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1.
Am Heart J ; 243: 92-102, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SMall Annuli Randomized To Evolut or SAPIEN (SMART) Trial was designed to compare the performance of the two most widely available commercial transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) devices in patients with symptomatic severe native aortic stenosis with a small aortic valve annulus undergoing transfemoral TAVR. Patients with small aortic valve annuli are typically female and are often underrepresented in clinical trials. METHODS: The SMART Trial is an international, prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled, post-market trial. The trial will be conducted in approximately 700 subjects at approximately 90 sites globally. Inclusion criteria include severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve annulus area of ≤430 mm2 based on multi-detector computed tomography, and appropriate anatomy for both the Medtronic Evolut PRO/PRO+ self-expanding and Edwards SAPIEN 3/3 Ultra balloon-expandable devices. The primary clinical outcome composite endpoint is defined as mortality, disabling stroke or heart failure rehospitalization at 12 months. The co-primary valve function composite endpoint is defined as bioprosthetic valve dysfunction at 12 months which includes hemodynamic structural valve dysfunction, defined as a mean gradient ≥20 mmHg, non-structural valve dysfunction, defined as severe prothesis-patient mismatch or ≥moderate aortic regurgitation, thrombosis, endocarditis, and aortic valve re-intervention. Powered secondary endpoints will be assessed hierarchically. CONCLUSIONS: The SMART trial will be the largest head-to-head comparative trial of transfemoral TAVR using the two most widely available contemporary TAVR devices in the setting of small aortic annuli and the largest trial to enroll primarily women. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov, Unique identifier: NCT04722250.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787635

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the benefits of high-technology therapeutics, inequitable access to these technologies may generate disparities in care. Objective: To examine the association between zip code-level racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic composition and rates of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) among Medicare patients living within large metropolitan areas with TAVR programs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, nationwide cross-sectional analysis of Medicare claims data between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018, included beneficiaries of fee-for-service Medicare who were 66 years or older living in the 25 largest metropolitan core-based statistical areas. Exposure: Receipt of TAVR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between zip code-level racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic composition and rates of TAVR per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries. Results: Within the studied metropolitan areas, there were 7590 individual zip codes. The mean (SD) age of Medicare beneficiaries within these areas was 71.4 (2.0) years, a mean (SD) of 47.6% (5.8%) of beneficiaries were men, and a mean (SD) of 4.0% (7.0%) were Asian, 11.1% (18.9%) were Black, 8.0% (12.9%) were Hispanic, and 73.8% (24.9%) were White. The mean number of TAVRs per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries by zip code was 249 (IQR, 0-429). For each $1000 decrease in median household income, the number of TAVR procedures performed per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1%-0.4%) lower (P = .002). For each 1% increase in the proportion of patients who were dually eligible for Medicaid services, the number of TAVR procedures performed per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries was 2.1% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.9%) lower (P < .001). For each 1-unit increase in the Distressed Communities Index score, the number of TAVR procedures performed per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.5%) lower (P < .001). Rates of TAVR were lower in zip codes with higher proportions of patients of Black race and Hispanic ethnicity, despite adjusting for socioeconomic markers, age, and clinical comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: Within major metropolitan areas in the US with TAVR programs, zip codes with higher proportions of Black and Hispanic patients and those with greater socioeconomic disadvantages had lower rates of TAVR, adjusting for age and clinical comorbidities. Whether this reflects a different burden of symptomatic aortic stenosis by race and socioeconomic status or disparities in use of TAVR requires further study.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(11): e008260, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of novel therapeutics, inequitable diffusion of new technologies may generate disparities. We examined the growth of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the United States to understand the characteristics of hospitals that developed TAVR programs and the socioeconomic status of patients these hospitals served. METHODS: We identified fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older who underwent TAVR between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018, and hospitals that developed TAVR programs (defined as performing ≥10 TAVRs over the study period). We used linear regression models to compare socioeconomic characteristics of patients treated at hospitals that did and did not establish TAVR programs and described the association between core-based statistical area level markers of socioeconomic status and TAVR rates. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2018, 583 hospitals developed new TAVR programs, including 572 (98.1%) in metropolitan areas, and 293 (50.3%) in metropolitan areas with preexisting TAVR programs. Compared with hospitals that did not start TAVR programs, hospitals that did start TAVR programs treated fewer patients with dual eligibility for Medicaid (difference of -2.83% [95% CI, -3.78% to -1.89%], P≤0.01), higher median household incomes (difference $2447 [95% CI, $1348-$3547], P=0.03), and from areas with lower distressed communities index scores (difference -4.02 units [95% CI, -5.43 to -2.61], P≤0.01). After adjusting for the age, clinical comorbidities, race and ethnicity and socioeconomic status, areas with TAVR programs had higher rates of TAVR and TAVR rates per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries were higher in core-based statistical areas with fewer dual eligible patients, higher median income, and lower distressed communities index scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial growth phase of TAVR programs in the United States, hospitals serving wealthier patients were more likely to start programs. This pattern of growth has led to inequities in the dispersion of TAVR, with lower rates in poorer communities.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(23): 2326-2353, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711430

