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In Vivo ; 35(1): 429-435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402493


BACKGROUND/AIM: Sodium (23Na) MR imaging is a noninvasive MRI technique that has been shown to be sensitive to visualize biochemical information about tissue viability, their cell integrity, and cell function in various studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in regional brain 23Na signal intensity between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls to preliminarily evaluate the capability of 23Na imaging as a biomarker for AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients diagnosed with AD were included: 12 in the state of dementia and 2 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 12 healthy controls (HC); they were all scanned on a 3T clinical scanner with a double tuned 1H/23Na birdcage head coil. After normalizing the signal intensity with that of the vitreous humor, relative tissue sodium concentration (rTSC) was measured after automated segmentation in the hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) in both cerebral hemispheres. RESULTS: Patients with AD showed a significant increase in rTSC in comparison to healthy controls in the following brain regions: WM 13.6%; p=0.007, hippocampus 12.9%; p=0.003, amygdala 18.9%; p=0.0007. CONCLUSION: 23Na-MRI has the potential to be developed as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of AD.

Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sódio
Psychol Sci ; 24(2): 150-9, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23241456


Adaptation and attention are two mechanisms by which sensory systems manage limited bioenergetic resources: Whereas adaptation decreases sensitivity to stimuli just encountered, attention increases sensitivity to behaviorally relevant stimuli. In the visual system, these changes in sensitivity are accompanied by a change in the appearance of different stimulus dimensions, such as speed. Adaptation causes an underestimation of speed, whereas attention leads to an overestimation of speed. In the two experiments reported here, we investigated whether the effects of these mechanisms interact and how they affect the appearance of stimulus features. We tested the effects of adaptation and the subsequent allocation of attention on perceived speed. A quickly moving adaptor decreased the perceived speed of subsequent stimuli, whereas a slow adaptor did not alter perceived speed. Attention increased perceived speed regardless of the adaptation effect, which indicates that adaptation and attention affect perceived speed independently. Moreover, the finding that attention can alter perceived speed after adaptation indicates that adaptation is not merely a by-product of neuronal fatigue.

Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Vision Res ; 74: 10-20, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22580017


Covert spatial attention can increase contrast sensitivity either by changes in contrast gain or by changes in response gain, depending on the size of the attention field and the size of the stimulus (Herrmann et al., 2010), as predicted by the normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). For feature-based attention, unlike spatial attention, the model predicts only changes in response gain, regardless of whether the featural extent of the attention field is small or large. To test this prediction, we measured the contrast dependence of feature-based attention. Observers performed an orientation-discrimination task on a spatial array of grating patches. The spatial locations of the gratings were varied randomly so that observers could not attend to specific locations. Feature-based attention was manipulated with a 75% valid and 25% invalid pre-cue, and the featural extent of the attention field was manipulated by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming grating orientation. Performance accuracy was better for valid than for invalid pre-cues, consistent with a change in response gain, when the featural extent of the attention field was small (low uncertainty) or when it was large (high uncertainty) relative to the featural extent of the stimulus. These results for feature-based attention clearly differ from results of analogous experiments with spatial attention, yet both support key predictions of the normalization model of attention.

Atenção/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
Nat Neurosci ; 13(12): 1554-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21057509


Covert attention, the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements, improves behavioral performance. We found that attention, both exogenous (involuntary) and endogenous (voluntary), can affect performance by contrast or response gain changes, depending on the stimulus size and the relative size of the attention field. These two variables were manipulated in a cueing task while stimulus contrast was varied. We observed a change in behavioral performance consonant with a change in contrast gain for small stimuli paired with spatial uncertainty and a change in response gain for large stimuli presented at one location (no uncertainty) and surrounded by irrelevant flanking distracters. A complementary neuroimaging experiment revealed that observers' attention fields were wider with than without spatial uncertainty. Our results support important predictions of the normalization model of attention and reconcile previous, seemingly contradictory findings on the effects of visual attention.

Atenção/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
J Cogn Neurosci ; 18(8): 1266-76, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16859413


Cognitive strategies used in volitional emotion regulation include self-distraction and reappraisal (reinterpretation). There is debate as to what the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms underlying these strategies are. For example, it is unclear whether self-distraction and reappraisal, although distinct at a phenomenological level, are also mediated by distinct neural processes. This is partly because imaging studies on reappraisal and self-distraction have been performed in different emotional contexts and are difficult to compare. We have therefore investigated the neural correlates of self-distraction, as indexed by a thought suppression task, in an anticipatory anxiety paradigm previously employed by us to study reappraisal. Brain activity was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We show that self-distraction recruits the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Based on a review of the existing data, we develop a process model of cognitive emotion regulation. The model posits that both self-distraction and reappraisal attenuate emotional reactions through replacement of emotional by neutral mental contents but achieve replacement in different ways. This is associated with a dependence of self-distraction on a left prefrontal production function, whereas reappraisal depends on a right prefrontal higher order monitoring process.

Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue