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1.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121016

RESUMO

The improvement of the nutritional quality of dairy foods has become a key strategy for reducing the risk of developing diet-related non-communicable diseases. In this context, we aimed to optimize the concentration of inulin in combination with 10 mg/mL of coffee-cascara extract in yogurt while considering their effect on appetite control, gastrointestinal wellbeing, and their effect on the sensory and technological properties of the product. For this purpose, we tested four coffee-cascara yogurt treatments in a blind cross-over nutritional trial with 45 healthy adults: a coffee-cascara yogurt without inulin (Y0) and coffee-cascara yogurts containing 3% (Y3), 7% (Y7), and 13% (Y13) of inulin. The ratings on sensory acceptance, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency were measured. Surveys were carried out digitally in each participant's cellphone. Yogurt pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, and instrumental texture were analyzed. Inulin addition increased the yogurt's firmness and consistency. Y13 achieved significantly higher overall acceptance, texture, and taste scores than Y0 (p < 0.05). Y3 presented similar gastrointestinal tolerance to Y0. However, 7% and 13% of inulin produced significant (p < 0.05) bloating and flatulence when compared to Y0. The appetite ratings were not significantly affected by the acute intake of the different yogurts. Overall, Y3 was identified as the formulation that maximized nutritional wellbeing, reaching a "source of fiber" nutritional claim, without compromising its technological and sensory properties.

2.
Foods ; 9(3)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178261

RESUMO

Melatonin is a multifunctional antioxidant neurohormone found in plant foods such as lentil sprouts. We aim to evaluate the effect of lentil sprout intake on the plasmatic levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (plasmatic serotonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds, and plasmatic antioxidant status, and compare it with synthetic melatonin. The germination of lentils increases the content of melatonin. However, the phenolic content diminished due to the loss of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols. The flavonol content remained unaltered, being the main phenolic family in lentil sprouts, primarily composed of kaempferol glycosides. Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin after oral administration of a lentil sprout extract and to evaluate plasma and urine melatonin and related biomarkers and antioxidant capacity. Melatonin showed maximum concentration (45.4 pg/mL) 90 min after lentil sprout administration. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after lentil sprout intake (70%, p < 0.05) with respect to the control, 1.2-fold more than after synthetic melatonin ingestion. These increments correlated with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content (p < 0.05), a key biomarker of plasmatic melatonin. Nonetheless, the phenolic compound content did not exhibit any significant variation. Plasmatic antioxidant status increased in the antioxidant capacity upon both lentil sprout and synthetic melatonin administration. For the first time, we investigated the bioavailability of melatonin from lentil sprouts and its role in plasmatic antioxidant status. We concluded that their intake could increase melatonin plasmatic concentration and attenuate plasmatic oxidative stress.

3.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192041

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber (ICCDF) as a food ingredient. ICCDF was obtained by aqueous extraction. The oil and water holding capacity and the nutritional profile of the novel ingredient were determined. Its safety was certificated by analysis of ochratoxin A, caffeine and gluten. Gluten-free bread formulations were prepared enriching a commercial bakery premix in rice protein (8%) and ICCDF (3% and 4.5%). Nutritional profile of the novel gluten-free breads (dietary fiber, protein, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile and resistant starch), as well as bread volume, crumb density, moisture, firmness, elasticity and color intensity were determined. A sensory quantitative descriptive analysis of the breads was conducted using eight trained panelists. New breads showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of dietary fiber and protein than the control bread. The addition of ICCDF allowed increasing dough yield, a less crumb firmness and a higher crumb elasticity. The nutrition claims "source of protein and high in dietary fiber" were assigned to the new formulations. In conclusion, a certificated gluten-free bread with improved nutritional and physicochemical properties and good sensorial profile was obtained.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703400

RESUMO

This study aimed to complete the scientific basis for the validation of a coffee silverskin extract (CSE) as a novel food ingredient according to European legislation. Nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in vivo of CSE were assessed. Proteins, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, fiber, simple sugars and micronutrients were analyzed. For the first time, toxicological and physiological effects were evaluated in vivo by a repeated-dose study in healthy Wistar rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant (enzymatic and no-enzymatic) and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and dietary fiber fermentability of CSE (analysis of SCFAs in feces) were studied in biological samples. This unique research confirms the feasibility of CSE as a human dietary supplement with several nutrition claims: "source of proteins (16%), potassium, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C, low in fat (0.44%) and high in fiber (22%)". This is the first report demonstrating that its oral administration (1 g/kg) for 28 days is innocuous. Hormone secretion, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory biomarkers were not affected in heathy animals. Total SCFAs derived from CSE fiber fermentation were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in male treated rats compared to male control rats. All the new information pinpoints CSE as a natural, sustainable and safe food ingredient containing fermentable fiber able to produce SCFAs with beneficial effects on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Café , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Foods ; 8(2)2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759878