RESUMO

Data for nearly all patients undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) and transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) with an approved device in the United States is captured in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. All data submitted for TEER or TMVR between 2014 and March 31, 2020, are reported. A total of 37,475 patients underwent a mitral transcatheter procedure, including 33,878 TEER and 3,597 TMVR. Annual procedure volumes for TEER have increased from 1,152 per year in 2014 to 10,460 per year in 2019 at 403 sites and for TMVR from 84 per year to 1,120 per year at 301 centers. Mortality rates have decreased for TEER at 30 days (5.6%-4.1%) and 1 year (27.4%-22.0%). Early off-label use data on TMVR in mitral valve-in-valve therapy led to approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2017, and the 2019 30-day mortality rate was 3.9%. Overall improvements in outcomes over the last 6 years are apparent. (STS/ACC TVT Registry Mitral Module; NCT02245763).

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711394

RESUMO

Data for nearly all patients undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) and transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) with an approved device in the United States is captured in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. All data submitted for TEER or TMVR between 2014 and March 31, 2020, are reported. A total of 37,475 patients underwent a mitral transcatheter procedure, including 33,878 TEER and 3,597 TMVR. Annual procedure volumes for TEER have increased from 1,152 per year in 2014 to 10,460 per year in 2019 at 403 sites and for TMVR from 84 per year to 1,120 per year at 301 centers. Mortality rates have decreased for TEER at 30 days (5.6%-4.1%) and 1 year (27.4%-22.0%). Early off-label use data on TMVR in mitral valve-in-valve therapy led to approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2017, and the 2019 30-day mortality rate was 3.9%. Overall improvements in outcomes over the last 6 years are apparent. (STS/ACC TVT Registry Mitral Module; NCT02245763).

