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1.
Viruses ; 11(7)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337020

RESUMO

The begomoviruses (BGVs) are plant pathogens that evolved in the Old World during the Cretaceous and arrived to the New World (NW) in the Cenozoic era. A subgroup of NW BGVs, the "Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) lineage" (S-Lin), includes viruses with unique characteristics. To get clues on the evolutionary origin of this lineage, a search for divergent members was undertaken. Four novel BGVs were characterized, including one that is basal to the group. Comparative analyses led to discover a ~670 bp genome module that is nearly exclusive of this lineage, encompassing the replication origin, the AC4 gene, and 480 bp of the Rep gene. A similar DNA module was found in two curtoviruses, hence suggesting that the S-Lin ancestor acquired its distinctive genomic segment by recombination with a curtovirus. This hypothesis was definitely disproved by an in-depth sequence analysis. The search for homologs of S-Lin Rep uncover the common origin of Rep proteins encoded by diverse Geminiviridae genera and viral "fossils" integrated at plant genomes. In contrast, no homolog of S-Lin Rep was found in public databases. Consequently, it was concluded that the SLCV clade ancestor evolved by a recombination event between a primitive NW BGV and a virus from a hitherto unknown lineage.

2.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 51(2): 147-154, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003165

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La aplicación de una ley exponencial para los sistemas dinámicos caóticos cardiacos ha sido reducida a 18 horas para el análisis del Holter, cuantificando las dinámicas cardiacas normales y patológicas, así como la evolución entre estos estados. Metodología: Se analizaron 80 registros electrocardiográficos, 15 con dinámicas normales y 65 con diferentes patologías. Se construyó un atractor caótico para cada dinámica cardiaca a partir de la simulación de la secuencia de las frecuencias cardiacas durante 18 horas, posteriormente se halló la dimensión fractal de cada atractor y su ocupación espacial. Los parámetros diferenciadores de la ley caótica exponencial fueron aplicados diferenciando dinámicas cardiacas normales de aquellas patológicas, finalmente se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y coeficiente Kappa. Resultados: Las dinámicas normales presentaron espacios de ocupación por encima de 200 en la rejillla Kp, y para la rejilla Kg por encima de 67. Para los casos de enfermedad aguda los valores en las rejillas Kp y Kg estuvieron por debajo de 73 y 22 respectivamente. Los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad fueron de 100% y el coeficiente Kappa fue de 1. Conclusión: La aplicación de la ley exponencial durante 18 horas mostro que fue posible caracterizar matemáticamente las dinámicas cardiacas, permitiendo reducir el tiempo de evaluación.


Abstract Introduction: The application of an exponential law for chaotic dynamic cardiac systems has been reduced to 18 hours for Holter analysis, quantifying normal and pathological cardiac dynamics, as well as the evolution between these states. Methodology: 80 electrocardiographic records were analyzed, 15 with normal dynamics and 65 with different pathologies. A chaotic attractor was constructed for each cardiac dynamic based on the simulation of the cardiac frequency sequence for 18 hours, after the fractal dimension of each attractor and its spatial occupation were found. The differentiating parameters of the chaotic exponential law were applied differentiating normal cardiac dynamics from those pathological, finally the sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Results: The normal dynamics presented occupancy spaces above 200 in the Kp grid, and for the Kg grid above 67. In the cases of acute disease, the values in the Kp and Kg grids were below 73 and 22 respectively. The values of sensitivity and specificity were 100% and the Kappa coefficient was 1. Conclusion: The application of the exponential law for 18 hours showed that it was possible to characterize mathematically the cardiac dynamics, allowing reducing the time of evaluation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fractais , Doença , Simulação , Diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Matemática
3.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(5): 490-497, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that lactation is associated with long-term maternal health benefits. To avoid confounders in human studies, we used a previously characterized murine model to investigate the long-term effect of lactation on both cardiovascular function and adiposity. STUDY DESIGN: After the delivery of the pups, CD-1 female mice were randomly divided into two groups: lactated and nonlactated (NL). Before pregnancy and at 9 months postdelivery, blood pressure was measured using a tail cuff, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by computed tomography (CT), echocardiography was performed using microultrasound, and cholesterol panels and fasting blood glucose were measured. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test (significance at p < 0.05). RESULTS: There were no differences in baseline parameters between the two groups. At 9 months postdelivery, the NL group weighed significantly more (p = 0.03) and demonstrated a significantly lower cardiac output (p = 0.05) and ejection fraction (p = 0.03). The mice in the NL group also had higher VAT (p < 0.01) and SAT percentiles (p = 0.03). Fasting glucose (p = 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the NL group at 9 months. CONCLUSION: Our results show the benefit of lactation is not just limited to the immediate postpartum period but it also extends into midlife in a murine model.