RESUMO

Melanoidins present in coffee silverskin, the only by-product of the roasting process, are formed via the Maillard reaction. The exact structure, biological properties, and mechanism of action of coffee silverskin melanoidins, remain unknown. This research work aimed to contribute to this novel knowledge. To achieve this goal, melanoidins were obtained from an aqueous extract of Arabica coffee silverskin (WO2013004873A1) and was isolated through ultrafiltration (>10 kDa). The isolation protocol was optimized and the chemical composition of the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was evaluated, by analyzing the content of protein, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and the total dietary fiber. In addition, the structural analysis was performed by infrared spectroscopy. Antioxidant properties were studied in vitro and the fiber effect was studied in vivo, in healthy male Wistar rats. Melanoidins were administered to animals in the drinking water at a dose of 1 g/kg. At the fourth week of treatment, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated through non-invasive radiographic means. In conclusion, the isolation process was effective in obtaining a high molecular weight fraction, composed mainly of dietary fiber, including melanoidins, with in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo dietary fiber effects.

6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 3157-3167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typical hydrolysis times of saponins generally do not take into consideration the effect of time on the degradation of the target compounds, namely sapogenins. When producing natural extracts, it should be borne in mind that conducting hydrolysis to yield a target compound might also affect the final composition of the extracts in terms of other bioactive compounds. In our study, saponin-rich extracts from fenugreek, quinoa, lentil, and soybean were produced and their acid hydrolysis to give sapogenin-rich extracts was conducted over different periods (0-6 h). The disappearance of saponins and appearance of sapogenins was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The impact of hydrolysis on the phytosterols and tocopherol in the extracts was also evaluated. RESULTS: Fenugreek showed the highest saponin content (169 g kg-1 ), followed by lentil (20 g kg-1 ), quinoa (15 g kg-1 ), and soybean (13 g kg-1 ). Hydrolysis for 1 h caused the complete disappearance of saponins and the greatest release of sapogenins. Hydrolyzed fenugreek and quinoa extracts contained the highest amounts of sapogenins and minor fractions of phytosterols and tocopherol. Hydrolyzed extracts of lentil and soybean contained a major fraction of phytosterols and a low fraction of sapogenins. In all cases, sapogenins decreased after 1 h of hydrolysis, phytosterols slightly decreased, and tocopherol was unaffected. Standards of diosgenin and oleanolic acid also showed this decreasing pattern under acid hydrolysis conditions. CONCLUSION: Hydrolysis times of 1 h for saponin-rich extracts from the assayed seeds guarantee the maximum transformation to sapogenin-rich extracts, along with phytosterols and tocopherol. Fenugreek and quinoa seeds are preferred for this. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapogeninas/química , Saponinas/química , Soja/química , Trigonella/química , Ácidos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrólise , Fitosteróis/química
7.
Food Chem ; 270: 509-517, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174080

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts (EE) from fenugreek and quinoa seeds with different total content of inhibitory compounds (TIC, total saponin plus phenolic) were prepared with and without concentration of TIC (CEE -concentrated EE-, and EE, respectively). Their inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and α-amylase was assessed by traditional in vitro methods (with or without orbital shaking), and by simulating intestinal digestion. CEE contained higher contents of TIC than EE, being fenugreek superior to quinoa (p < 0.001). The extracts inhibited enzymes in a dose-dependent manner, CEE extracts being stronger (fenugreek for lipase -p = 0.009-, and quinoa for α-amylase -p < 0.001-). Shaking did not impact the activity. Intestinal conditions worsened the inhibition of lipase, but slightly catalyzed the α-amylase. Longer times of reaction worsened activities. The importance of assessing the inhibitory activity of extracts under simulated intestinal conditions is concluded, being fenugreek more interesting than quinoa, especially against pancreatic lipase.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trigonella/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/química , Fenóis , alfa-Amilases/química
8.
Food Res Int ; 109: 440-447, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803470

