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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24755, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663091

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Health information technology (IT) is often proposed as a solution to fragmentation of care, and has been hypothesized to reduce readmission risk through better information flow. However, there are numerous distinct health IT capabilities, and it is unclear which, if any, are associated with lower readmission risk.To identify the specific health IT capabilities adopted by hospitals that are associated with hospital-level risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) through path analyses using structural equation modeling.This STROBE-compliant retrospective cross-sectional study included non-federal U.S. acute care hospitals, based on their adoption of specific types of health IT capabilities self-reported in a 2013 American Hospital Association IT survey as independent variables. The outcome measure included the 2014 RSRRs reported on Hospital Compare website.A 54-indicator 7-factor structure of hospital health IT capabilities was identified by exploratory factor analysis, and corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. Subsequent path analysis using Structural equation modeling revealed that a one-point increase in the hospital adoption of patient engagement capability latent scores (median path coefficient ß = -0.086; 95% Confidence Interval, -0.162 to -0.008), including functionalities like direct access to the electronic health records, would generally lead to a decrease in RSRRs by 0.086%. However, computerized hospital discharge and information exchange capabilities with other inpatient and outpatient providers were not associated with readmission rates.These findings suggest that improving patient access to and use of their electronic health records may be helpful in improving hospital performance on readmission; however, computerized hospital discharge and information exchange among clinicians did not seem as beneficial - perhaps because of the quality or timeliness of information transmitted. Future research should use more recent data to study, not just adoption of health IT capabilities, but also whether their usage is associated with lower readmission risk. Understanding which capabilities impact readmission risk can help policymakers and clinical stakeholders better focus their scarce resources as they invest in health IT to improve care delivery.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Informática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Acesso dos Pacientes aos Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
Health Serv Res ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe physicians' variation in de-adopting concurrent statin and fibrate therapy for type 2 diabetic patients following a reversal in clinical evidence. DATA SOURCES: We analyzed 2007-2015 claims data from OptumLabs® Data Warehouse, a longitudinal, real-world data asset with de-identified administrative claims and electronic health record data. STUDY DESIGN: We modeled fibrate use among Medicare Advantage and commercially insured type 2 diabetic statin users before and after the publication of the ACCORD lipid trial, which found statins and fibrates were no more effective than statins alone in reducing cardiovascular events among type 2 diabetic patients. We modeled fibrate use trends with physician random effects and physician characteristics such as age and specialty. DATA EXTRACTION: We identified patient-year-quarters with one year of continuous insurance enrollment, type 2 diabetes diagnoses, and fibrate use. We designated the physician most responsible for patients' diabetes care based on evaluation and management visits and prescriptions of glucose-lowering drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibrate use increased by 0.12 percentage points per quarter among commercial patients (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.14) and 0.17 percentage points per quarter among Medicare Advantage patients (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.20) before the trial and then decreased by 0.16 percentage points per quarter among commercial patients (95% CI, -0.18 to -0.15) and 0.05 percentage points per quarter among Medicare Advantage patients (95% CI, -0.06 to -0.03) after the trial. However, 45% of physicians treating commercial patients and 48% of physicians treating Medicare Advantage patients had positive trends in prescribing following the trial. Physicians' characteristics did not explain their variation (pseudo R2  = 0.000). CONCLUSION: On average, physicians decreased fibrate prescribing following the ACCORD lipid trial. However, many physicians increased prescribing following the trial. Observable physician characteristics did not explain variations in prescribing. Future research should examine whether physicians vary similarly in other de-adoption settings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of serious infections between patients treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antagonists vs. vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: Using an administrative claims database, we identified patients with IBD who were new-users of either TNFα antagonists or vedolizumab between 2014-2018 and had insurance coverage for at least 1y before and after treatment initiation. We compared the risk of serious infections (infections requiring hospitalization) between patients treated with vedolizumab or TNFα antagonists using marginal structural Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for baseline disease characteristics, healthcare utilization, comorbidities, and time-varying use of corticosteroids, immunomodulators and opiates. RESULTS: We included 4881 patients treated with TNFα antagonists (age, 41±15y, 60% with Crohn's disease [CD]) of whom 434 developed serious infections over 5786 person-year [PY] follow-up, and 1106 patients treated with vedolizumab (age, 44±16y, 39% with CD) of whom 86 developed serious infections over 1040-PY follow-up. Vedolizumab was associated with 46% lower risk of serious infections as compared with TNFα antagonists in patients with ulcerative colitis (HR,0.54 [95% CI,0.35-0.83), but no significant differences were observed in patients with CD (HR,1.30 [0.80-2.11]). Vedolizumab was associated with lower risk of extra-intestinal serious infections in patients with UC, but higher risk of gastrointestinal serious infections in patients with CD. CONCLUSIONS: In an observational study of patients with IBD, vedolizumab was associated with lower risk of serious infections as compared with TNFα antagonists, in patients with UC, but not in patients with CD.