4.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(3): 352-358, mayo-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978990

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Establecer una nueva metodología predictiva de la proporción de dengue grave respecto al total anual de infectados de dengue por departamento con base en la teoría de la probabilidad. Métodos Con base en los datos anuales de número de infectados por departamentos en el periodo 2005 -2010, se calculó la proporción entre casos de dengue grave respecto al total para cada año, y se construyeron espacios de probabilidad que evalúan estos eventos en rangos de 0,5 y 0,3. Se determinaron conjuntos de rangos y se calculó probabilidad, desviación media cuadrática y la diferencia entre ellas. Se realizó una predicción del rango de infectados para el 2011 con el promedio aritmético de los valores de los últimos dos años. Resultados Se predijo correctamente el rango en el que se encuentra incluida la proporción de número de infectados de dengue grave sobre el total en cada departamento con una efectividad del 93,3% para el rango de 0,5 y de 86,7% para el de 0,3. Conclusión Se evidenció una autoorganización matemática espacio temporal en la proporción de dengue grave respecto al total que permite establecer predicciones de utilidad para la toma de decisiones de salud pública.


ABSTRACT Objective To establish a new predictive methodology to determine the proportion of severe dengue with respect to the annual total of dengue infections per department based on the probability theory. Materials and Methods Based on annual data on the number of infected persons by department in the period 2005-2010, the proportion of cases of severe dengue was calculated with respect to the total for each year. Probability spaces were constructed to evaluate these events in the ranges 0.5 and 0.3. Sets of ranges were determined and probability, mean square deviation and the difference between them were estimated. A prediction of the range of infected people for 2011 was made using the arithmetic average of the values of the last two years. Results The range in which the proportion of the number of people infected with severe dengue is included with respect to the total amount in each department was correctly predicted, with an effectiveness of 93.3% for the 0.5 range and 86.7% for the 0.3 range. Conclusion A mathematical spatial-temporal self-organization was found in the proportion of severe dengue with respect to the total, which allows establishing useful predictions for decision-making in public health.

5.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 36(1): 27-33, ene.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-957193

RESUMO

Resumen El estudio de la dinámica anual de la epidemia de VIH a partir de la caminata al azar ha mostrado ser de utilidad para llevar este fenómeno altamente variable a un comportamiento predecible, desde una mirada acausal. Objetivo: predecir el comportamiento de la dinámica del número de personas viviendo con VIH mediante la caminata al azar probabilista. Metodología: Se analizaron los valores anuales de personas que a nivel global viven con VIH desde el año 1990 hasta el 2009, a partir de los espacios de probabilidad generados del estudio de esta dinámica con la caminata al azar probabilista, para posteriormente desarrollar la predicción del valor anual de personas viviendo con VIH para los años 2010, 2011 y 2012. Resultados: Basados en el comportamiento de caminata al azar probabilista que exhibió el fenómeno, se predijeron los valores anuales de personas viviendo con VIH con un porcentaje de acierto de 98,95% para el año 2010, de 98,82% para el año 2011 y de 98,99% para la predicción realizada para el año 2012. Conclusiones: Se establecieron órdenes matemáticos a partir de la caminata al azar probabilista, estableciendo predicciones prácticamente deterministas en un contexto acausal del número de personas viviendo con VIH, logrando lo que podría ser de aplicación a las decisiones de salud pública, como método de evaluación de intervenciones.


