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1.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 71: 259-273, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592682

RESUMO

Accurate predictions from models based on physical principles are the ultimate metric of our biophysical understanding. Although there has been stunning progress toward structure prediction, quantitative prediction of enzyme function has remained challenging. Realizing this goal will require large numbers of quantitative measurements of rate and binding constants and the use of these ground-truth data sets to guide the development and testing of these quantitative models. Ground truth data more closely linked to the underlying physical forces are also desired. Here, we describe technological advances that enable both types of ground truth measurements. These advances allow classic models to be tested, provide novel mechanistic insights, and place us on the path toward a predictive understanding of enzyme structure and function.

2.
Science ; 373(6553)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437092

RESUMO

Systematic and extensive investigation of enzymes is needed to understand their extraordinary efficiency and meet current challenges in medicine and engineering. We present HT-MEK (High-Throughput Microfluidic Enzyme Kinetics), a microfluidic platform for high-throughput expression, purification, and characterization of more than 1500 enzyme variants per experiment. For 1036 mutants of the alkaline phosphatase PafA (phosphate-irrepressible alkaline phosphatase of Flavobacterium), we performed more than 670,000 reactions and determined more than 5000 kinetic and physical constants for multiple substrates and inhibitors. We uncovered extensive kinetic partitioning to a misfolded state and isolated catalytic effects, revealing spatially contiguous regions of residues linked to particular aspects of function. Regions included active-site proximal residues but extended to the enzyme surface, providing a map of underlying architecture not possible to derive from existing approaches. HT-MEK has applications that range from understanding molecular mechanisms to medicine, engineering, and design.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Flavobacterium/enzimologia , Hidrólise , Cinética , Microfluídica , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Termodinâmica
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(24): 248103, 2004 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15697865

RESUMO

The competition of monovalent and divalent cations for proximity to negatively charged DNA is of biological importance and can provide strong constraints for theoretical treatments of polyelectrolytes. Resonant x-ray scattering experiments have allowed us to monitor the number and distribution of each cation in a mixed ion cloud around DNA. These measurements provide experimental evidence to support a general theoretical prediction: the normalized distribution of each ion around polyelectrolytes remains constant when ions are mixed at different ratios. In addition, the amplitudes of the scattering signals throughout the competition provide a measurement of the surface concentration parameter that predicts the competition behavior of these cations. The data suggest that ion size needs to be taken into account in applying Poisson-Boltzmann treatments to polyelectrolytes such as DNA.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Cátions/química , Cátions/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Rubídio/química , Rubídio/metabolismo , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções , Estrôncio/química , Estrôncio/metabolismo , Raios X
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 100(20): 11429-34, 2003 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-13679573

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic mRNA localization provides a means of generating cell asymmetry and segregating protein activity. Previous studies have identified two mRNAs that localize to the bud tips of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify additional localized mRNAs, we immunoprecipitated the RNA transport components She2p, She3p, and Myo4p and performed DNA microarray analysis of their associated RNAs. A secondary screen, using a GFP-tagged RNA reporter assay, identified 22 mRNAs that are localized to bud tips. These messages encode a wide variety of proteins, including several involved in stress responses and cell wall maintenance. Many of these proteins are asymmetrically localized to buds. However, asymmetric localization also occurs in the absence of RNA transport, suggesting the existence of redundant protein localization mechanisms. In contrast to findings in metazoans, the untranslated regions are dispensable for mRNA localization in yeast. This study reveals an unanticipated widespread use of RNA transport in budding yeast.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Testes de Precipitina
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 90(18): 188103, 2003 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12786045

RESUMO

Counterion atmospheres condensed onto charged biopolymers strongly affect their physical properties and biological functions, but have been difficult to quantify experimentally. Here, monovalent and divalent counterion atmospheres around DNA double helices in solution are probed using small-angle x-ray scattering techniques. Modulation of the ion scattering factors by anomalous (resonant) x-ray scattering and by interchanging ion identities yields direct measurements of the scattering signal due to the spatial correlation of surrounding ions to the DNA. The quality of the data permit, for the first time, quantitative tests of extended counterion distributions calculated from atomic-scale models of biologically relevant molecules.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Cátions , Metais/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções , Eletricidade Estática , Raios X
6.
Biochemistry ; 40(50): 15224-33, 2001 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11735405