RESUMO

The efficient production of saponin-rich extracts is of increasing interest due to the bioactive properties that have being demonstrated for these compounds. However, saponins have a poor bioavailability. In this respect, the knowledge about the bioaccessibility of saponins as a first step before bioavailability has been scarcely explored. In this study, the production of ultrasound-assisted extracts of saponins from edible seeds (quinoa, soybean, red lentil, fenugreek and lupin) was carried out with ethanol, ethanol:water or water. Extraction yield, total saponin (TSC), fat and total phenolics content (TPC) were determined. Then, the bioaccessibility of saponins after the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the extracts was determined and the effect of TPC and fat in the extracts on bioaccessibility was evaluated. The highest saponin-rich extracts were obtained by ethanol, being fenugreek and red lentil the richest extracts (12% and 10%, respectively). Saponins from ethanol:water extracts displayed variable bioaccessibility (from 13% for fenugreek to 83% for lentil), but a bioaccessibility closer to 100% was reached for all ethanol extracts. Correlation studies showed that TPC of the extracts negatively affected the bioaccessibility of saponins, whereas fat of the extracts enhanced this parameter. As summary, ultrasound-assisted extraction is shown as an efficient method for obtaining saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds, being ethanol the most advantageous solvent due to the richness of saponins and the successful bioaccessibility from these extracts, likely caused by the co-extracted fat with ethanol. Regardless of the extracts, phenolic compounds or fat may hinder or enhance the bioaccessibility of saponins, respectively. Additionally, an adequate balance between saponins to lipids has shown to be relevant on such an effect.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lens (Planta)/química , Lupinus/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Trigonella/química , Ultrassom , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/química , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Secreções Intestinais/química , Solventes/química
9.
Psychol. av. discip ; 11(2): 13-27, jul.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-895992

RESUMO

Resumen Las cefaleas representan un problema socio-sanitario de grandes dimensiones dada su elevada prevalencia a nivel mundial y las importantes implicaciones que tiene en la calidad de vida. El estrés es un factor esencial en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de las cefaleas, problema que se presenta con frecuencia en estudiantes universitarios. En este estudio se analizan la prevalencia, frecuencia, duración, intensidad, diagnóstico, medicación y distribución de las cefaleas así como otras características epidemiológicas relacionadas con la incapacidad percibida y las estrategias de afrontamiento. Una muestra de 458 participantes compuesta por 306 estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) y 152 personas ajenas a dicha universidad, completaron la Encuesta epidemiológica de cefaleas online, creada ad hoc para este estudio. Se encontró un elevado porcentaje de personas que presentan cefaleas frecuentemente (entre 5 y 20 veces al mes) y no están diagnosticadas (63,2%). Se comparan los resultados con datos obtenidos en otras poblaciones y se discute su impacto e implicaciones. Se resalta la necesidad de implementar programas de prevención y tratamiento psicológicos y multidisciplinares.


Abstract Headaches represent a major socio-sanitary problem due to its high global prevalence and the important implications that they have on quality of life. Stress is an essential factor in the development and maintenance of headaches, a problem frequently encountered in university students. This study analyzes the prevalence, frequency, duration, intensity, diagnosis, medication and distribution of headaches as well as other epidemiological characteristics related to perceived disability and coping strategies. A sample of 458 participants formed by 306 students from the Autonoma University of Madrid (UAM) and 152 people not related to that university completed the "Online Headaches Epidemiological Inquest" created ad hoc for this study. We found a high percentage of people who presented headaches frequently (between 5 and 20 times per month) and were not diagnosed (63.2%). The results are compared with data obtained from other populations and their impact and implications are discussed. The need to implement psychological and multidisciplinary prevention and treatment programs is highlighted.

11.
Placenta ; 47: 37-45, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is present in pregnancy complications. However, it is unknown if early maternal antioxidant status could influence later development of complications. The use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is rising due to the delay of first pregnancy and there is scarce information on its influence on oxidative balance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible relationship between maternal plasma antioxidant status in first trimester of gestation with later development of pregnancy complications, evaluating the influence of ART and nutrition. METHODS: Plasma from 98 healthy pregnant women was obtained at week 10, nutrition questionnaires filled and women were followed until delivery. We evaluated biomarkers of oxidative damage (carbonyls, malondialdehyde-MDA), antioxidants (thiols, reduced glutathione, phenolic compounds, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) by spectrophotometry/fluorimetry and melatonin (ELISA). Antioxidant status score (Antiox-S) was calculated as the computation of antioxidants. Diet-antioxidants relationship was evaluated through multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: Melatonin and carbonyls exhibited a negative correlation. No difference in oxidative damage was found between groups, but Antiox-S was significantly lower in women who developed complications. No differences in oxidative damage or Antiox-S were found between ART and no-ART pregnancies. High consumption of foods of vegetable origin cluster with high plasma levels of phenolic compounds and with high Antiox-S. CONCLUSIONS: In early normal gestation, low plasma antioxidant status, assessed through a global score, associates with later development of pregnancy complications. Larger population studies could help to determine the value of Antiox-S as predictive tool and the relevance of nutrition on maternal antioxidant status.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Catalase/metabolismo , Dieta , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Gravidez , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Food Funct ; 7(3): 1438-45, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841704

