism of Tc24 protein, weakly associated with parasite DTUs, but not with the geographic origin of the strains. In particular, Tc24 was under strong purifying selection pressure and predicted CD8+ T-cell epitopes were mostly conserved. Tc24 strong conservation may be associated with structural/functional constrains to preserve EF hand domains and their calcium-binding loops, and Tc24 is likely important for the parasite fitness. Discussion: Together, these results show that a vaccine based on Tc24 is likely to be effective against a wide diversity of parasite strains across the American continent, and further development of this vaccine candidate should be a high priority.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008932, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis of growing concern in the southern US, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. We genotyped parasites in a large cohort of PCR positive dogs to shed light on parasite transmission cycles and assess potential relationships between parasite diversity and serological test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a metabarcoding approach based on deep sequencing of T. cruzi mini-exon marker to assess parasite diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of 178 sequences from 40 dogs confirmed the presence of T. cruzi discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI and TcIV, as well as TcII, TcV and TcVI for the first time in US dogs. Infections with multiple DTUs occurred in 38% of the dogs. These data indicate a greater genetic diversity of T. cruzi than previously detected in the US. Comparison of T. cruzi sequence diversity indicated that highly similar T. cruzi strains from these DTUs circulate in hosts and vectors in Louisiana, indicating that they are involved in a shared T. cruzi parasite transmission cycle. However, TcIV and TcV were sampled more frequently in vectors, while TcII and TcVI were sampled more frequently in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations point to ecological host-fitting being a dominant mechanism involved in the diversification of T. cruzi-host associations. Dogs with negative, discordant or confirmed positive T. cruzi serology harbored TcI parasites with different mini-exon sequences, which strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite genetic diversity is a key factor affecting serological test performance. Thus, the identification of conserved parasite antigens should be a high priority for the improvement of current serological tests.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Genótipo , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Zoonoses
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 577, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi - the causative agent of Chagas disease - is known to circulate in commensal pests, but its occurrence in urban environments is not well understood. We addressed this deficit by determining the distribution and prevalence of T. cruzi infection in urban populations of commensal and wild rodents across New Orleans (Louisiana, USA). We assessed whether T. cruzi prevalence varies according to host species identity and species co-occurrences, and whether T. cruzi prevalence varies across mosaics of abandonment that shape urban rodent demography and assemblage structure in the city. METHODS: Leveraging city-wide population and assemblage surveys, we tested 1428 rodents comprising 5 species (cotton rats, house mice, Norway rats, rice rats and roof rats) captured at 98 trapping sites in 11 study areas across New Orleans including nine residential neighborhoods and a natural area in Orleans Parish and a neighborhood in St. Bernard Parish. We also assayed Norway rats at one site in Baton Rouge (Louisiana, USA). We used chi-square tests to determine whether infection prevalence differed among host species, among study areas, and among trapping sites according to the number of host species present. We used generalized linear mixed models to identify predictors of T. cruzi infection for all rodents and each host species, respectively. RESULTS: We detected T. cruzi in all host species in all study areas in New Orleans, but not in Baton Rouge. Though overall infection prevalence was 11%, it varied by study area and trapping site. There was no difference in prevalence by species, but roof rats exhibited the broadest geographical distribution of infection across the city. Infected rodents were trapped in densely populated neighborhoods like the French Quarter. Infection prevalence seasonally varied with abandonment, increasing with greater abandonment during the summer and declining with greater abandonment during the winter. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate that T. cruzi can be widespread in urban landscapes, suggesting that transmission and disease risk is greater than is currently recognized. Our findings also suggest that there is disproportionate risk of transmission in historically underserved communities, which could reinforce long-standing socioecological disparities in New Orleans and elsewhere.