6.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) has been extensively studied as causative microorganism of surgical prosthetic-valve infective endocarditis (IE). However, scarce evidence exists on S aureus IE after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Data was obtained from the Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry including patients with definite IE following TAVR from 59 centers in 11 countries. Patients were divided into two groups according to microbiological etiology (non-S aureus-IE, non-SA-IE vs. S aureus-IE, SA-IE). RESULTS: SA-IE was identified in 141 out of 573 (24.6%) patients, methicillin-sensitive S aureus in most cases (115/141, 81.6%). SEV were more common than BEV in patients with early SA-IE. Major bleeding and sepsis complicating TAVR, neurological symptoms or systemic embolism at admission and IE with cardiac device involvement other than the TAVR prosthesis were associated with SA-IE (p<0.05 for all). Among IE post-TAVR patients, the likelihood of SA-IE increased from 19% in the absence of those risk factors to 84.6% if ≥3 risk factors were present. In-hospital (47.8% vs. 26.9%, p<0.001) and 2-year mortality (71.5% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001) rates were higher among SA-IE (vs. non-SA-IE) patients. Surgery at the time of index SA-IE was associated with a lower mortality rate at follow-up (HRadj: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.96, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: SA-IE represented ∼ 25% of IE cases after TAVR and was associated with a very high in-hospital and late mortality. The presence of some features determined a higher likelihood of SA-IE and could help to orientate early antibiotic regimen selection. Surgery at index SA-IE was associated with improved outcomes, and its role should be evaluated in future studies.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1995-2005, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare 5-year cardiovascular, renal, and bioprosthetic valve durability outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: Patients with severe AS and CKD undergoing TAVR or SAVR are a challenging, understudied clinical subset. METHODS: Intermediate-risk patients with moderate to severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/m2) from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) 2A trial (patients randomly assigned to SAPIEN XT TAVR or SAVR) and SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk Registry were pooled. The composite primary outcome of death, stroke, rehospitalization, and new hemodialysis was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Patients with and without perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) were followed through 5 years. A core laboratory-adjudicated analysis of structural valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure was also performed. RESULTS: The study population included 1,045 TAVR patients (512 SAPIEN XT, 533 SAPIEN 3) and 479 SAVR patients. At 5 years, SAVR was better than SAPIEN XT TAVR (52.8% vs 68.0%; P = 0.04) but similar to SAPIEN 3 TAVR (52.8% vs 58.7%; P = 0.89). Perioperative AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR (26.3% vs 10.3%; P < 0.001) and was independently associated with long-term outcomes. Compared with SAVR, bioprosthetic valve failure and stage 2 or 3 structural valve deterioration were significantly greater for SAPIEN XT TAVR (P < 0.05) but not for SAPIEN 3 TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: In intermediate-risk patients with AS and CKD, SAPIEN 3 TAVR and SAVR were associated with a similar risk for the primary endpoint at 5 years. AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR, and SAPIEN 3 valve durability was comparable with that of surgical bioprostheses.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(3): 361-365, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34317537

RESUMO

We describe the case of an 83-year-old man with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe secondary mitral regurgitation. This case highlights the role of transcatheter edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip in the management of symptomatic functional mitral regurgitation in a surgically unfavorable patient. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

9.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(4): 658-662, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34317598