RESUMO

Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Melatonina/sangue , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Germinação , Masculino , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(36): 7967-74, 2015 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307852

RESUMO

This study assesses the impact of melatonin enriched watering on the germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The melatonin levels in lentil and bean sprouts measured by HPLC-MS/MS were more important than those found in other legumes and sprouts, being higher in lentil (1090 ng/g) than in kidney bean (529 ng/g) sprouts. This alternative germination promoted a significant increase of the development of radicles in comparison with the traditional germination. The decreases in the phenolic load were less accentuated than previously observed (lentil sprouts displayed 394 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of dry weight (DW)), probably due to the protective effect of melatonin. The antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay) increased in these sprouts, reaching 85 and 56 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g DW in lentils and beans, respectively. Hence, the melatonin-enriched foods exhibited potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant functions that may be used as a nutritional strategy to alleviate and prevent chronic and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/química , Melatonina/análise , Phaseolus/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Germinação , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 170: 203-11, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25306336

RESUMO

Seven edible seeds for the levels of melatonin, phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity were evaluated during germination process. Radical scavenging parameters were also studied in standard antioxidants to understand their antiradical actions. Germination brought about significant increases of total phenol compounds in all edible seeds, showing red cabbage, radish and broccoli the highest contents (21.6, 20.4 and 16.4 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The concentration of melatonin is greatly variable in edible seeds, exhibiting significant increases during germination. The highest levels were found in red cabbage (857 pg/g DW) radish (536 pg/g DW) and broccoli (439 pg/g DW). The germinated seeds which had the highest levels of polyphenols and melatonin were those that showed the most relevant antiradical activities (>97%). This information is valuable for the incorporation of red cabbage, radish and broccoli germinated seeds into the diet to promote potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Melatonina/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes , Brassicaceae , Polifenóis , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(44): 10736-43, 2014 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310717

RESUMO

This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Lens (Planta)/química , Melatonina/química , Phaseolus/química , Fenóis/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
ReNut ; 7(3): 1293-1321, jul.-sept. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-722350

RESUMO

La Consulta Nutricional es el proceso dinámico y estructurado que comprende tres etapas: i) la Evaluación Nutricional que está compuesta por 9 pasos (Paso 1: Evaluación de signos clínicos de deficiencias nutricionales; Paso 2: Evaluación de la interacción entre nutrientes y fármacos; Paso 3: Evaluación de la ingesta de alimentos y factores que la afectan, Paso 4: Evaluación de la actividad física; Paso 5 Evaluación del crecimiento y la composición corporal; Paso 6: Evaluación de la Bioquímica Nutricional; Paso 7: Evaluación del componente visceral; Paso 8 Evaluación del componente inmunológico; Paso 9: Evaluación de componente catabólico); ii) el Diagnóstico Nutricional que representa una resumen de la situación Nutricional de la persona expresado en términos de Hallazgo, Evidencia clínica y Asociación probable; y iii) la Elaboración de Indicaciones Nutricionales que pueden ser de 4 tipos diferentes de acuerdo a la situación clínica del individuo: una Recomendación Nutricional y/o Recomendación Dietética, si la persona está aparentemente sana y una prescripción Nutrioterapéutica y/o Prescripción Dietotereapéutica si el individuo está enlermo.


The Nutritional Consultation is a dynamic , structured process consisting of three components : i) Nutritional Assessment that consists of 9 steps (Step 1 : Evaluation of clinical signs of nutritional excess or deficiencies ; Step 2: Evaluation of the interaction between nutrients and drugs ; Paso 3: Assessment of lood intake and factors affecting it , Step 4 Assessment of physical activity ; Step 5 : Evaluation 01 growth and body composition; Step 6: Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemistry ; Step 7 : Evaluation of visceral component , Step 8: evaluation of the immunological component ; Step 9: Evaluation of catabolic component), ii) the Nutrition Diagnosis represents a summary of the nutritional status of the individual expressed in terms of findings , clinical evidence and probable Association , and iii) the Development 01 Nutritional particulars which may be 4 different types according to the clinical situation of the individual: a nutritional recommendation and / or Recommendation Dietetics, if the person is apparently healthy and a prescription Dietoterapic and/or Prescripción Nutrioterapic or if the individual is sick.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atividade Motora , Composição Corporal , Crescimento/fisiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Guias como Assunto , Ingestão de Alimentos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(34): 8120-5, 2013 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909570

RESUMO

The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 µmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fabaceae/química , Germinação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise
18.
ReNut ; 6(2): 1063-1070, abr.-jun. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-648132

