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1.
Biomacromolecules ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958232

RESUMO

Recyclable biocomposites based on degradable polymer systems and cellulosic plant fibers are attractive in a sustainable society, because of enhanced polymer properties and also from an end-of-life perspective. Improved understanding is required for how the degradable polymer matrix is affected during compounding in addition to effects from the cellulosic fiber structure and its chemical nature. This work reveals that a poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix undergoes localized, heterogeneous polymer degradation in the fiber-matrix interphase region during melt-compounding. The extent of localized degradation correlates with the initial moisture content in the wood cellulose fiber, where moisture content is controlled by different fiber modification methods by PCL-grafting. As an effect, high moisture content results in a destabilized and degraded fiber-matrix interphase. This was found through careful analysis of how the polymer population changed after compounding, using two different methods: molar mass distribution from SEC and end-group concentration from NMR. The results are important not only with regard to fiber/matrix interface compatibility but also to understand fiber modification for improved biocomposites recycling.

2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(41): 28-36, 29/12/2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1048235

RESUMO

La mortalidad guarda relación con las temperaturas diarias y los eventos extremos. Este estudio buscó analizar los efectos de las bajas temperaturas sobre la mortalidad en las principales ciudades de Argentina en el período 2005-2015. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de series temporales con modelos aditivos generalizados, modelando la relación entre bajas temperaturas y mortalidad para 21 ciudades de Argentina entre 2005 y 2015. Se analizó la mortalidad general y por grupos de sexo, edad y causa de muerte, en días fríos y días de olas de frío, así como los rezagos de 7 y 14 días posteriores a dichos eventos. RESULTADOS: En los 7 días posteriores a un día frío, el riesgo de muerte aumenta en la mitad de las ciudades entre un 1,04 [IC95%: 1,00-1,08] y un 1,14 [IC95%: 1,06-1,23] según la ciudad. El grupo de 65 años y más es el que muestra mayor impacto, con un incremento de hasta el 1,20 [IC95%: 1,05-1,39]. Las olas de frío se asocian con un aumento más pronunciado en el riesgo de morir en los siguientes 7 días en 8 ciudades (1,05 [IC95%: 1,03-1,08] a 1,30 [IC95%: 1,03-1,65]), y en 10 ciudades en los siguientes 14 días, aunque con valores algo más bajos. CONCLUSIONES: Con diferencias en magnitud y robustez estadística según las ciudades, la población de las áreas urbanas presenta un riesgo aumentado de muerte durante los 7 y 14 días posteriores a un evento de frío extremo


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Mortalidade , Temperatura Baixa , Frio Extremo
3.
Biomacromolecules ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769663

RESUMO

Chemical modification of wood cellulose fibers is important for tailored wood-polymer interfaces, reduced moisture sorption, and novel grades of chemical wood pulp. The present study shows how the reaction solvent system influences hydroxyl accessibility during chemical fiber modification. Surface initiated ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone from wood cellulose fibers was investigated in a wide range of solvent systems. The hydrogen bond donor strength of the solvent increased graft density and the amount of grafted polycaprolactone (PCL) on the fiber surface, and on nanoscale fibrils inside the fiber. Specifically, the reaction system with acetic acid as a new, green solvent for cellulose grafting increased graft density 24 times compared to bulk polymerization conditions. The results show relationships between solvent properties, hydroxyl accessibility, and grafting results in cellulosic plant fibers. The study clarifies the opportunities provided by controlling the interior of the cellulosic plant fiber cell wall during chemical modification so that the fiber becomes a swollen cellulose nanofibril gel.

4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 5(4)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581540

RESUMO

Background. Candida auris has spread rapidly around the world as a causative agent of invasive candidiasis in health care facilities and there is an urgent need to find new options for treating this emerging, often multidrug-resistant pathogen. METHODS: We screened the Pathogen Box® chemical library for inhibitors of C. auris strain 0390, both under planktonic and biofilm growing conditions. RESULTS: The primary screen identified 12 compounds that inhibited at least 60% of biofilm formation or planktonic growth. After confirmatory dose-response assays, iodoquinol and miltefosine were selected as the two main leading repositionable compounds. Iodoquinol displayed potent in vitro inhibitory activity against planktonic C. auris but showed negligible inhibitory activity against biofilms; whereas miltefosine was able to inhibit the growth of C. auris under both planktonic and biofilm-growing conditions. Subsequent experiments confirmed their activity against nine other strains C. auris clinical isolates, irrespective of their susceptibility profiles against conventional antifungals. We extended our studies further to seven different species of Candida, also with similar findings. CONCLUSION: Both drugs possess broad spectrum of activity against Candida spp., including multiple strains of the emergent C. auris, and may constitute promising repositionable options for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of candidiasis.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_3): S224-S227, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517972

RESUMO

We examined the effect of glove decontamination prior to removal on bacterial contamination of healthcare personnel hands in a laboratory simulation study. Glove decontamination reduced bacterial contamination of hands following removal. However, hand contamination still occurred with all decontamination methods, reinforcing the need for hand hygiene following glove removal.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.