4.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173885

RESUMO

Importance: Thirty-five years ago, the Heckler Report described health disparities among minority populations in the US. Since then, policies have been implemented to address these disparities. However, a recent evaluation of progress towards improving the health and health equity among US adults is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate racial/ethnic disparities in the physical and mental health of US adults over the last 2 decades. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: National Health Interview Survey data, years 1999-2018. Participants: Adults aged 18-85 years. Exposure: Race/ethnicity subgroups (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, Hispanic). Main outcome and measures: Proportion of adults reporting poor/fair health status, severe psychological distress, functional limitation, and insufficient sleep. We also estimated the gap between non-Hispanic White and the other subgroups for these four outcomes. Results: We included 596,355 adults (mean age 46 years, 51.8% women), of which 69.7%, 13.8%, 11.8% and 4.7% identified as non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic Asian, respectively. Between 1999 and 2018, Black individuals fared worse on most measures of health, with 18.7% (95% CI 17.1-20.4) and 41.1% (95% CI 38.7-43.5) reporting poor/fair health and insufficient sleep in 2018 compared with 11.1% (95% CI 10.5- 11.7) and 31.2% (95% CI 30.3-32.1) among White individuals. Notably, between 1999-2018, there was no significant decrease in the gap in poor/fair health status between White individuals and Black (-0.07% per year, 95% CI -0.16-0.01) and Hispanic (-0.03% per year, 95% CI -0.07- 0.02) individuals, and an increase in the gap in sleep between White individuals and Black (+0.2% per year, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) and Hispanic (+0.3% per year, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) individuals. Additionally, there was no significant decrease in adults reporting poor/fair health status and an increase in adults reporting severe psychological distress, functional limitation, and insufficient sleep. Conclusions and Relevance: The marked racial/ethnic disparities in health of US adults have not improved over the last 20 years. Moreover, the self-perceived health of US adults worsened during this time. These findings highlight the need to re-examine the initiatives seeking to promote health equity and improve health.

5.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173905

RESUMO

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities plague the US health care system despite efforts to eliminate them. To understand what has been achieved amid these efforts, a comprehensive study from the population perspective is needed. Objectives: To determine trends in rates and racial/ethnic disparities of key access to care measures among adults in the US in the last two decades. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 1999-2018. Participants: Individuals >18 years old. Exposure: Race and ethnicity: non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic White, Hispanic. Main outcome and measures: Rates of lack of insurance coverage, lack of a usual source of care, and foregone/delayed medical care due to cost. We also estimated the gap between non-Hispanic White and the other subgroups for these outcomes. Results: We included 596,355 adults, of which 69.7% identified as White, 11.8% as Black, 4.7% as Asian, and 13.8% as Hispanic. The proportion uninsured and the rates of lacking a usual source of care remained stable across all 4 race/ethnicity subgroups up to 2009, while rates of foregone/delayed medical care due to cost increased. Between 2010 and 2015, the percentage of uninsured diminished for all, with the steepest reduction among Hispanics (-2.1% per year). In the same period, rates of no usual source of care declined only among Hispanics (-1.2% per year) while rates of foregone/delayed medical care due to cost decreased for all. No substantial changes were observed from 2016-2018 in any outcome across subgroups. Compared with 1999, in 2018 the rates of foregone/delayed medical care due to cost were higher for all (+3.1% among Whites, +3.1% among Blacks, +0.5% among Asians, and +2.2% among Hispanics) without significant change in gaps; rates of no usual source of care were not significantly different among Whites or Blacks but were lower among Hispanics (-4.9%) and Asians (-6.4%). Conclusions and Relevance: Insurance coverage increased for all, but millions of individuals remained uninsured or underinsured with increasing rates of unmet medical needs due to cost. Those identifying as non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic continue to experience more barriers to health care services compared with non-Hispanic White individuals. KEY POINTS: Question: In the last 2 decades, what has been achieved in reducing barriers to access to care and race/ethnicity-associated disparities?Findings: Using National Health Interview Survey data from 1999-2018, we found that insurance coverage increased across all 4 major race/ethnicity groups. However, rates of unmet medical needs due to cost increased without reducing the respective racial/ethnic disparities, and little-to-no change occurred in rates of individuals who have no usual source of care.Meaning: Despite increased coverage, millions of Americans continued to experience barriers to access to care, which were disproportionately more prevalent among those identifying as Black or Hispanic.