Abstract Introduction: This is a study of the yearly dynamic of the HIV epidemic based on random walks has proven to be useful to take this highly variable phenomenon to a predictable behavior. Objective: Predict the behavior of the dynamic of the number of people living with HIV via a probabilistic random walk. Methodology: The yearly value of people living with HIV worldwide was analyzed from 1990 to 2009, based on probability spaces produced with a probabilistic random walk, and then, developed the prediction of the yearly value of people living with HIV for 2010, 2011 and 2012. Results: The yearly volume of people living with HIV was predicted with a 98.95% success rate in 2010, 98.82% in 2011 and 98.99% for the 2012 prediction. Conclusions: Mathematical orders were established based on the probabilistic random walk, establishing practically deterministic predictions of the number of people living with HIV which could be useful for public health decisions and to evaluate interventions.


Resumo Introdução: O estudo da dinâmica anual da epidemia do HIV a partir do passeio aleatório tem se mostrado útil para trazer este fenômeno altamente variável a um comportamento previsível. Objetivo: Predizer o comportamento da dinâmica do número de pessoas vivendo com HIV. através da caminhada aleatória probabilística. Metodologia: Analisaram-se os valores anuais das pessoas vivendo globalmente com HIV de 1990 a 2009, a partir dos espaços de probabilidade gerados com o passeio aleatório probabilístico, para posteriormente desenvolver a predição do valor anual das pessoas que vivem com o HIV pelos anos 2010, 2011 y 2012. Resultados: Os valores anuais das pessoas vivendo com HIV foram previstos com uma taxa de sucesso de 98,95% para o ano de 2010, de 98,82% para o ano de 2011 e de 98,99% para a previsão feita para o ano de 2012. Conclusões: Ordens matemáticas foram estabelecidas a partir do passeio probabilístico aleatório, estabelecendo predições praticamente determinísticas do número de pessoas vivendo com HIV, o que poderia ser útil para decisões em Saúde Pública e para a avaliação de intervenções.

6.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 20(3): 352-358, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE : To establish a new predictive methodology to determine the proportion of severe dengue with respect to the annual total of dengue infections per department based on the probability theory. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Based on annual data on the number of infected persons by department in the period 2005-2010, the proportion of cases of severe dengue was calculated with respect to the total for each year. Probability spaces were constructed to evaluate these events in the ranges 0.5 and 0.3. Sets of ranges were determined and probability, mean square deviation and the difference between them were estimated. A prediction of the range of infected people for 2011 was made using the arithmetic average of the values of the last two years. RESULTS : The range in which the proportion of the number of people infected with severe dengue is included with respect to the total amount in each department was correctly predicted, with an effectiveness of 93.3% for the 0.5 range and 86.7% for the 0.3 range. CONCLUSION : A mathematical spatial-temporal self-organization was found in the proportion of severe dengue with respect to the total, which allows establishing useful predictions for decision-making in public health.


Assuntos
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Probabilidade , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/etiologia
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 35(8): 737-740, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether the heart operates in the ascending or flat portion of the Starling curve during normal pregnancy. Pregnant women do not respond to the passive leg-raising maneuver secondary to mechanical obstruction of the inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus. Our objective was to evaluate if administration of a fluid bolus increases baseline stroke volume (SV) among healthy pregnant patients during the third trimester. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy pregnant women who underwent elective term cesarean sections were included. A noninvasive cardiac output monitor was used to measure hemodynamic variables at baseline and after administration of a 500-mL crystalloid bolus. RESULTS: Forty-five women were included in the study. Fluid administration was associated with a statistically significant increase in SV from a baseline value of 71 ± 11 to 90 ± 19 mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.67-21.49; p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in maternal heart rate from a baseline of 87 ± 9 beats per minute to 83 ± 8 after the fluid bolus (95% CI: -6.81 to -2.78; p = 0.03). No changes in peripheral vascular resistances or any other measured hemodynamic parameters were noted with volume expansion. CONCLUSION: In healthy term pregnancy, the heart operates in the ascending portion of the Starling's curve, rendering it fluid responsive.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Postura , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 38(3): 93-103, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175584