10.
Genome ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086026

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a zoonotic, parasitic, vector-borne neglected tropical disease that affects the lives of over 6 million people throughout the Americas. Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent, presents extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the genome sequence of reference strain SC43cl1, a hybrid strain belonging to the TcV discrete typing unit (DTU). The assembled diploid genome was 79 Mbp in size, divided into 1,236 contigs with an average coverage reaching x180. There was extensive synteny of SC43cl1 genome with closely related TcV and TcVI genomes, with limited sequence rearrangements. TcVI genomes included several expansions not present in TcV strains. Comparative analysis of both nuclear and kinetoplast sequences clearly separated TcV from TcVI strains, which strongly supports the current DTU classification.

11.
Mol Ecol ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749727

RESUMO

Integrating how biodiversity and infectious disease dynamics are linked at multiple levels and scales is highly challenging. Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease, with specificities of the triatomine vectors and Trypanosoma cruzi parasite life histories resulting in a complex multihost and multistrain life cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T. cruzi transmission cycles are shaped by triatomine host communities and gut microbiota composition by comparing the integrated interactions of Triatoma sanguisuga in southern Louisiana with feeding hosts, T. cruzi parasite and bacterial microbiota in two habitats. Bugs were collected from resident's houses and animal shelters and analysed for genetic structure, blood feeding sources, T. cruzi parasites, and bacterial diversity by PCR amplification of specific DNA markers followed by next-generation sequencing, in an integrative metabarcoding approach. T. sanguisuga feeding host communities appeared opportunistic and defined by host abundance in each habitat, yielding distinct parasite transmission networks among hosts. The circulation of a large diversity of T. cruzi DTUs was also detected, with TcII and TcV detected for the first time in triatomines in the US. The bacterial microbiota was highly diverse and varied significantly according to the DTU infecting the bugs, indicating specific interactions among them in the gut. Expanding such studies to multiple habitats and additional triatomine species would be key to further refine our understanding of the complex life cycles of multihost, multistrain parasites such as T. cruzi, and may lead to improved disease control strategies.

12.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 128, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective observational studies suggest that transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi does not occur in treated women when pregnant later in life. The level of parasitemia is a known risk factor for congenital transmission. Benznidazole (BZN) is the drug of choice for preconceptional treatment to reduce parasitic load. The fear of treatment-related side effects limits the implementation of the Argentine guideline recommending BZN 60d/300 mg (or equivalent) treatment of T. cruzi seropositive women during the postpartum period to prevent transmission in a future pregnancy. A short and low dose BZN treatment might reduce major side effects and increase compliance, but its efficacy to reduce T. cruzi parasitic load compared to the standard 60d/300 mg course is not yet established. Clinical trials testing alternative BZN courses among women of reproductive age are urgently needed. METHODS AND DESIGN: We are proposing to perform a double-blinded, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial comparing a short low dose 30-day treatment with BZN 150 mg/day (30d/150 mg) vs. BZN 60d/300 mg. We will recruit not previously treated T. cruzi seropositive women with a live birth during the postpartum period in Argentina, randomize them at 6 months postpartum, and follow them up with the following specific aims: Specific aim 1: to measure the effect of BZN 30d/150 mg compared to 60d/300 mg preconceptional treatment on parasitic load measured by the frequency of positive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (primary outcome) and by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), immediately and 10 months after treatment. Specific aim 2: to measure the frequency of serious adverse events and/or any adverse event leading to treatment interruption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov . Identifier: NCT03672487 . Registered 14 September 2018.

14.
Pathogens ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709055

RESUMO

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered multiple efforts for serological tests and vaccine development. Most of these tests and vaccines are based on the Spike glycoprotein (S) or the Nucleocapsid (N) viral protein. Conservation of these antigens among viral strains is critical to ensure optimum diagnostic test performance and broad protective efficacy, respectively. We assessed N and S antigen diversity from 17,853 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences and evaluated selection pressure. Up to 6-7 incipient phylogenetic clades were identified for both antigens, confirming early variants of the S antigen and identifying new ones. Significant diversifying selection was detected at multiple sites for both antigens. Some sequence variants have already spread in multiple regions, in spite of their low frequency. In conclusion, the N and S antigens of SARS-CoV-2 are well-conserved antigens, but new clades are emerging and may need to be included in future diagnostic and vaccine formulations.