7.
J Cutan Pathol ; 46(12): 925-929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: El Bagre endemic pemphigus foliaceus (El Bagre-EPF) is a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus present in the El Bagre area of Colombia, South America. Here, we investigate the presence of complement/C5-b9 in lesional skin of patients and matched controls from the endemic area. We also aim to compare the patient's autoantibody levels using indirect immunofluorescent titers (IIF) and correlate with the lesional presence of complement/C5b-9. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out by testing for the presence of complement/C5b-9 in lesional skin in 43 patients affected by El Bagre-EPF, as well as 43 matched, healthy controls from the endemic area. Skin biopsies were obtained and evaluated via hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The presence of complement/C5b-9 was observed in all cases of the patients affected by El Bagre-EPF and was not observed in the controls from the endemic area (P < 0.001). The patients' autoantibody titers utilizing IIF for IgG and IgM showed correlation between higher autoantibody titers and stronger intensity of staining with complement/C5-b9 staining (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients affected by El Bagre-EPF have lesional deposition of complement/C5b, which correlates with disease severity and previously established serologies.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10530, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324839

RESUMO

Biomarkers are frequently used in ecotoxicology as they allow to study toxicant effects happening at low concentrations of exposure. However, most sublethal studies only evaluate cellular biomarkers which lack evident ecological relevance. We used a multibiomarker approach to estimate the toxic effects of ethoprophos, an organophosphate insecticide commonly used in banana plantations, on the tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae). We measured biomarkers at sub-individual (cellular) and individual (metabolism, behavior) levels and examined relationships among these responses. A sublethal exposure to ethoprophos caused a significant (54%) reduction of brain Cholinesterase (ChE) activity, reflecting the pesticide's high neurotoxicity. However, other biomarkers like oxidative stress, biotransformation reactions, and resting metabolic rate were not affected. Exposure to ethoprophos modified antipredator behaviors such as escape response and detection avoidance (light/dark preference): exposed fish escaped slower from a simulated attack and preferred brighter areas in a novel tank. The relationship between ChE activity and reaction time suggests that pesticide-induced ChE inhibition reduces escape ability in fish. Our results provide evidence that impacts of organophosphate pesticides on fish ecological fitness can occur even with short exposures at very low concentrations.

9.
Toxicon ; 154: 50-59, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273704

RESUMO

The presence of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins in water presents a global problem due to the deterioration of ecosystems and the possibility of poisoning in human and animals. Microcystin LR is the most widely distributed cyanotoxin and liver cells are its main target. In the present study, HepG2 cells were used to determine DNA damage of three crude extracts of cyanobacterial blooms containing MC-LR, through comet assay. The results show that all extracts at a concentration of 500 µg mL-1 caused low damage in hepatocytes exposed for 24 h, but produced total mortality even at low concentrations at 48 h. Moreover, balloons corresponding to cell apoptosis were found. Through HPLC/MS, MC-LR was detected in all samples of cyanobacterial blooms at concentrations of (5,65 µg ml-1) in sample 1, (1,24 µg ml-1) in sample 2 and (57,29 µg ml-1) in sample 3. In addition, in all samples high molecular weights peaks were detected, that may correspond to other microcystins. Besides, the cytotoxic effect of a cyanobacterial bloom and some of its chromatographic fractions from the crude extracts were evaluated in U-937, J774, Hela and Vero cell lines, using the enzymatic micromethod (MTT). The highest toxicity was detected in U-937 cells (LC50 = 29.7 µg mL-1) and Vero cells (LC50 = 39.7 µg mL-1). Based on these results, it is important to remark that genotoxic and cytotoxicity assays are valuable methods to predict potential biological risks in waters contaminated with blooms of cyanobacteria, since chemical analysis can only describe the presence of cyanotoxins, but not their biological effects.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Benzil , Células Cultivadas , Colômbia , Ensaio Cometa , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Microcistinas/análise , Microcistinas/química , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Pirazinas , Células U937 , Células Vero
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(2): 1-8, mayo.-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978433