RESUMO

Los servicios de alimentación dentro de las universidades son un escenario ideal para fomentar hábitos de vida saludable. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de satisfacción de estudiantes universitarios beneficiarios de un programa de alimentación institucional y sus factores asociados. Métodos: Corte transversal analítico en estudiantes de pregrado, beneficiarios de un servicio de alimentación institucional (n=1,002). Se invitó a participar a todos los estudiantes beneficiarios del servicio (n=2500) a través de una campaña de sensibilización coordinada por el departamento de Bienestar Universitario Estudiantil. Variable dependiente: satisfacción percibida (opciones de respuesta para cada característica: entre 1.0 (malo) y 4.0 (excelente)). Las características analizadas fueron clasificadas en elementos tangibles, fiabilidad, seguridad y capacidad de respuesta. Se realizaron análisis bivariados y multivariantes entre las características de interés del estudio y el puntaje total de satisfacción usando modelos de regresión binomial. Todos los análisis fueron realizados en el programa Stata versión 12.0. Resultados: Se encontró un 20,5% de sobrepeso y un 3,5% de obesidad, mayor en hombres que en mujeres (p=0.033). Los aspectos de satisfacción que obtuvieron menores puntajes fueron: variedad del menú, tamaño de las porciones, calidad sensorial y temperatura de los alimentos servidos. Al ajustar por sexo, edad y nivel socio económico, los estudiantes que manifestaron ser cabeza de familia tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar puntajes de satisfacción iguales o superiores a 3.0, mientras que los estudiantes que realizan 150 minutos de actividad física o menos, por semana, tienen menor probabilidad de presentar estos puntajes. Conclusión: Los estudiantes que realizan actividad física regular y son cabeza de familia tienen mayor percepción de satisfacción sobre el servicio de alimentos. Conocer esta asociación es útil para la gestión, planificación e implementación de programas


The food services within universities are an ideal scenario to encourage healthy lifestyle habits. Objective: To determine the level of satisfaction of university students who are beneficiaries of an institutional feeding program and its associated factors. Methods: Analytical cross-section in undergraduate students, beneficiaries of an institutional food service (n = 1,002). All students benefiting from the service (n = 2500) were invited to participate through a sensitization campaign coordinated by the Student University Welfare Department. Dependent variable: perceived satisfaction (response options for each characteristic: between 1.0 (bad) and 4.0 (excellent)). The analyzed characteristics were classified into tangible elements, reliability, security and responsiveness. Bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed between the characteristics of interest of the study and the total satisfaction score using binomial regression models. All analyzes were performed in the Stata program version 12.0. Results: We found a 20.5% overweight and a 3.5% obesity, higher in men than in women (p = 0.033). The aspects of satisfaction that obtained lower scores were; variety of the menu, size of the portions, sensory quality and temperature of the food served. When adjusting by sex, age and socioeconomic level, students who stated that they are head of the family are more likely to present satisfaction scores equal to or higher than 3.0, while students who perform 150 minutes of physical activity or less, per week, are less likely to present these scores. Conclusion: students who perform regular physical activity and are head of the family have a greater perception of satisfaction with the food service. Knowing this association is useful for the management, planning and implementation of programs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentação Coletiva , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 36(4): 1-15, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003914