15.
Vaccine ; 38(29): 4584-4591, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417142

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the most important neglected parasitic diseases in the Americas. Vaccines represent an attractive complementary strategy for the control of T. cruzi infection and pre-clinical studies in mice demonstrated that trypomastigote surface antigen (TSA-1) and the flagellar calcium-binding (Tc24) parasite antigens are promising candidates for vaccine development. We performed here the first evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of two recombinant vaccine antigens (named TSA1-C4 and Tc24-C4) in naïve non-human primates. Three rhesus macaques received 3 doses of each recombinant protein, formulated with E6020 (Eisai Co., Ltd.), a novel Toll-like receptor-4 agonist, in a stable emulsion. All parameters from blood chemistry and blood cell counts were stable over the course of the study and unaffected by the vaccine. A specific IgG response against both antigens was detectable after the first vaccine dose, and increased with the second dose. After three vaccine doses, stimulation of PBMCs with a peptide pool derived from TSA1-C4 resulted in the induction of TSA1-C4-specific TNFα-, IL-2- and IFNγ-producing CD4+ in one or two animals while stimulation with a peptide pool derived from Tc24-C4 only activated IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells in one animal. In two animals there was also activation of TSA1-C4-specific IL2-producing CD8+ T cells. This is the first report of the immunogenicity of T. cruzi-derived recombinant antigens formulated as an emulsion with a TLR4 agonist in a non-human primate model. Our results strongly support the need for further evaluation of the preventive efficacy of this type of vaccine in non-human primates and explore the effect of the vaccine in a therapeutic model of naturally-infected Chagasic non-human primates, which would strengthen the rationale for the clinical development as a human vaccine against Chagas disease.

16.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 56, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321590

RESUMO

The spreading and accumulation of α-synuclein and dopaminergic neurodegeneration, two hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have been faithfully reproduced in rodent brains by chronic, oral administration of ß-sitosterol ß-D-glucoside (BSSG). We investigated whether a single injection of BSSG (6 µg BSSG/µL DMSO) in the left substantia nigra of Wistar rats causes the same effects. Mock DMSO injections and untreated rats formed control groups. We performed immunostainings against the pathological α-synuclein, the dopaminergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the neuroskeleton marker ß-III tubulin, the neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1) as non-dopaminergic phenotype marker and Fluro-Jade C (F-J C) label for neurodegeneration. Using ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal) assay and active caspase-3 immunostaining, we assessed cell death mechanisms. Golgi-Cox staining was used to measure the density and types of dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons. Motor and non-motor alterations were also evaluated. The study period comprised 15 to 120 days after the lesion. In the injured substantia nigra, BSSG caused a progressive α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by senescence and apoptosis. The α-synuclein immunoreactivity was also present within microglia cells. Decreased density of dopaminergic fibers and dendritic spines also occurred in the striatum. Remarkably, all the histopathological changes also appeared on the contralateral nigrostriatal system, and α-synuclein aggregates were present in other brain regions. Motor and non-motor behavioral alterations were progressive. Our data show that the stereotaxic BSSG administration reproduces PD α-synucleinopathy phenotype in the rat. This approach will aid in identifying the spread mechanism of α-synuclein pathology and validate anti-synucleinopathy therapies.

17.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(7): 535-540, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286921

RESUMO

Raccoons are an important reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, having been reported to maintain a high and lengthy parasitemia. Although raccoon populations have historically been abundant in Louisiana, the prevalence rate of T. cruzi infection in raccoons in this state is unknown. Here, we tested raccoon tissues from two urban areas in Louisiana, namely Orleans Parish (OP) and East Baton Rouge Parish (EBRP), to investigate prevalence in these areas using direct detection through polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 33.6% of raccoons tested were positive. The prevalence in OP (42.9%) was significantly higher than the prevalence in EBRP (23.2%). There was no significant difference in prevalence between sexes or based on age, but there was a significant difference in infection prevalence based on season of trapping. These results suggest the importance of raccoons as a reservoir host, maintaining T. cruzi infection and potentially posing a risk to human health.