RESUMO

Loxoscelismo es el cuadro clínico originado por la mordedura de araña del género Loxosceles. Es considerado un accidente que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en las noches, debido al hábito nocturno de la araña y buena adaptación a los ambientes domésticos, preferentemente en espacios oscuros y secos. Clínicamente presenta dos escenarios, cutáneo (83,3 %) y visceral o sistémico (16 %), con una variación del cuadro cutáneo denominado loxoscelismo predominantemente edematoso. El objetivo es informar un caso inusual de loxoscelismo escrotal. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante las características clínicas y epidemiológicas del accidente. En conclusión, el loxoscelismo escrotal es una entidad muy infrecuente, el manejo del paciente influye mucho en su evolución y progresión; el tratamiento exhaustivo con sulfadiazina 2 veces al día y antibióticos intravenosos, muestra resultados muy favorables.


Loxoscelism is a condition produced by the bite of spiders from the genus Loxosceles. It is considered to be an accident that occurs mostly in the night, due to the spider's nocturnal habits and good adaptation to domestic environments, preferably dark, dry spaces. It presents in two clinical scenarios: cutaneous (83.3 %) and visceral or systemic (16 %), with a variation in the cutaneous manifestation known as predominantly edematous loxoscelism. The objective of the study was to report an unusual case of scrotal loxoscelism. Diagnosis was based on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the accident. It is concluded that scrotal loxoscelism is a very infrequent condition. Management of the patient greatly influences its evolution and progress. Exhaustive treatment with sulfadiazine twice daily and intravenous antibiotics yields very favorable results.

11.
Nature ; 562(7725): 150, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973715

RESUMO

Change History: This Article has been retracted; see accompanying Retraction. Corrected online 20 January: In this Article, author Frank Rigo was incorrectly listed with a middle initial; this has been corrected in the online versions of the paper.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520342

RESUMO

Despite the mammalian host actively sequestering iron to limit pathogenicity, heme (or hemin when oxidized) and hemoproteins serve as important sources of iron for many bloodborne pathogens. The HmuRSTUV hemin uptake system allows Yersinia species to uptake and utilize hemin and hemoproteins as iron sources. HmuR is a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor for hemin and hemoproteins. HmuTUV comprise a inner membrane ABC transporter that transports hemin and hemoproteins from the periplasmic space into the bacterial cytoplasm, where it is degraded by HmuS. Here we show that hmuSTUV but not hmuR are expressed under iron replete conditions, whereas hmuR as well as hmuSTUV are expressed under iron limiting conditions, suggesting complex transcriptional control. Indeed, expression of hmuSTUV in the presence of inorganic iron, but not in the presence of hemin, requires the global regulator IscR acting from a promoter in the intergenic region between hmuR and hmuS. This effect of IscR appears to be direct by binding a site mapped by DNaseI footprinting. In contrast, expression of hmuR under iron limiting conditions requires derepression of the ferric uptake regulator Fur acting from the hmuR promoter, as Fur binding upstream of hmuR was demonstrated biochemically. Differential expression by both Fur and IscR would facilitate maximal hemin uptake and utilization when iron and heme availability is low while maintaining the capacity for periplasmic removal and cytosolic detoxification of heme under a wider variety of conditions. We also demonstrate that a Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔiscR mutant has a survival defect when incubated in whole blood, in which iron is sequestered by heme-containing proteins. Surprisingly, this phenotype was independent of the Hmu system, the type III secretion system, complement, and the ability of Yersinia to replicate intracellularly. These results suggest that IscR regulates multiple virulence factors important for Yersinia survival and growth in mammalian tissues and reveal a surprising complexity of heme uptake expression and function under differing conditions of iron.


Assuntos
Heme/metabolismo , Hemina/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/metabolismo , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/microbiologia , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Genética , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/sangue
13.
Plant Physiol ; 176(2): 1327-1340, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187570

RESUMO

The ambient light environment controls many aspects of plant development throughout a plant's life cycle. Such complex control is achieved because a key repressor of light signaling, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase causes the degradation of multiple regulators of endogenous developmental pathways. This includes the CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor that is responsible for photoperiodic control of flowering time. There are 16 CO-like proteins whose functions are only partly understood. Here, we show that 14 CO-like (COL) proteins bind CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 (SPA)1 in vitro. We subsequently focused on COL12 and show that COL12 binds COP1 and SPA proteins in vivo. The COL12 protein is degraded in darkness in a COP1-dependent fashion, indicating that COL12 is a substrate of the COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase. Overexpression of COL12 causes late flowering specifically in long day conditions by decreasing the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T This phenotype is genetically dependent on CO. Consistent with this finding, COL12 physically interacts with CO in vivo, suggesting that COL12 represses flowering by inhibiting CO protein function. We show that COL12 overexpression did not alter CO protein stability. It is therefore likely that COL12 represses the activity of CO rather than CO levels. Overexpression of COL12 also affects plant architecture by increasing the number of rosette branches and reducing inflorescence height. These phenotypes are CO independent. Hence, we suggest that COL12 affects plant development through CO-dependent and CO-independent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escuridão , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171406, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166267