RESUMO

The bacterial homologues of the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor, the Ffh*4.5S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex and the FtsY protein, respectively, form a unique complex in which both Ffh and FtsY act as GTPase activating proteins for one another, resulting in the mutual stimulation of GTP hydrolysis by both proteins. Previous work showed that 4.5S RNA enhances the GTPase activity in the presence of both Ffh and FtsY, but it was not clear how this was accomplished. In this work, kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the GTPase reactions of Ffh and FtsY have provided insights into the role of 4.5S RNA in the GTPase cycles of Ffh and FtsY. We found that 4.5S RNA accelerates the association between Ffh and FtsY 400-fold in their GTP-bound form, analogous to its 200-fold catalytic effect on Ffh*FtsY association previously observed with the GppNHp-bound form [Peluso, P., et al. (2000) Science 288, 1640-1643]. Further, Ffh-FtsY association is rate-limiting for the observed GTPase reaction with subsaturating Ffh and FtsY, thereby accounting for the apparent stimulatory effect of 4.5S RNA on the GTPase activity observed previously. An additional step, GTP hydrolysis from the Ffh*FtsY complex, is also moderately facilitated by 4.5S RNA. These results suggest that 4.5S RNA modulates the conformation of the Ffh*FtsY complex and may, in turn, regulate its GTPase activity during the SRP functional cycle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Cinética , Substâncias Macromoleculares , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/genética , Termodinâmica
7.
J Mol Biol ; 308(5): 839-51, 2001 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11352576

RESUMO

Large, structured RNAs traverse folding landscapes in which intermediates and long-lived misfolded states are common. To obtain a comprehensive description of the folding landscape for a structured RNA, it is necessary to understand the connections between productive folding pathways and pathways to these misfolded states. The Tetrahymena group I ribozyme partitions between folding to the native state and to a long-lived misfolded conformation. Here, we show that the observed rate constant for commitment to fold to the native or misfolded states is 1.9 min(-1) (37 degrees C, 10 mM Mg(2+)), the same within error as the rate constant for overall folding to the native state. Thus, the commitment to alternative folding pathways is made late in the folding process, concomitant with or after the rate-limiting step for overall folding. The ribozyme forms much of its tertiary structure significantly faster than it reaches this commitment point and the tertiary structure is expected to be stable, suggesting that the commitment to fold along pathways to the native or misfolded states is made from a partially structured intermediate. These results allow the misfolded conformation to be incorporated into a folding framework that reconciles previous data and gives quantitative information about the energetic topology of the folding landscape for this RNA.


Assuntos
Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/química , RNA de Protozoário/metabolismo , Tetrahymena/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Íntrons/genética , Cinética , Magnésio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Catalítico/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Temperatura , Tetrahymena/enzimologia
8.
Biochemistry ; 40(19): 5691-9, 2001 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11341834

RESUMO

Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a proficient phosphomonoesterase with two Zn(2+) ions in its active site. Sequence homology suggests a distant evolutionary relationship between AP and alkaline phosphodiesterase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase, with conservation of the catalytic metal ions. Furthermore, many other phosphodiesterases, although not evolutionarily related, have a similar active site configuration of divalent metal ions in their active sites. These observations led us to test whether AP could also catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters. The results described herein demonstrate that AP does have phosphodiesterase activity: the phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities copurify over several steps; inorganic phosphate, a strong competitive inhibitor of AP, inhibits the phosphodiesterase and phosphatase activities with the same inhibition constant; a point mutation that weakens phosphate binding to AP correspondingly weakens phosphate inhibition of the phosphodiesterase activity; and mutation of active site residues substantially reduces both the mono- and diesterase activities. AP accelerates the rate of phosphate diester hydrolysis by 10(11)-fold relative to the rate of the uncatalyzed reaction [(k(cat)/K(m))/k(w)]. Although this rate enhancement is substantial, it is at least 10(6)-fold less than the rate enhancement for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis. Mutational analysis suggests that common active site features contribute to hydrolysis of both phosphate monoesters and phosphate diesters. However, mutation of the active site arginine to serine, R166S, decreases the monoesterase activity but not the diesterase activity, suggesting that the interaction of this arginine with the nonbridging oxygen(s) of the phosphate monoester substrate provides a substantial amount of the preferential hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. The observation of phosphodiesterase activity extends the previous observation that AP has a low level of sulfatase activity, further establishing the functional interrelationships among the sulfatases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases within the evolutionarily related AP superfamily. The catalytic promiscuity of AP could have facilitated divergent evolution via gene duplication by providing a selective advantage upon which natural selection could have acted.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Arginina/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/química , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Serina/genética , Especificidade por Substrato/genética
9.
RNA ; 7(4): 537-45, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11345432