18.
MethodsX ; 7: 100821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195138

RESUMO

An animal model, suitable for resembling Parkinson's disease (PD) progress, should show both, motor and non-motor alterations. However, these features have been scarcely evaluated or developed in parkinsonian models induced by neurotoxins. This protocol provides modifications to original methods, allowing six different motor and non-motor behavior tests, which adequately and timely emulate the main parkinsonian sensorimotor alterations in the rat or mouse: (1) bilateral sensorimotor alterations, examined by the vibrissae test; (2) balance and motor coordination, evaluated by the uncoordinated gait test; (3) locomotor asymmetry, analyzed by the cylinder test; (4) bradykinesia, as a locomotor alteration evidenced by the open field test; (5) depressive-like behavior, judged by the forced swimming test; and (6) hyposmia, assessed by the olfactory asymmetry test. Some advantages of using these behavioral tests over others include:•No sophisticated materials or equipment are required for their application and evaluation.•They are used in rodent models for parkinsonian research, but they can also be helpful for studying other movement disorders.•These tests can accurately discriminate the affected side from the healthy one, after unilateral injury of one hemisphere, resulting in sensorimotor, olfactory or locomotor asymmetry.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102611, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The remission of Crohn's disease (CD) can be accomplished by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, this procedure has a low success rate, which could be attributed to mis-communication between recipient intestinal mucosa and donor microbiota. METHODS: Here we used a human explant tissue model and an in vivo mouse model to examine changes in recipient intestinal mucosa upon contact with a faecal suspension (FS) obtained from a healthy donor. CD patients provided resected inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal tissues, whereas control colonic mucosa samples were collected from colorectal cancer patients. For the models, mucosal microbiome composition and tissue response were evaluated. FINDINGS: We show that cytokine release and tissue damage were significantly greater in inflamed compared to non-inflamed CD tissues. Moreover, mucosal samples harbouring an initial low microbial load presented a shift in composition towards that of the FS, an increase in the relative count of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and a higher secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 compared to those with a high microbial load. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that FMT during active inflammatory disease can compromise treatment outcome. We recommend the stratification of FMT recipients on the basis of tissue microbial load as a strategy to ensure successful colonization. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III/FEDER (PI17/00614), the European Commission: (INCOMED-267128) and PERIS (SLT002/16). K.M. is a postdoctoral fellow and S.V. a senior clinical investigator of the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders, Belgium (FWO-Vlaanderen).


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 59(2): 431-440, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High values of ECG and intracardiac dominant frequency (DF) are indicative of significant atrial remodeling in persistent atrial fibrillation (peAF). We hypothesized that patients with peAF unresponsive to ablation display higher ECG and intracardiac DFs than those remaining in sinus rhythm (SR) on the long term. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients underwent stepwise ablation for peAF (sustained duration 19 ± 11 months). Electrograms were recorded before ablation at 13 left atrium (LA) sites and at the right atrial appendage (RAA) and coronary sinus (CS) synchronously to the ECG. DF was defined as the highest peak within the power spectrum. RESULTS: peAF was terminated within the LA in 28 patients (left-terminated [LT]), whereas 12 patients remaining in AF after ablation (not left-terminated [NLT]) were cardioverted. Over a mean follow-up of 34 ± 14 months, all 12 NLT patients had a recurrence. Of the LT patients, 71% had a recurrence (20/28, LT_Rec), while 29% remained in SR throughout the follow-up (8/28, LT_SR). DF values and correlations between pairs of LA appendage (LAA), RAA, and CS DFs showed distinctive patterns among the subgroups. The NLT subgroup displayed the highest ECG and intracardiac DFs, with strong intragroup homogeneity between pairs of CS and LAA DFs, and to a lesser extent between pairs of CS and RAA DFs. Conversely, the LT_SR subgroup showed the lowest DFs, with significant intragroup heterogeneity between pairs of CS and both LAA and RAA DFs. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with peAF unresponsive to ablation show high surface and intracardiac DFs indicative of severe and uniform bi-atrial remodeling.

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