6.
Health Serv Res ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine variation in trajectories of abandoning conventionally fractionated whole-breast irradiation (CF-WBI) for adjuvant breast radiotherapy among physician peer groups and the associated cost implications. DATA SOURCES: Medicare claims data were obtained from the Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse for fee-for-service beneficiaries with breast cancer in 2011-2014. STUDY DESIGN: We used social network methods to identify peer groups of physicians that shared patients. For each physician peer group in each time period (T1 = 2011-2012 and T2 = 2013-2014), we calculated a risk-adjusted rate of CF-WBI use among eligible women, after adjusting for patient clinical characteristics. We applied a latent class growth analysis to these risk-adjusted rates to identify distinct trajectories of CF-WBI use among physician peer groups. We further estimated potential savings to the Medicare program by accelerating abandonment of CF-WBI in T2 using a simulation model. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Use of conventionally fractionated whole-breast irradiation was determined from Medicare claims among women ≥ 66 years of age who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 215 physician peer groups caring for 16 988 patients, there were four distinct trajectories of abandoning CF-WBI: (a) persistent high use (mean risk-adjusted utilization rate: T1 = 94.3%, T2 = 90.6%); (b) decreased high use (T1 = 81.3%, T2 = 65.3%); (c) decreased medium use (T1 = 60.1%, T2 = 44.0%); and (d) decreased low use (T1 = 31.6%, T2 = 23.6%). Peer groups with a smaller proportion of patients treated at free-standing radiation facilities and a larger proportion of physicians that were surgeons tended to follow trajectories with lower use of CF-WBI. If all physician peer groups had practice patterns in T2 similar to those in the "decreased low use" trajectory, the Medicare program could save $83.3 million (95% confidence interval: $58.5 million-$112.2 million). CONCLUSIONS: Physician peer groups had distinct trajectories of abandoning CF-WBI. Physician composition and setting of radiotherapy were associated with the different trajectories. Distinct practice patterns across the trajectories had important cost implications.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environment in which a patient lives influences their health outcomes. However, the degree to which community factors are associated with readmissions is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of community factors on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services risk-standardized hospital-wide readmission measure (HWR)-a quality performance measure in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN: We assessed 71 community variables in 6 domains related to health outcomes: clinical care; health behaviors; social and economic factors; the physical environment; demographics; and social capital. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service patients eligible for the HWR measure between July 2014-June 2015 (n = 6,790,723). Patients were linked to community variables using their 5-digit zip code of residence. METHODS: We used a random forest algorithm to rank variables for their importance in predicting HWR scores. Variables were entered into 6 domain-specific multivariable regression models in order of decreasing importance. Variables with P-values <0.10 were retained for a final model, after eliminating any that were collinear. RESULTS: Among 71 community variables, 19 were retained in the 6 domain models and in the final model. Domains which explained the most to least variance in HWR were: physical environment (R2 = 15%); clinical care (R2 = 12%); demographics (R2 = 11%); social and economic environment (R2 = 7%); health behaviors (R2 = 9%); and social capital (R2 = 8%). In the final model, the 19 variables explained more than a quarter of the variance in readmission rates (R2 = 27%). CONCLUSIONS: Readmissions for a wide range of clinical conditions are influenced by factors relating to the communities in which patients reside. These findings can be used to target efforts to keep patients out of the hospital.