RESUMO

Although the hammerhead reaction proceeds most efficiently in divalent cations, cleavage in 4 M LiCl is only approximately 10-fold slower than under standard conditions of 10 mM MgCl2 (Murray et al., Chem Biol, 1998, 5:587-595; Curtis & Bartel, RNA, 2001, this issue, pp. 546-552). To determine if the catalytic mechanism with high concentrations of monovalent cations is similar to that with divalent cations, we compared the activities of a series of modified hammerhead ribozymes in the two ionic conditions. Nearly all of the modifications have similar deleterious effects under both reaction conditions, suggesting that the hammerhead adopts the same general catalytic structure with both monovalent and divalent cations. However, modification of three ligands previously implicated in the binding of a functional divalent metal ion have substantially smaller effects on the cleavage rate in Li+ than in Mg2+. This result suggests that an interaction analogous to the interaction made by this divalent metal ion is absent in the monovalent reaction. Although the contribution of this divalent metal ion to the overall reaction rate is relatively modest, its presence is needed to achieve the full catalytic rate. The role of this ion appears to be in facilitating formation of the active structure, and any direct chemical role of metal ions in hammerhead catalysis is small.


Assuntos
Cátions Bivalentes , Cátions Monovalentes , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cádmio/farmacologia , Catálise , Lítio/farmacologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/genética
10.
Biochemistry ; 40(17): 5161-71, 2001 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11318638

RESUMO

Divalent metal ions play a crucial role in catalysis by many RNA and protein enzymes that carry out phosphoryl transfer reactions, and defining their interactions with substrates is critical for understanding the mechanism of biological phosphoryl transfer. Although a vast amount of structural work has identified metal ions bound at the active site of many phosphoryl transfer enzymes, the number of functional metal ions and the full complement of their catalytic interactions remain to be defined for any RNA or protein enzyme. Previously, thiophilic metal ion rescue and quantitative functional analyses identified the interactions of three active site metal ions with the 3'- and 2'-substrate atoms of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme. We have now extended these approaches to probe the metal ion interactions with the nonbridging pro-S(P) oxygen of the reactive phosphoryl group. The results of this study combined with previous mechanistic work provide evidence for a novel assembly of catalytic interactions involving three active site metal ions. One metal ion coordinates the 3'-departing oxygen of the oligonucleotide substrate and the pro-S(P) oxygen of the reactive phosphoryl group; another metal ion coordinates the attacking 3'-oxygen of the guanosine nucleophile; a third metal ion bridges the 2'-hydroxyl of guanosine and the pro-S(P) oxygen of the reactive phosphoryl group. These results for the first time define a complete set of catalytic metal ion/substrate interactions for an RNA or protein enzyme catalyzing phosphoryl transfer.


Assuntos
Metais/metabolismo , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Tetrahymena/enzimologia , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catálise , Cátions Bivalentes/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Enxofre/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
Biochemistry ; 40(2): 403-13, 2001 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11148034

RESUMO

We have explored the ability of a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) mutant in which the nucleophilic histidine has been replaced by glycine (H122G) to transfer phosphate from ATP to alcohols of varying pK(a), size, shape, and polarity. This cavity mutant does indeed act as a primitive alcohol kinase. The rate of its phosphoryl transfer to alcohols varies considerably, with values spanning a DeltaDeltaG(double dagger) range of 4 kcal/mol, whereas the alcohols have very similar intrinsic reactivities. Analysis of these results suggests that the ability to carry out phosphoryl transfer within the cavity is not a simple function of being small enough to enter the cavity, but rather is a complex function of steric, solvation, entropic, van der Waals packing, and electrostatic properties of the alcohol. In addition, large differences are observed between the reactivities of alcohols within the nucleophile cavity of H122G and the reactivities of the same alcohols within the nucleophile cavity of H122A, a mutant NDPK that differs from H122G by a single methyl group within the cavity. The crystal structures of the two cavity mutants are very similar to one another and to wild-type NDPK, providing no evidence for a structurally perturbed active site. The differences in reactivity between the two mutant proteins illustrate a fundamental limitation of energetic analysis from site-directed mutagenesis: although removal of a side chain is generally considered to be a conservative change, the energetic effects of any given mutation are inextricably linked to the molecular properties of the created cavity and the surrounding protein environment.