RESUMO

Antecedentes: desde los sistemas dinámicos se desarrolló un diagnóstico de la dinámica cardiaca de aplicación clínica en 16 horas, de utilidad en pacientes de Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Objetivos: confirmar la capacidad diagnóstica de la nueva metodología de evaluación de la dinámica cardiaca en 16 horas y determinar la evolución de la presión arterial y venosa de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono. Metodología: se tomaron 50 dinámicas, 10 normales y 40 con patologías agudas, tomando la frecuencia cardiaca mínima y máxima, y número de latidos cada hora. Se construyeron atractores y se evaluaron los espacios de ocupación y la dimensión fractal en 21 y 16 horas, comparando ambos diagnósticos físico-matemáticos entre sí. Posteriormente se realizó una confirmación del diagnóstico establecido en 16 horas mediante un estudio ciego de comparación con el diagnóstico convencional. Adicionalmente se tomaron los valores de la presión arterial y venosa de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono de 7 pacientes de Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y se construyeron atractores caóticos, evaluando los valores mínimos y máximos del atractor en el mapa de retardo. Resultados: se confirmó la capacidad diagnóstica de la metodología en 16 horas para la dinámica cardiaca, con sensibilidad y especificidad de 100 por ciento y coeficiente kappa de 1 respecto al diagnóstico convencional; los valores mínimos y máximos de los atractores de la presión arterial y venosa de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono se encontraron entre 29,60 y 194,40; 24,20 y 56,10; 16,40 y 65,60 y 21,40 y 97,90 respectivamente. Conclusiones: se confirmaron predicciones diagnósticas en 16 horas diferenciando normalidad, enfermedad crónica y enfermedad aguda, útiles para el seguimiento clínico en pacientes de Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Las variables se comportaron caóticamente; estos resultados podrían fundamentar aplicaciones clínicas y predicciones de mortalidad. Palabras claves: frecuencia cardiaca, presión arterial de oxígeno, presión arterial de dióxido de carbono, presión venosa de oxígeno, presión venosa de dióxido de carbono, Sistemas Dinámicos, caos, fractales, dinámica no lineal(AU)


Objectives: to confirm the diagnostic ability of the new assessment methodology of cardiac dynamics in 16 hours and determine the evolution of the arterial and venous pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Methodology: 50 dynamic were taken, 10 normal and 40 with acute pathologies, taking the minimum and maximum heart rate, and number of beats per minute. Attractors were constructed and areas of occupation and the fractal dimension in 21 and 16 hours were evaluated, comparing both physical and mathematical diagnosis each other. Subsequently a confirmation of the diagnosis made in 16 hours by a blinded study compared to conventional diagnosis. Additionally, values of the arterial and venous pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide from 7 Intensive Care Unit patients were taken and chaotic attractors were constructed to evaluate the minimum and maximum values of the attractor on the delay map. Results: The diagnostic capability of the methodology in 16 hours for cardiac dynamic was confirmed, with sensitivity and specificity of 100 percent and kappa coefficient 1 over conventional diagnosis; the minimum and maximum values of the arterial and venous pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide were found between 29.60 and 194.40; 24.20 and 56.10; 16,40 and 65,60 and 21,40 and 97,90 respectively. Conclusions: Diagnostic predictions were confirmed in 16 hours differentiating normal, chronic and acute disease useful for clinical monitoring in Intensive Care Unit patients. The variables behaved chaotically; these results may inform clinical applications and predictions of mortality. Keywords: heart rate, arterial oxygen pressure, carbon dioxide arterial pressure, venous oxygen pressure, carbon dioxide venous pressure, dynamical systems, chaos, fractals, nonlinear dynamics(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Matemática/métodos , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/ética
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 47: 112-120, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411446

RESUMO

Acquiring motor skills transforms the perceptual and cognitive world of infants and expands their exploratory engagement with objects. This study investigated how reaching is integrated with walking among infant walkers (n=23, 14.5-15.5 months). In a walk-to-reach paradigm, diverse object retrieval strategies were observed. All infants were willing to use their upper and lower bodies in concert, and the timing of this coordination reflected features of their environment. Infants with an older walking age (months since walking onset) retrieved items more rapidly and exploited their non-reaching hand more effectively during object retrieval than did same-age infants with a younger walking age. This suggests that the actions of the upper- and lower-body are flexibly integrated and that this integration may change across development. Mechanisms that shape sophisticated upper-body use during upright object retrieval are discussed. Infants flexibly integrate emerging motor skills in the service of object retrieval in ways not previously documented.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Feminino , Mãos , Força da Mão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(1): 52-59, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903070