9.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940636

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor size larger than 4 cm is accepted as an indication for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment guidelines suggest that high-risk features are also associated with the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with early-stage NSCLC, yet this association is understudied. Objective: To assess the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in the presence and absence of high-risk pathologic features in patients with node-negative early-stage NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study using data from the National Cancer Database included 50 814 treatment-naive patients with a completely resected node-negative NSCLC diagnosed between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. The study was limited to patients who survived at least 6 weeks after surgery (ie, estimated median time to initiate adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery) to mitigate immortal time bias. Statistical analysis was performed from December 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020. Exposures: Adjuvant chemotherapy use vs observation, stratified according to the presence or absence of high-risk pathologic features (visceral pleural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and high-grade histologic findings), sublobar surgery, and tumor size. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of high-risk pathologic features with survival after adjuvant chemotherapy vs observation was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Overall, 50 814 eligible patients with NSCLC (27 365 women [53.9%]; mean [SD] age, 67.4 [9.5] years]) were identified, including 4220 (8.3%) who received adjuvant chemotherapy and 46 594 (91.7%) who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Among patients with tumors 3 cm or smaller, chemotherapy was not associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96-1.26; P = .17). For patients with tumors larger than 3 cm to 4 cm, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a survival benefit among patients who underwent sublobar surgery (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.93; P = .004). For tumors larger than 4 cm to 5 cm, a survival benefit was associated with adjuvant chemotherapy only in patients with at least 1 high-risk pathologic feature (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80; P = .02). For tumors larger than 5 cm, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a survival benefit irrespective of the presence of high-risk pathologic features (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, tumor size alone was not associated with improved efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage (node-negative) NSCLC. High-risk clinicopathologic features and tumor size should be considered simultaneously when evaluating patients with early-stage NSCLC for adjuvant chemotherapy.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e035645, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify county characteristics associated with high versus low well-being among high-poverty counties. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study at the county level to investigate the associations of 29 county characteristics with the odds of a high-poverty county reporting population well-being in the top quintile versus the bottom quintile of well-being in the USA. County characteristics representing key determinants of health were drawn from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings and Roadmaps population health model. SETTING: Counties in the USA that are in the highest quartile of poverty rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Gallup-Sharecare Well-being Index, a comprehensive population-level measure of physical, mental and social health. Counties were classified as having a well-being index score in the top or bottom 20% of all counties in the USA. RESULTS: Among 770 high-poverty counties, 72 were categorised as having high well-being and 311 as having low well-being. The high-well-being counties had a mean well-being score of 71.8 with a SD of 2.3, while the low-well-being counties had a mean well-being score of 60.2 with a SD of 2.8. Among the six domains of well-being, basic access, which includes access to housing and healthcare, and life evaluation, which includes life satisfaction and optimism, differed the most between high-being and low-well-being counties. Among 29 county characteristics tested, six were independently and significantly associated with high well-being (p<0.05). These were lower rates of preventable hospital stays, higher supply of primary care physicians, lower prevalence of smoking, lower physical inactivity, higher percentage of some college education and higher percentage of heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Among 770 high-poverty counties, approximately 9% outperformed expectations, reporting a collective well-being score in the top 20% of all counties in the USA. High-poverty counties reporting high well-being differed from high-poverty counties reporting low well-being in several characteristics.

11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 733, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To estimate, prior to finalization of claims, the national monthly numbers of admissions and rates of 30-day readmissions and post-discharge observation-stays for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia. METHODS: The centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Integrated Data Repository, including the Medicare beneficiary enrollment database, was accessed in June 2015, February 2017, and February 2018. We evaluated patterns of delay in Medicare claims accrual, and used incomplete, non-final claims data to develop and validate models for real-time estimation of admissions, readmissions, and observation stays. RESULTS: These real-time reporting models accurately estimate, within 2 months from admission, the monthly numbers of admissions, 30-day readmission and observation-stay rates for patients with AMI, HF, or pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: This work will allow CMS to track the impact of policy decisions in real time and enable hospitals to better monitor their performance nationally.