RESUMO

Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to activation of host NF-κB. We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. We found that wildtype Yersinia able to remain extracellular triggered NF-κB activation independently of the non-canonical NF-κB kinase NIK in HEK293T cells. In contrast, Yersinia lacking the actin-targeting effectors YopEHO, which become internalized into host cells, induce a NIK-dependent response and nuclear entry of the non-canonical NF-κB subunit p52. Blocking actin polymerization and uptake of effector mutant bacteria using cytochalasin D shifted the host NF-κB response from NIK-independent to primarily NIK-dependent. We observed similar results using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which expresses a related T3SS and the actin-targeting effector ExoT. As the NF-κB response of HEK293T cells to effectorless Yersinia has been used both as a screening tool for chemical inhibitors of the T3SS and for bacterial forward genetic screens, a better understanding of this response is important for tool optimization and interpretation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III , Actinas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Células HEK293 , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 9(9)2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965710

RESUMO

The production of fully bio-based and biodegradable nanocomposites has gained attention during recent years due to environmental reasons; however, the production of these nanocomposites on the large-scale is challenging. Polylactic acid/chitin nanocrystal (PLA/ChNC) nanocomposites with triethyl citrate (TEC) at varied concentrations (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt %) were prepared using liquid-assisted extrusion. The goal was to find the minimum amount of the TEC plasticizer needed to enhance the ChNC dispersion. The microscopy study showed that the dispersion and distribution of the ChNC into PLA improved with the increasing TEC content. Hence, the nanocomposite with the highest plasticizer content (7.5 wt %) showed the highest optical transparency and improved thermal and mechanical properties compared with its counterpart without the ChNC. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that the water and ethanol used during the extrusion did not degrade PLA. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed improved interaction between PLA and ChNC through hydrogen bonding when TEC was added. All results confirmed that the plasticizer plays an important role as a dispersing aid in the processing of PLA/ChNC nanocomposites.

19.
Nature ; 528(7583): 517-22, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26675721

RESUMO

T helper 17 (TH17) lymphocytes protect mucosal barriers from infections, but also contribute to multiple chronic inflammatory diseases. Their differentiation is controlled by RORγt, a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor. Here we identify the RNA helicase DEAD-box protein 5 (DDX5) as a RORγt partner that coordinates transcription of selective TH17 genes, and is required for TH17-mediated inflammatory pathologies. Surprisingly, the ability of DDX5 to interact with RORγt and coactivate its targets depends on intrinsic RNA helicase activity and binding of a conserved nuclear long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), Rmrp, which is mutated in patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia. A targeted Rmrp gene mutation in mice, corresponding to a gene mutation in cartilage-hair hypoplasia patients, altered lncRNA chromatin occupancy, and reduced the DDX5-RORγt interaction and RORγt target gene transcription. Elucidation of the link between Rmrp and the DDX5-RORγt complex reveals a role for RNA helicases and lncRNAs in tissue-specific transcriptional regulation, and provides new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in TH17-dependent diseases.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123335, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915043

RESUMO

Drug delivery systems based on polymeric microparticles represent an interesting field of development for the treatment of several infectious diseases for humans and animals. In this work, we developed PLGA microparticles loaded with ceftiofur (PLGA-cef), a third- generation cephalosporin that is used exclusively used in animals. PLGA-cef was prepared by the double emulsion w/o/w method, and exhibited a diameter in the range of 1.5-2.2 µm, and a negative ζ potential in the range of -35 to -55 mV. The loading yield of PLGA-cef was ~7% and encapsulation efficiency was approximately 40%. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated a sustained release profile of ceftiofur for 20 days. PLGA-cef administrated in a single dose was more effective than ceftiofur non-encapsulated in rats challenged with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo toxicological evaluation showed that PLGA-cef did not affect the blood biochemical, hematological and hemostasis parameters. Overall, the PLGA-cef showed slow in vivo release profile, high antibacterial efficacy, and low toxicity. The results obtained supports the safe application of PLGA-cef as sustained release platform in the veterinary industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Ácido Láctico/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cápsulas/química , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico
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