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Realizar una predicción de la dinámica de la epidemia de malaria para el 2007 en Colombia con base en el análisis de la dinámica geométrica de 1960-2006 como una caminata al azar probabilista. Materiales y Métodos Basados en la caminata al azar probabilística se estudió la dinámica geométrica del número de casos anuales de malaria registrados en Colombia durante los años 1960-2006, analizando el comportamiento probabilístico de aumentos y disminuciones consecutivos, y el comportamiento probabilístico de casos durante rangos de años consecutivos, para así realizar una predicción temporal de los casos. Resultados Se desarrolló una metodología sencilla y acausal que predice los valores extremos 81 003 y 104 098 para el número de infectados en el año 2007, predicción que fue refinada con el análisis de las variaciones anuales obteniendo un valor de 104 098 para el número de infectados en el año 2007. Esta predicción fue posteriormente corroborada con los datos del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia, correspondiendo al 95,6 % respecto al número de casos reportados. Conclusión La comprensión del fenómeno acausal a partir de la caminata al azar probabilística permite realizar predicciones temporales, simples y prácticas, directamente comprobables y aplicables, economizando tiempo y recursos.


ABSTRACT Objective To predict the dynamics of the malaria epidemic of 2007 in Colombia. Materials and Methods Based on a random walk, the geometric dynamics of the number of annual cases of malaria registered in Colombia during the period 1960-2006 was studied by analyzing the probabilistic behavior of consecutive increases and decreases, as well as the probabilistic behavior of cases during consecutive year ranges, in order to make a temporary prediction of the cases. Results A simple and acausal methodology that predicts the extreme values for the number of infected people in 2007 was developed; the prediction was refined by the analysis of the annual variations, obtaining a value of 104098 corresponding to the number of infected population in 2007. This prediction was corroborated later against the information of Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia (National Institute of Health), finding a 95.6 % correspondence with the number of reported cases. Conclusion Understanding the acausal phenomenon based on a probabilistic random walk allows making temporal, simple and practical predictions that are directly verifiable and applicable, economizing time and sources.

12.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 19(1): 52-59, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To predict the dynamics of the malaria epidemic of 2007 in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on a random walk, the geometric dynamics of the number of annual cases of malaria registered in Colombia during the period 1960-2006 was studied by analyzing the probabilistic behavior of consecutive increases and decreases, as well as the probabilistic behavior of cases during consecutive year ranges, in order to make a temporary prediction of the cases. RESULTS: A simple and acausal methodology that predicts the extreme values for the number of infected people in 2007 was developed; the prediction was refined by the analysis of the annual variations, obtaining a value of 104098 corresponding to the number of infected population in 2007. This prediction was corroborated later against the information of Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia (National Institute of Health), finding a 95.6 % correspondence with the number of reported cases. CONCLUSION: Understanding the acausal phenomenon based on a probabilistic random walk allows making temporal, simple and practical predictions that are directly verifiable and applicable, economizing time and sources.