12.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pharmacotherapy plays a central role in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic retinal disease (DRD), and retinal venous occlusive disease (RVO). Within clinical trials, rates of systemic serious adverse events (SAEs) after anti-VEGF treatment have been low. However, the comparative systemic safety profile of common anti-VEGF agents remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to compare the systemic safety of intravitreal bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept in real-world practice. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Using a large U.S. administrative claims database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees, we identified adult cohorts receiving initial anti-VEGF injections for nAMD, DRD, and RVO between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2018. We included patients with 1 year of insurance coverage before initial treatment. METHODS: We compared predefined systemic outcomes between anti-VEGF agents occurring within 180 days of treatment initiation using propensity score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Patients were censored upon treatment with a different anti-VEGF medication or termination of health plan coverage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were acute myocardial infarction (MI), acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD), major bleeding, and all-cause hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 87 844 patients received initial anti-VEGF injections for nAMD, DRD, and RVO between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2018 (69 007 bevacizumab; 10 895 ranibizumab; 7942 aflibercept). Postinjection 180-day event rates per 100 patients for MI, CVD, major bleeding, and all-cause hospitalization were similar for bevacizumab (0.64, 0.59, 0.34, and 10.41, respectively), ranibizumab (0.62, 0.53, 0.40, and 9.44, respectively), and aflibercept (0.63, 0.60, 0.20, and 9.88, respectively). No differences were identified for the risk of MI, CVD, major bleeding, or all-cause hospitalization when comparing the risk-adjusted effect of treatment initiation with bevacizumab versus ranibizumab (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.74-1.25]; HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.78-1.38]; HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.61-1.19]; HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.96-1.10], all P > 0.05), bevacizumab versus aflibercept (HR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.68-1.33], HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.71-1.38], HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.60-1.74], HR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.93-1.10], all P > 0.05), or aflibercept versus ranibizumab (HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.62-1.35], HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.74-1.69], HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.53-1.73], HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.92-1.13], all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no differences in the risk of acute MI, CVD, major bleeding, or all-cause hospitalization after treatment initiation with intravitreal bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or aflibercept during routine clinical practice.

13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 646-654, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) frequently occurs following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the prescription of P2Y12 inhibiting antiplatelet agents. Compared with clopidogrel, the newer P2Y12 inhibitors lower major adverse cardiac events with similar or possibly higher major bleeding events. The comparative GIB rates of these medications remain poorly understood. AIM: To compare GIB rates associated with clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor using national medical and pharmacy claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees . METHODS: Propensity score and inverse probability treatment weighting were used to balance baseline characteristics among treatment groups. The 1-year GIB risk was calculated using weighted Cox proportional hazard models and expressed as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to harm (NNH). RESULTS: We identified 37 019 patients with ACS (non-ST elevation ACS [NSTE-ACS] and ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) within 14 days of a PCI (mean age 63 years and 70% male). Clopidogrel prescription was most common (69%) with prasugrel (16%) and ticagrelor (14%) prescribed less frequently. When compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor was associated with a 34% risk reduction (HR 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.81) in GIB overall and with NSTE-ACS, and a 37% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42-0.93) in STEMI patients. When compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel was associated with a 21% risk reduction (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97) overall, a 36% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49-0.85) in STEMI patients but no reduction of GIB risk in NSTE-ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year following PCI, ticagrelor or prasugrel are associated with fewer GIB events than clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2010383, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662845