Assuntos
Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Núcleosídeo-Difosfato Quinase/química , Núcleosídeo-Difosfato Quinase/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Alanina/genética , Álcoois/química , Aminas/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dictyostelium/enzimologia , Dictyostelium/genética , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Glicina/genética , Histidina/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Fosforilação , Soluções , Solventes , Termodinâmica
12.
Science ; 288(5473): 2048-51, 2000 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10856219

RESUMO

Using fluorescence microscopy, we studied the catalysis by and folding of individual Tetrahymena thermophila ribozyme molecules. The dye-labeled and surface-immobilized ribozymes used were shown to be functionally indistinguishable from the unmodified free ribozyme in solution. A reversible local folding step in which a duplex docks and undocks from the ribozyme core was observed directly in single-molecule time trajectories, allowing the determination of the rate constants and characterization of the transition state. A rarely populated docked state, not measurable by ensemble methods, was observed. In the overall folding process, intermediate folding states and multiple folding pathways were observed. In addition to observing previously established folding pathways, a pathway with an observed folding rate constant of 1 per second was discovered. These results establish single-molecule fluorescence as a powerful tool for examining RNA folding.


Assuntos
Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/química , Animais , Biotinilação , Carbocianinas , Catálise , Corantes Fluorescentes , Guanosina/metabolismo , Cinética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Moleculares , Oligorribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/metabolismo , Tetrahymena thermophila
13.
RNA ; 6(6): 795-813, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10864040

RESUMO

The presence of catalytic metal ions in RNA active sites has often been inferred from metal-ion rescue of modified substrates and sometimes from inhibitory effects of alternative metal ions. Herein we report that, in the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme reaction, the deleterious effect of a thio substitution at the pro-Sp position of the reactive phosphoryl group is rescued by Mn2+. However, analysis of the reaction of this thio substrate and of substrates with other modifications strongly suggest that this rescue does not stem from a direct Mn2+ interaction with the Sp sulfur. Instead, the apparent rescue arises from a Mn2+ ion interacting with the residue immediately 3' of the cleavage site, A(+1), that stabilizes the tertiary interactions between the oligonucleotide substrate (S) and the active site. This metal site is referred to as site D herein. We also present evidence that a previously observed Ca2+ ion that inhibits the chemical step binds to metal site D. These and other observations suggest that, whereas the interactions of Mn2+ at site D are favorable for the chemical reaction, the Ca2+ at site D exerts its inhibitory effect by disrupting the alignment of the substrates within the active site. These results emphasize the vigilance necessary in the design and interpretation of metal-ion rescue and inhibition experiments. Conversely, in-depth mechanistic analysis of the effects of site-specific substrate modifications can allow the effects of specific metal ion-RNA interactions to be revealed and the properties of individual metal-ion sites to be probed, even within the sea of metal ions bound to RNA.


Assuntos
RNA Catalítico/antagonistas & inibidores , Tetrahymena/enzimologia , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Cálcio/química , Catálise , Cátions Bivalentes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Magnésio/química , Manganês/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Catalítico/química , Termodinâmica , Tionucleotídeos/química
14.
Science ; 288(5471): 1640-3, 2000 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10834842

RESUMO

The mechanism by which a signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor mediate protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum or to the bacterial plasma membrane is evolutionarily conserved. In Escherichia coli, this reaction is mediated by the Ffh/4.5S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex (Ffh/4.5S RNP; the SRP) and the FtsY protein (the SRP receptor). We have quantified the effects of 4.5S RNA on Ffh-FtsY complex formation by monitoring changes in tryptophan fluorescence. Surprisingly, 4.5S RNA facilitates both assembly and disassembly of the Ffh-FtsY complex to a similar extent. These results provide an example of an RNA molecule facilitating protein-protein interactions in a catalytic fashion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Catálise , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Guanilil Imidodifosfato/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , RNA Bacteriano/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Ribonucleoproteínas/química , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Termodinâmica , Triptofano
15.
Biochemistry ; 39(20): 6183-9, 2000 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10821693