RESUMO

We describe 4 cases in which technical challenges were anticipated in delivering a self-expanding TAVR valve due to challenging aortic anatomy or a previous placed surgical aortic valve. An upfront snare strategy is described which facilitates valve centralization and atraumatic valve delivery. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(13): 1466-1477, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare incidence and impact of measured prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPMM) versus predicted PPM (PPMP) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: TAVR studies have used measured effective orifice area indexed (EOAi) to body surface area (BSA) to define PPM, but most SAVR series have used predicted EOAi. This difference may contribute to discrepancies in incidence and outcomes of PPM between series. METHODS: The study analyzed SAVR patients from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2A trial and TAVR patients from the PARTNER 2 SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk registry. PPM was classified as moderate if EOAi ≤0.85 cm2/m2 (≤0.70 if obese: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and severe if EOAi ≤0.65 cm2/m2 (≤0.55 if obese). PPMM was determined by the core lab-measured EOAi on 30-day echocardiogram. PPMP was determined by 2 methods: 1) using normal EOA reference values previously reported for each valve model and size (PPMP1; n = 929 SAVR, 1,069 TAVR) indexed to BSA; and 2) using normal reference EOA predicted from aortic annulus size measured by computed tomography (PPMP2; n = 864 TAVR only) indexed to BSA. Primary endpoint was the composite of 5-year all-cause death and rehospitalization. RESULTS: The incidence of moderate and severe PPMP was much lower than PPMM in both SAVR (PPMP1: 28.4% and 1.2% vs. PPMM: 31.0% and 23.6%) and TAVR (PPMP1: 21.0% and 0.1% and PPMP2: 17.0% and 0% vs. PPMM: 27.9% and 5.7%). The incidence of severe PPMM and severe PPMP1 was lower in TAVR versus SAVR (P < 0.001). The presence of PPM by any method was associated with higher transprosthetic gradient. Severe PPMP1 was independently associated with events in SAVR after adjustment for sex and Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (hazard ratio: 3.18;95% CI: 1.69-5.96; P < 0.001), whereas no association was observed between PPM by any method and outcomes in TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: EOAi measured by echocardiography results in a higher incidence of PPM following SAVR or TAVR than PPM based on predicted EOAi. Severe PPMP is rare (<1.5%), but is associated with increased all-cause death and rehospitalization after SAVR, whereas it is absent following TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(18): 2276-2287, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the most common and potentially disabling complications of infective endocarditis (IE). However, scarce data exist about stroke complicating IE after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with definite IE after TAVR complicated by stroke during index IE hospitalization. METHODS: Data from the Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry (including 569 patients who developed definite IE following TAVR from 59 centers in 11 countries) was analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to stroke occurrence during IE admission (stroke [S-IE] vs. no stroke [NS-IE]). RESULTS: A total of 57 (10%) patients had a stroke during IE hospitalization, with no differences in causative microorganism between groups. S-IE patients exhibited higher rates of acute renal failure, systemic embolization, and persistent bacteremia (p < 0.05 for all). Previous stroke before IE, residual aortic regurgitation ≥moderate after TAVR, balloon-expandable valves, IE within 30 days after TAVR, and vegetation size >8 mm were associated with a higher risk of stroke during the index IE hospitalization (p < 0.05 for all). Stroke rate in patients with no risk factors was 3.1% and increased up to 60% in the presence of >3 risk factors. S-IE patients had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (54.4% vs. 28.7%; p < 0.001) and overall mortality at 1 year (66.3% vs. 45.6%; p < 0.001). Surgical treatment was not associated with improved outcomes in S-IE patients (in-hospital mortality: 46.2% in surgical vs. 58.1% in no surgical treatment; p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke occurred in 1 of 10 patients with IE post-TAVR. A history of stroke, short time between TAVR and IE, vegetation size, valve prosthesis type, and residual aortic regurgitation determined an increased risk. The occurrence of stroke was associated with increased in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates, and surgical treatment failed to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(4): E637-E646, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report the 30-day outcomes from the roll-in cohort of the CLASP IID trial, representing the first procedures performed by each site. BACKGROUND: The currently enrolling CLASP IID/IIF pivotal trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial assessing the safety and effectiveness of the PASCAL transcatheter valve repair system in patients with clinically significant MR. The trial allows for up to three roll-in patients per site. METHODS: Eligibility criteria were: DMR ≥3+, prohibitive surgical risk, and deemed suitable for transcatheter repair by the local heart team. Trial oversight included a central screening committee and echocardiographic core laboratory. The primary safety endpoint was a 30-day composite MAE: cardiovascular mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), new need for renal replacement therapy, severe bleeding, and non-elective mitral valve re-intervention, adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. Thirty-day echocardiographic, functional, and quality of life outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 45 roll-in patients with mean age of 83 years and 69% in NYHA class III/IV were treated. Successful implantation was achieved in 100%. The 30-day composite MAE rate was 8.9% including one cardiovascular death (2.2%) due to severe bleeding from a hemorrhagic stroke, one MI, and no need for re-intervention. MR≤1+ was achieved in 73% and ≤2+ in 98% of patients. 89% of patients were in NYHA class I/II (p < .001) with improvements in 6MWD (30 m; p = .054) and KCCQ (17 points; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Early results representing sites with first experience with the PASCAL repair system showed favorable 30-day outcomes in patients with DMR≥3+ at prohibitive surgical risk.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(9): 941-948, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the safety of the BASILICA (bioprosthetic or native aortic scallop intentional laceration to prevent iatrogenic coronary artery obstruction) procedure. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement causes coronary artery obstruction in 0.7% of cases, with 40% to 50% mortality. BASILICA is a procedure to prevent coronary obstruction. Safety and feasibility in a large patient cohort is lacking. METHODS: The international BASILICA registry was a retrospective, multicenter, real-world registry of patients at risk of coronary artery obstruction undergoing BASILICA and transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used to adjudicate events. RESULTS: Between June 2017 and December 2020, 214 patients were included from 25 centers in North America and Europe; 72.8% had bioprosthetic aortic valves and 78.5% underwent solo BASILICA. Leaflet traversal was successful in 94.9% and leaflet laceration in 94.4%. Partial or complete coronary artery obstruction was seen in 4.7%. Procedure success, defined as successful BASILICA traversal and laceration without mortality, coronary obstruction, or emergency intervention, was achieved in 86.9%. Thirty-day mortality was 2.8% and stroke was 2.8%, with 0.5% disabling stroke. Thirty-day death and disabling stroke were seen in 3.4%. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 composite safety was achieved in 82.8%. One-year survival was 83.9%. Outcomes were similar between solo and doppio BASILICA, between native and bioprosthetic valves, and with the use of cerebral embolic protection. CONCLUSIONS: BASILICA is safe, with low reported rates of stroke and death. BASILICA is feasible in the real-world setting, with a high procedure success rate and low rates of coronary artery obstruction.