RESUMO

Importance: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services's (CMS's) 30-day risk-standardized mortality rate (RSMR) and risk-standardized readmission rate (RSRR) models do not adjust for do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status of hospitalized patients and may bias Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) financial penalties and Overall Hospital Quality Star Ratings. Objective: To identify the association between hospital-level DNR prevalence and condition-specific 30-day RSMR and RSRR and the implications of this association for HRRP financial penalty. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study obtained patient-level data from the Medicare Limited Data Set Inpatient Standard Analytical File and hospital-level data from the CMS Hospital Compare website for all consecutive Medicare inpatient encounters from July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2018, in 4484 US hospitals. Hospitalized patients had a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), stroke, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Incoming acute care transfers, discharges against medical advice, and patients coming from or discharged to hospice were among those excluded from the analysis. Exposures: Present-on-admission (POA) DNR status was defined as an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis code of V49.86 (before October 1, 2015) or as an International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnosis code of Z66 (beginning October 1, 2015). Hospital-level prevalence of POA DNR status was calculated for each of the 5 conditions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital-level 30-day RSMRs and RSRRs for 5 condition-specific cohorts (mortality cohorts: AMI, HF, stroke, pneumonia, and COPD; readmission cohorts: AMI, HF, pneumonia, and COPD) and HRRP financial penalty status (yes or no). Results: Included in the study were 4 884 237 inpatient encounters across condition-specific 30-day mortality cohorts (patient mean [SD] age, 78.8 [8.5] years; 2 608 182 women [53.4%]) and 4 450 378 inpatient encounters across condition-specific 30-day readmission cohorts (patient mean [SD] age, 78.6 [8.5] years; 2 349 799 women [52.8%]). Hospital-level median (interquartile range [IQR]) prevalence of POA DNR status in the mortality cohorts varied: 11% (7%-16%) for AMI, 13% (7%-23%) for HF, 14% (9%-22%) for stroke, 17% (9%-26%) for pneumonia, and 10% (5%-18%) for COPD. For the readmission cohorts, the hospital-level median (IQR) POA DNR prevalence was 9% (6%-15%) for AMI, 12% (6%-22%) for HF, 16% (8%-24%) for pneumonia, and 9% (4%-17%) for COPD. The 30-day RSMRs were significantly higher for hospitals in the highest quintiles vs the lowest quintiles of DNR prevalence (eg, AMI: 12.9 [95% CI, 12.8-13.1] vs 12.5 [95% CI, 12.4-12.7]; P < .001). The inverse was true among the readmission cohorts, with the highest quintiles of DNR prevalence exhibiting the lowest RSRRs (eg, AMI: 15.3 [95% CI, 15.1-15.5] vs 15.9 [95% CI, 15.7-16.0]; P < .001). A 1% absolute increase in risk-adjusted hospital-level DNR prevalence was associated with greater odds of avoiding HRRP financial penalty (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that the lack of adjustment in CMS 30-day RSMR and RSRR models for POA DNR status of hospitalized patients may be associated with biased readmission penalization and hospital-level performance.

15.
LGBT Health ; 7(6): 332-339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598215

RESUMO

Purpose: The pervasiveness of sexual minority stressors in the U.S. medical training environment is well documented, yet little is known about the mental health impact of such stressors on sexual minority medical residents. We compared depression and anxiety symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual third-year medical residents, adjusting for depression and anxiety before residency, and examined the role of perceived residency belonging during the second year of residency as a predictor of subsequent sexual identity-based differences in depression and anxiety. Methods: In 2010-2011, first-year medical students enrolled in the Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study and completed surveys in the last year of medical school (MS4; 2014), as well as second (R2; 2016) and third (R3; 2017) year of residency. The surveys contained measures of sexual identity, residency belonging, depression, and anxiety. Results: Of the 2890 residents who provided information about their sexual identity, 291 (10.07%) identified as sexual minority individuals. Sexual minority residents reported significantly higher levels of depression (p = 0.009) and anxiety (p = 0.021) than their heterosexual peers at R3, even after adjusting for depression and anxiety at MS4. Sexual minority residents also reported a lower sense of belonging at R2 than did heterosexual residents (p = 0.006), which was in turn associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety at R3 (ps < 0.001). Conclusion: Sexual minority residents experienced higher levels of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts, and these mental health disparities were associated with lower perceived belonging in residency. Residency programs should prioritize evidence-based, targeted interventions for sexual minority mental health.