RESUMO

The Tetrahymena group I ribozyme's oligonucleotide substrate, CCCUCUA(5), forms six base pairs with the ribozyme's internal guide sequence (IGS, 5'GGAGGG) to give the P1 duplex, and this duplex then docks into the active site via tertiary interactions. Shortening the substrate by three residues to give UCUA(5) reduces the equilibrium constant for P1 docking by approximately 200-fold even though UCUA(5) retains all the functional groups known to be involved in tertiary interactions [Narlikar, G. J., Bartley, L. E., Khosla, M., and Herschlag, D. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 14192-14204]. Here we show that the P1 duplex formed with UCUA(5) engages in all of the major tertiary interactions made by the standard P1 duplex. This suggests that the destabilization is not due to disruption of specific tertiary interactions. It therefore appears that the weaker docking of UCUA(5) arises from the increased conformational freedom of the undocked P1 duplex, which has three unpaired IGS residues and thus a larger entropic cost for docking. Further, a 2'-methoxy substitution at an IGS residue that is base-paired in the standard P1 duplex with CCCUCUA(5) but unpaired in the P1 duplex with UCUA(5) destabilizes docking of the standard P1 duplex approximately 300-fold more than it destabilizes docking of the P1 duplex formed with UCUA(5). These results suggest that fixation of groups in the context of a rigid duplex may be a general strategy used by RNA to substantially increase interaction specificity, both by aiding binding of the desired functional groups and by increasing the energetic cost of forming alternative interactions.


Assuntos
Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ácidos Nucleicos Heteroduplexes/química , RNA Catalítico/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cinética , Ácidos Nucleicos Heteroduplexes/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Tetrahymena
16.
Nat Struct Biol ; 7(5): 367-70, 2000 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10802731

RESUMO

We have used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to monitor changes in the overall size and shape of the Tetrahymena ribozyme as it folds. The native ribozyme, formed in the presence of Mg2+, is much more compact and globular than the ensemble of unfolded conformations. Time-resolved measurements show that most of the compaction occurs at least 20-fold faster than the overall folding to the native state, suggesting that a compact intermediate or family of intermediates is formed early and then rearranges in the slow steps that limit the overall folding rate. These results lead to a kinetic folding model in which an initial 'electrostatic collapse' of the RNA is followed by slower rearrangements of elements that are initially mispositioned.


Assuntos
Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Tetrahymena/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cálcio/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Cinética , Magnésio/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Catalítico/genética , Sódio/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática , Tetrahymena/enzimologia
17.
Biochemistry ; 39(10): 2639-51, 2000 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10704214

RESUMO

Phylogenetic comparisons and site-directed mutagenesis indicate that group I introns are composed of a catalytic core that is universally conserved and peripheral elements that are conserved only within intron subclasses. Despite this low overall conservation, peripheral elements are essential for efficient splicing of their parent introns. We have undertaken an in-depth structure-function analysis to investigate the role of one of these elements, P5abc, using the well-characterized ribozyme derived from the Tetrahymena group I intron. Structural comparisons using solution-based free radical cleavage revealed that a ribozyme lacking P5abc (E(DeltaP5abc)) and E(DeltaP5abc) with P5abc added in trans (E(DeltaP5abc).P5abc) adopt a similar global tertiary structure at Mg(2+) concentrations greater than 20 mM [Doherty, E. A., et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 2982-90]. However, free E(DeltaP5abc) is greatly compromised in overall oligonucleotide cleavage activity, even at Mg(2+) concentrations as high as 100 mM. Further characterization of E(DeltaP5abc) via DMS modification revealed local structural differences at several positions in the conserved core that cluster around the substrate binding sites. Kinetic and thermodynamic dissection of individual reaction steps identified defects in binding of both substrates to E(DeltaP5abc), with > or =25-fold weaker binding of a guanosine nucleophile and > or =350-fold weaker docking of the oligonucleotide substrate into its tertiary interactions with the ribozyme core. These defects in binding of the substrates account for essentially all of the 10(4)-fold decrease in overall activity of the deletion mutant. Together, the structural and functional observations suggest that the P5abc peripheral element not only provides stability but also positions active site residues through indirect interactions, thereby preferentially stabilizing the active ribozyme structure relative to alternative less active states. This is consistent with the view that peripheral elements engage in a network of mutually reinforcing interactions that together ensure cooperative folding of the ribozyme to its active structure.