Assuntos
Bioprótese , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886155

RESUMO

Pressure loss recovery (PLR) is a hydrodynamic phenomenon that occurs when blood flow encounters a narrowing typified by aortic valve stenosis (AS). Multiple factors contribute to the magnitude of PLR including the volumetric rate of flow, the geometry of the entrance to the vena contracta (VC) or point of minimum dimension, including that of the left ventricular outflow tract and valve orifice, and the geometry of the proximal aorta. In the majority of clinical circumstances, PLR results in echocardiographic Doppler gradient estimates that are modestly, but generally not clinically important, greater than those derived from rigorously performed catheter measurements. The contribution of PLR to the echocardiographically-measured gradient may not differ significantly between currently available valve prostheses and is likely to be small in patients with mild AS following TAVR.

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(8): 879-889, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the association between mean mitral valve gradient (MVG) and clinical outcomes among patients who underwent MitraClip treatment for secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) in the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial. BACKGROUND: In the COAPT trial, patients with heart failure (HF) and severe SMR who remained symptomatic despite guideline-directed medical therapy had marked 2-year reductions in mortality and HF hospitalizations after treatment with MitraClip. METHODS: MitraClip-treated patients were divided into quartiles (Q) based on discharge echocardiographic MVG (n = 250). Endpoints including all-cause mortality, HF hospitalization, and health status measures at 2 years were compared between quartiles. RESULTS: Mean MVG after MitraClip was 2.1 ± 0.4 mm Hg, 3.0 ± 0.2 mm Hg, 4.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg, and 7.2 ± 2.0 mm Hg in Q1 (n = 63), Q2 (n = 61), Q3 (n = 62), and Q4 (n = 64), respectively. There was no difference across quartiles in the 2-year composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization (43.2%, 49.2%, 40.6%, and 40.9%, respectively; p = 0.80), nor in improvements in New York Heart Association functional class, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score, or 6-min walk time. Results were similar after adjustment for baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, post-procedure MR grade, and number of clips (all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization Q4 [44.6%] vs. Q1 to Q3 [40.3%]; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 2.51; p = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Among HF patients with severe SMR, higher MVGs on discharge did not adversely affect clinical outcomes following MitraClip. These findings suggest that in select patients with HF and SMR otherwise meeting the COAPT inclusion criteria, the benefits of MR reduction may outweigh the effects of mild-to-moderate mitral stenosis after MitraClip.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Procedural improvements combined with the contemporary clinical profile of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may have influenced the incidence and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) following TAVR. We aimed to determine the temporal trends, characteristics, and outcomes of IE post-TAVR. METHODS: Observational study including 552 patients presenting definite IE post-TAVR. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to the timing of TAVR (historical cohort [HC]: before 2014; contemporary cohort [CC]: after 2014). RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of IE were similar in both cohorts (CC vs HC: 5.45 vs 6.52 per 1000 person-years; P = .12), but the rate of early IE was lower in the CC (2.29‰ vs 4.89‰, P < .001). Enterococci were the most frequent microorganism. Most patients presented complicated IE ( CC: 67.7%; HC: 69.6%; P = .66), but the rate of surgical treatment remained low (CC: 20.7%; HC: 17.3%; P = .32). The CC exhibited lower rates of in-hospital acute kidney injury (35.1% vs 44.6%; P = .036) and in-hospital (26.6% vs 36.4%; P = .016) and 1-year (37.8% vs 53.5%; P < .001) mortality. Higher logistic EuroScore, Staphylococcus aureus etiology, and complications (stroke, heart failure, and acute renal failure) were associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariable analyses (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Although overall IE incidence has remained stable, the incidence of early IE has declined in recent years. The microorganism, high rate of complications, and very low rate of surgical treatment remained similar. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were high but progressively decreased over time.

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