14.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 11(1): 98-104, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of cervix cytology has problems of inter-observer reproducibility. Methodologies based on fractal geometry objectively differentiated normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (L-SIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL) states. AIMS: The aim was to develop a mathematical-physical diagnosis and a theoretical generalization of the evolution paths of cervical cells from normal to carcinoma based on their occupation in the box-counting space. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Overlaying a grid of 8 x 8 pixels, the a number of squares occupying the nucleus surface and cytoplasm of 5 normal cells, 5 ASCUS, 5 L-SIL and 5 H-SIL were evaluated, as well as the ratio C/N, establishing differences between states. Sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio, and Kappa coefficient over the gold standard were calculated. Also was developed a generalization of all possible paths from normality to carcinoma. RESULTS: The occupancy spaces of the nuclear surface allow differentiating normal L-SIL and H-SIL thus avoiding the indeterminacy of ASCUS cells. Compared to the Gold Standard, this method has sensitivity and specificity of 100%, negative likelihood ratio of 0, and Kappa coefficient of 1. 62,900 possible routes of evolution were determined between normal and H-SIL, states, based on the structural basis of the cells. CONCLUSIONS: it was obtained an objective and reproducible diagnostic methodology of the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical cells for clinical application. Additionally were developed all possible paths of preneoplastic cellular alteration to carcinoma which facilitates the tracking of patients over time to clinical level, warning of alterations that lead to malignancy, based on the spatial occupation measurements of the nucleus in fractal space regardless of causes or risk factors.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Citosol/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
15.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 30(1): 62-67, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-747636

RESUMO

El carcinoma tiroideo originado en tejido tiroideo ectópico es una entidad clínica poco común; son lesiones que se presentan generalmente como una masa en la línea media, que se desarrolla a partir de un remanente del conducto tirogloso. El hallazgo de una lesión maligna en un verdadero tejido tiroideo aberrante es inusual. Ante su poca frecuencia, se presenta el caso de una paciente en quien se diagnosticó un carcinoma papilar primario derivado de tejido tiroideo ectópico en tráquea.


Thyroid carcinoma arising from an ectopic thyroid tissue is an uncommon clinical entity. These lesions usually present as a mass in the midline that develops from a thyroglossal duct remainder. The finding of a malignant lesion in true aberrant thyroid tissue is unusual. Given the strangeness of this condition we present the case of a patient in which the diagnosis conducted a primary papillary carcinoma arising from ectopic thyroid tissue in the trachea.

16.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 52(3): 314-320, set.-dic. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752965

RESUMO

Objetivo: analizar microrganismos presentes en las superficies inertes, que representen un riesgo para la salud de los estudiantes. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, exploratorio y transversal realizado en el periodo febrero- julio de 2012. Se efectuó en un muestreo aleatorio utilizando el método del hisopo y se obtuvieron 72 muestras. Las unidades de análisis fueron mesas, microscopios y charolas por considerarse superficies de mayor contacto con alumnos. Resultados: se encontraron hongos en el 100 por ciento de los cultivos realizados y bacterias en el 66 por ciento. De estas, el 25 por ciento (12) correspondieron a bacterias de flora normal, el 62,5 por ciento (30) a bacterias oportunistas y 12,5 por ciento (6) a bacterias patógenas. Conclusión: las mesas y los microscopios de los laboratorios de enseñanza se encuentran contaminados por hongos y bacterias como Salmonella paratyphi A y Salmonella sp que constituyen un riesgo de infección para los estudiantes que realizan prácticas educativas(AU)


Objective: analyze microorganisms present on inert surfaces which represent a health hazard for students. Methods: an observational cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted from February to July 2012. Random sampling was performed using the swab method. Seventy-two samples were obtained. The study surfaces were tables, microscopes and trays, i.e. the surfaces most commonly touched by students. Results: fungi were found in 100 percent of the cultures. Bacteria were found in 66%. Of the latter, 25 percent (12) were normal flora bacteria, 62.5 percent (30) were opportunistic, and 12.5 (6) were pathogenic. Conclusion: tables and microscopes in teaching laboratories were contaminated with fungi and bacteria such as Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella sp., which constitutes an infection hazard for students doing laboratory practice(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Bacteriológica/métodos , Infecção Laboratorial/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas e Micoses/epidemiologia , Teoria do Germe da Doença
17.
Contraception ; 87(4): 437-42, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23083528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to examine the hypotheses that adolescent and young adult women who perceived they are susceptible to pregnancy when birth control is not used are less likely to practice unsafe sex, discontinue oral contraception (OC) and become pregnant during a 12-month follow-up period. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted secondary analyses using data collected for a randomized controlled trial on OC adherence among 1155 low-income women 16-24 years of age. Demographics, lifestyle variables, perceived susceptibility to pregnancy assessed at baseline, and data on OC and condom use and pregnancy status collected during 12 months of follow-up were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 62.3% of women accurately understood the risks of pregnancy without using any birth control method. However, perceived susceptibility was not associated with OC continuation [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.11], condom use at last sexual intercourse (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.24), dual method use (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.92-1.48) and subsequent pregnancy (hazards ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.49) during the 12-month follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived susceptibility to pregnancy, an important component of the health belief model, does not seem to have any impact on use of birth control methods, safer sex or rate of subsequent pregnancy among low-income adolescent and young adult women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 41(4): 910-919, oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-675302