Assuntos
RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Tetrahymena thermophila/enzimologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Catálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/genética , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/farmacologia , Tetrahymena thermophila/genética
18.
Chem Biol ; 7(2): 85-96, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10662698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2'-hydroxyl of U preceding the cleavage site, U(-1), in the Tetrahymena ribozyme reaction contributes 10(3)-fold to catalysis relative to a 2'-hydrogen atom. Previously proposed models for the catalytic role of this 2'-OH involve coordination of a catalytic metal ion and hydrogen-bond donation to the 3'-bridging oxygen. An additional model, hydrogen-bond donation by the 2'-OH to a nonbridging reactive phosphoryl oxygen, is also consistent with previous results. We have tested these models using atomic-level substrate modifications and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. RESULTS: Replacing the 2'-OH with -NH(3)(+) increases the reaction rate approximately 60-fold, despite the absence of lone-pair electrons on the 2'-NH(3)(+) group to coordinate a metal ion. Binding and reaction of a modified oligonucleotide substrate with 2'-NH(2) at U(-1) are unaffected by soft-metal ions. These results suggest that the 2'-OH of U(-1) does not interact with a metal ion. The contribution of the 2'-moiety of U(-1) is unperturbed by thio substitution at either of the nonbridging oxygens of the reactive phosphoryl group, providing no indication of a hydrogen bond between the 2'-OH and the nonbridging phosphoryl oxygens. In contrast, the 10(3)-fold catalytic advantage of 2'-OH relative to 2'-H is eliminated when the 3'-bridging oxygen is replaced by sulfur. As sulfur is a weaker hydrogen-bond acceptor than oxygen, this effect suggests a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the 2'-OH and the 3'-bridging oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first experimental support for the model in which the 2'-OH of U(-1) donates a hydrogen bond to the neighboring 3'-bridging oxygen, thereby stabilizing the developing negative charge on the 3'-oxygen in the transition state.


Assuntos
RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Tetrahymena/enzimologia , Tetrahymena/genética , Animais , Catálise , Cátions/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica
19.
EMBO J ; 18(23): 6705-17, 1999 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10581244

RESUMO

Approaches have been developed for the kinetic dissection of eukaryotic translation initiation in vitro using rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes and a crude preparation of initiation factors. These new approaches have allowed the kinetics of formation of the 43S and 80S ribosomal complexes to be followed and have substantially improved the ability to follow formation of the first peptide bond. The results suggest the existence of a new step on the initiation pathway that appears to require at least one additional factor and the hydrolysis of GTP and may prepare the 80S complex for the formation of the first peptide bond. The initial kinetic framework and methods developed herein will allow the properties of individual species along the initiation pathway to be probed further and will facilitate dissection of the mechanistic roles of individual translation factors and their interplay with RNA structural elements.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Guanilil Imidodifosfato/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Metionina/metabolismo , Coelhos , Reticulócitos/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Biol Chem ; 274(47): 33480-7, 1999 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10559232

RESUMO

The retroviral integrase catalyzes two successive chemical reactions essential for integration of the retroviral genome into a host chromosome: 3' end processing, in which a dinucleotide is cleaved from each 3' end of the viral DNA; and the integration reaction itself, in which the resulting recessed 3' ends of the viral DNA are joined to the host DNA. We have examined the stereospecificity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for phosphorothioate substrates in these reactions and in a third reaction, disintegration, which is macroscopically the reverse of integration. Integrase preferentially catalyzed end processing and integration of a substrate with the (R(p))-phosphorothioate stereoisomer at the reaction center and disintegration of a substrate with an (S(p))-phosphorothiate at the reaction center. These results suggest a model for the architecture of the active site of integrase, and its interactions with key features of the viral and target DNA.


Assuntos
Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Sequência de Bases , Catálise , Primers do DNA , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Tionucleotídeos/química , Tionucleotídeos/metabolismo
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