16.
Trials ; 21(1): 480, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of inadequate symptom control among cancer patients is quite high despite the availability of definitive care guidelines and accurate and efficient assessment tools. METHODS: We will conduct a hybrid type 2 stepped wedge pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial to evaluate a guideline-informed enhanced, electronic health record (EHR)-facilitated cancer symptom control (E2C2) care model. Teams of clinicians at five hospitals that care for patients with various cancers will be randomly assigned in steps to the E2C2 intervention. The E2C2 intervention will have two levels of care: level 1 will offer low-touch, automated self-management support for patients reporting moderate sleep disturbance, pain, anxiety, depression, and energy deficit symptoms or limitations in physical function (or both). Level 2 will offer nurse-managed collaborative care for patients reporting more intense (severe) symptoms or functional limitations (or both). By surveying and interviewing clinical staff, we will also evaluate whether the use of a multifaceted, evidence-based implementation strategy to support adoption and use of the E2C2 technologies improves patient and clinical outcomes. Finally, we will conduct a mixed methods evaluation to identify disparities in the adoption and implementation of the E2C2 intervention among elderly and rural-dwelling patients with cancer. DISCUSSION: The E2C2 intervention offers a pragmatic, scalable approach to delivering guideline-based symptom and function management for cancer patients. Since discrete EHR-imbedded algorithms drive defining aspects of the intervention, the approach can be efficiently disseminated and updated by specifying and modifying these centralized EHR algorithms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03892967. Registered on 25 March 2019.

17.
Int J Health Econ Manag ; 20(3): 299-317, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350680

RESUMO

High-quality health care not only includes timely access to effective new therapies but timely abandonment of therapies when they are found to be ineffective or unsafe. Little is known about changes in use of medications after they are shown to be ineffective or unsafe. In this study, we examine changes in use of two medications: fenofibrate, which was found to be ineffective when used with statins among patients with Type 2 diabetes (ACCORD lipid trial); and dronedarone, which was found to be unsafe in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PALLAS trial). We examine the patient and provider characteristics associated with a decline in use of these medications. Using Medicare fee-for-service claims from 2008 to 2013, we identified two cohorts: patients with Type 2 diabetes using statins (7 million patient-quarters), and patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (83 thousand patient-quarters). We used interrupted time-series regression models to identify the patient- and provider-level characteristics associated with changes in medication use after new evidence emerged for each case. After new evidence of ineffectiveness emerged, fenofibrate use declined by 0.01 percentage points per quarter (95% CI - 0.02 to - 0.01) from a baseline of 6.9 percent of all diabetes patients receiving fenofibrate; dronedarone use declined by 0.13 percentage points per quarter (95% CI - 0.15 to - 0.10) from a baseline of 3.8 percent of permanent atrial fibrillation patients receiving dronedarone. For dronedarone, use declined more quickly among patients dually-enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid compared to Medicare-only patients (P < 0.001), among patients seen by male providers compared to female providers (P = 0.01), and among patients seen by cardiologists compared to primary care providers (P < 0.001).