RESUMO

El rol de la vitamina D en el control de los niveles de calcio plasmático ha sido ampliamente reconocido a lo largo del tiempo. Aunque originariamente fue calificada por error como vitaminas, hoy se le reconoce como una hormona. Recientemente se ha sugerido además que la deficiencia de la vitamina D juega un papel importante en la génesis del riesgo coronario y de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, debido a que se ha observado una relación inversa entre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión, diabetes, hipertrigliceridemia y obesidad) y la concentración sérica de la misma. Estudios realizados en humanos sugieren que la deficiencia de vitamina D y/o el incremento de la paratohormona estarían asociados con incremento de la presión arterial y la contractibilidad miocárdica; hipertrofia, apoptosis y fibrosis del ventrículo izquierdo; calcificación de las válvulas cardiacas, el anillo mitral y el miocardio, resistencia a la insulina y otras patologías asociadas.


The role of vitamin D in the control of plasma calcium levels has been well recognized over time. Although originally was described in error as a vitamin, it is now recognized as a hormone. Recently it has also been suggested that vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in the genesis of coronary risk and cardiovascular disease, because there has been an inverse relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and obesity) and serum of the same. Human studies suggest that deficient of vitamin D and/or increased parathyroid hormone would be associated with increased blood pressure and myocardial contractility, hypertrophy, apoptosis and left ventricular fibrosis, calcification of heart valves, the mitral annulus and the myocardium, insulin resistance and more illness.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Obesidade , Vitamina D , Vitamina D/metabolismo
19.
ReNut ; 5(17): 900-907, jul.-sept. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-626180

RESUMO

El aparato digestivo es un largo tubo con importantes glándulas asociadas. En él se producen diferentes procesos que se inician con la entrada de un alimento en la boca y terminan con la eliminación de desechos bajo la forma de heces. El desarrollo del aparato digestivo se inicia al final del periodo embrionario. Las deficiencias que todavía existen en el momento del nacimiento van desapareciendo debido a una progresiva maduración funcional. La masticación constituye el punto de partida del proceso digestivo y es importante porque las enzimas no pueden actuar sobre superficies muy amplias, por lo tanto, cuando el alimento es fragmentado la reducción de la superficie de cada trozo genera las condiciones necesarias para mejorar la acción enzimática. En el estómago se desarrollo un proceso complementario de licuefacción que tiene por objetivo reducir todavía más el área de los fragmentos de comida. El porcentaje de digestión en el estómago es relativamente baja y prácticamente no hay procesos de absorción importantes. Cabe resaltar el papel del estómago en la digestión de colágeno, una proteína de baja calidad nutricional que recubre a las carnes, que sin embargo, si no es digerida completamente, podría afectar la digestión de la proteína más interna. En el intestino delgado se completan todos los procesos de digestión y se lleva a cabo el 99% de la absorción de nutrientes. El principal sitio de absorción se encuentra en el yeyuno, aunque también hay procesos absortivos a lo largo de todo el íleon, sobre todo de vitamina y minerales. El colon, el último segmento del tracto, básicamente reabsorbe agua y almacena las heces.


Assuntos
Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Digestão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório , Sistema Digestório
20.
Autoimmunity ; 44(7): 562-70, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21838592

RESUMO

The immune mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe pneumonia associated with the A/H1N1 virus are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether severe A/H1N1-associated pneumonia can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets and the cytokines/chemokines they produced, as well as distinct responses to infection. T-cell subset distribution and cytokine/chemokine levels in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were determined in patients with severe A/H1N1 infection, asymptomatic household contacts, and healthy controls. Cytokine and chemokine production was also evaluated after in vitro infection with seasonal H1N1 and pandemic A/H1N1 strains. We found an increase in the frequency of peripheral Th2 and Tc2 cells in A/H1N1 patients. A trend toward increased Tc1 cells was observed in household contacts. Elevated serum levels of IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL2 were found in patients and a similar cytokine/chemokine profile was observed in BAL, in which CCL5 was also increased. Infection assays revealed that both strains induce the production of several cytokines/chemokines at 24 and 72 h, however, IL-6, CCL3, and CXCL8 were strongly up-regulated in 72-h cultures in presence of the A/H1N1 virus. Several inflammatory mediators are up-regulated in peripheral and lung samples from A/H1N1-infected patients who developed severe pneumonia. In addition, the A/H1N1 strain induces higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than the seasonal H1N1 strain. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify biomarkers of severe pneumonia and also suggest the therapeutic use of immunomodulatory drugs in patients with severe pneumonia associated with A/H1N1 infection.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , México , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
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