RESUMO

Introducción: Motivados por un caso clínico, en el presente reporte se comentan algunos aspectos relacionados con la amputación genital autoinfligida en términos de descripciones, aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos. Método: Reporte de caso. Se describe un caso clínico de autoamputación genital; posteriormente se realiza una discusión al respecto, utilizando para ello la información disponible en la literatura científica. Se trata de un hombre de 32 años sin antecedente de trastorno mental que se amputa el pene con un objeto cortante luego de una discusión con su pareja por infidelidad. Resultados: Varias características denotan factores de riesgo para la automutilación genital, como los trastornos de identidad de género, rechazo a los genitales masculinos, sentimientos de culpa relacionados con la actividad sexual y antecedentes de intentos autolesivos previos. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes son las esquizofrenias y los trastornos afectivos, seguidos de trastornos inducidos por sustancias psicoactivas. Conclusión: La autoamputación genital no es una situación frecuente y se ha tendido a su subregistro; sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta la alta asociación con psicopatología y con recurrencia que se reporta en la literatura mundial, es necesario realizar un adecuado estudio y seguimiento en los pacientes que presentan esta conducta...


Introduction: Motivated by a clinic case, this report introduces some issues related with genital self-amputation in terms of descriptions, epidemiological and clinical issues. Methodology: Case report describing a clinic case of genital self-amputation. The description is followed by a discussion based on the information available in the scientific literature. A man, 32 years old, with no history of mental disorder, who amputates his penis with a cutting object after quarreling with his mate for infidelity reasons. Results: Several characteristics imply risk factors for genital self-mutilation, such as gender identity disorders, rejection to male genitals, guilt feelings related to sexual activity and a history of previous self-injuries. More common diagnoses include schizophrenia and affective disorders followed by disorders induced by psychoactive substances. Conclusion: Genital self-amputation is not a frequent situation and has been under-recorded; however, bearing in mind the high association with psychopathology and recurrence reported in worldwide literature, it is necessary to carry out a proper study and following up of patients exhibiting this conduct...


Assuntos
Amputação , Genitália Masculina
19.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 60(1): 60-66, mar. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-650072

RESUMO

Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.


Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA) by formulating key questions and their (expected) responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

20.
Work ; 41 Suppl 1: 2695-700, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22317128

RESUMO

This article presents a conceptual model that combines Macroergonomics and Supply chain. The authors combine their expertise on these individual topics, building on their previous research. The argument of the paper is that human factors are key to achieve effective supplier-customer collaboration. A conceptual model is presented, its elements and their interactions are explained. The Content-Context-Process is applied as a departing point to this model. Macroergonomics aspects considered are: a systemic approach, participatory ergonomics, formation of ergonomics teams and evaluation of ergonomics projects. The expected outcomes are: (a) improvement of production and productivity levels, (b) improvement of the product quality, (c) Reduction of absenteeism, (d) Improvement in the quality of work life (from the employees' perspective), and (e) increase in the employees' contribution rate of ideas for improvement. A case study was carried out at a vitroplant production organisation incorporating environmental aspects to obtain sustainable benefits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Eficiência Organizacional , Ergonomia , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Melhoria de Qualidade
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