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033297, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a nationally applicable tool for assessing the quality of informed consent documents for elective procedures. DESIGN: Mixed qualitative-quantitative approach. SETTING: Convened seven meetings with stakeholders to obtain input and feedback on the tool. PARTICIPANTS: Team of physician investigators, measure development experts, and a working group of nine patients and patient advocates (caregivers, advocates for vulnerable populations and patient safety experts) from different regions of the country. INTERVENTIONS: With stakeholder input, we identified elements of high-quality informed consent documents, aggregated into three domains: content, presentation and timing. Based on this comprehensive taxonomy of key elements, we convened the working group to offer input on the development of an abstraction tool to assess the quality of informed consent documents in three phases: (1) selecting the highest-priority elements to be operationalised as items in the tool; (2) iteratively refining and testing the tool using a sample of qualifying informed consent documents from eight hospitals; and (3) developing a scoring approach for the tool. Finally, we tested the reliability of the tool in a subsample of 250 informed consent documents from 25 additional hospitals. OUTCOMES: Abstraction tool to evaluate the quality of informed consent documents. RESULTS: We identified 53 elements of informed consent quality; of these, 15 were selected as highest priority for inclusion in the abstraction tool and 8 were feasible to measure. After seven cycles of iterative development and testing of survey items, and development and refinement of a training manual, two trained raters achieved high item-level agreement, ranging from 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We identified key quality elements of an informed consent document and operationalised the highest-priority elements to define a minimum standard for informed consent documents. This tool is a starting point that can enable hospitals and other providers to evaluate and improve the quality of informed consent.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033299, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether informed consent for surgical procedures performed in US hospitals meet a minimum standard of quality, we developed and tested a quality measure of informed consent documents. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of informed consent documents. SETTING: 25 US hospitals, diverse in size and geographical region. COHORT: Among Medicare fee-for-service patients undergoing elective procedures in participating hospitals, we assessed the informed consent documents associated with these procedures. We aimed to review 100 qualifying procedures per hospital; the selected sample was representative of the procedure types performed at each hospital. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The outcome was hospital quality of informed consent documents, assessed by two independent raters using an eight-item instrument previously developed for this measure and scored on a scale of 0-20, with 20 representing the highest quality. The outcome was reported as the mean hospital document score and the proportion of documents meeting a quality threshold of 10. Reliability of the hospital score was determined based on subsets of randomly selected documents; face validity was assessed using stakeholder feedback. RESULTS: Among 2480 informed consent documents from 25 hospitals, mean hospital scores ranged from 0.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) to 10.8 (95% CI 10.0 to 11.6). Most hospitals had at least one document score at least 10 out of 20 points, but only two hospitals had >50% of their documents score above a 10-point threshold. The Spearman correlation of the measures score was 0.92. Stakeholders reported that the measure was important, though some felt it did not go far enough to assess informed consent quality. CONCLUSION: All hospitals performed poorly on a measure of informed consent document quality, though there was some variation across hospitals. Measuring the quality of hospital's informed consent documents can serve as a first step in driving attention to gaps in quality.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e203942, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453382

RESUMO

Importance: Hospital networks formed around top-ranked cancer hospitals represent an opportunity to optimize complex cancer care in the community. Objective: To compare the short- and long-term survival after complex cancer treatment at top-ranked cancer hospitals and the affiliates of top-ranked hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from the unabridged version of the National Cancer Database. Included patients were individuals 18 years or older who underwent surgical treatment for esophageal, gastric, lung, pancreatic, colorectal, or bladder cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016. Patient outcomes after complex surgical procedures for cancer at top-ranked cancer hospitals (as ranked in top 50 by US News and World Report) were compared with outcomes at affiliates of top-ranked cancer hospitals (affiliation listed in American Hospitals Association survey and confirmed by search of internet presence). Data were analyzed from July through December 2019. Exposures: Undergoing complex cancer treatment at a top-ranked cancer hospital or an affiliated hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of affiliate status with short-term survival (ie, 90-day mortality) was compared using logistic regression, and the association of affiliate status with long-term survival was compared using time-to-event models, adjusting for patient demographic, payer, clinical, and treatment factors. Results: Among 119 834 patients who underwent surgical treatment for cancer, 79 981 patients (66.7%) were treated at top-ranked cancer hospitals (median [interquartile range] age, 66 [58-74] years; 40 910 [54.9%] men) and 39 853 patients (33.3%) were treated at affiliate hospitals (median [interquartile range] age, 69 [60-77] years; 19 004 [50.0%] men). In a pooled analysis of all cancer types, adjusted perioperative mortality within 90 days of surgical treatment was higher at affiliate hospitals compared with top-ranked hospitals (odds ratio, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.49-1.89]; P < .001). Adjusted long-term survival following cancer treatment at affiliate hospitals was only 77% that of top-ranked hospitals (time ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.72-0.83]; P < .001). The survival advantage was not fully explained by differences in annual surgical volume, with both long- and short-term survival remaining superior at top-ranked hospitals even after models were adjusted for volume. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that short- and long-term survival after complex cancer treatment were superior at top-ranked hospitals compared with affiliates of top-ranked hospitals. Further study of cancer care within top-ranked cancer networks could reveal collaborative opportunities to improve survival across a broad contingent of the US population.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer , Hospitais , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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