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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2983-2996, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754184

RESUMO

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary condition characterized by low serum Alpha 1 Antitrypsin (AAT) levels and a predisposition towards early-onset emphysema. Infusion of AAT is the only disease-modifying therapy that can sufficiently raise plasma AAT levels above the putative protective threshold and reduce the decline in lung density loss. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registry studies support the clinical efficacy of AAT therapy in slowing the progression of AATD-related emphysema and improving survival outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted physicians to develop additional strategies for delivering AAT therapy, which are not only more convenient for the patient, but are "COVID-19 friendly", thereby reducing the risk of exposing these vulnerable patients. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of AAT therapy is likely to be beneficial in certain subgroups of patients with AATD and can remove the need for weekly hospital visits, thereby improving independence and well-being. Increasing the awareness of self-administration in AATD through the development of formal guidelines and training programs is required among both physicians and patients and will play an essential role, especially post-COVID-19, in encouraging physicians to consider self-administration for AATD in suitable patients. This review summarizes the benefits of AAT therapy on the clinical endpoints of mortality and quality of life (QoL) and discusses the benefits of self-administration therapy compared with conventional therapy administered by a healthcare professional. In addition, this review highlights the challenges of providing AAT therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential considerations for its implementation thereafter.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina , Humanos , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2 , alfa 1-Antitripsina , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/epidemiologia
2.
Respiration ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB), a novel way of obtaining a specimen of lung tissue using a flexible cryoprobe, can obtain large lung biopsies without crush artifacts. The freezing time of TBCB was empirically selected from 3 to 7 s in the previous studies. However, no consensus has yet been reached regarding the optimal freezing time used in TBCB. OBJECTIVES: The primary endpoint was biopsy size in different freezing times. The secondary endpoints included sample histological quality, diagnostic confidence, and complications in different freezing times. METHODS: Patients who were suspected of DPLD requiring histopathological examination for further evaluation were enrolled in this study. Distinct biopsies were obtained by using different freezing times increased from 3 to 6 s sequentially. Samples were reviewed by 2 external expert pathologists. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were enrolled, and 143 transbronchial cryobiopsies were taken in this trial. An average of 4.33 samples were taken from each patient. The mean biopsy size of different freezing times from 3 to 6 s was 9.10 ± 4.37, 13.23 ± 5.83, 16.26 ± 5.67, and 18.83 ± 7.50 mm2, respectively. A strong correlation between freezing time and biopsy size was observed (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). Statistically significant difference of biopsy size was detected in the freezing time of 3 s versus 4 s (p < 0.01) and 4 s versus 5 s (p = 0.02), but not in the freezing time of 5 s versus 6 s (p = 0.10). Overall bleeding in different freezing times from 3 to 6 s was 53.33%, 67.50%, 89.47%, and 77.14%, respectively. A significantly higher overall bleeding was observed when the freezing time exceeded 4 s (RR = 1.67, p < 0.01). Pneumothorax occurred in 4 cases (12.12%). One lethal case (3.03%) was noted 25 days after TBCB. Lung parenchyma was preserved well in all cryobiopsy samples. Thirty-one (93.94%) patients' histopathological findings were identified as sufficient to establish a CRP diagnosis. There was no statistical difference in diagnostic confidence between different freezing times. CONCLUSION: A longer freezing time was associated with a larger size of the biopsy sample but a higher risk of bleeding. The optimal transbronchial cryobiopsy freezing time is 3-4 s, which is easily achievable and provides an adequate biopsy size whilst creating a safety threshold from complications.

3.
Clin Respir J ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with endobronchial valves (EBVs) has emerged as an important treatment method for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are a frequent complication following BLVR with EBV. However, there is no consensus on the prevention of AECOPD. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to compare the outcomes of different prophylactic measures on the occurrence of AECOPD after BLVR with EBV. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study of patients who underwent BLVR with EBV at six different institutions. Emphasis was directed towards the specific practices aimed at preventing AECOPD: antibiotics, steroids, antibiotics plus steroids, or no prophylaxis. Subgroups were compared, and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 170 patients were reviewed. The rate of AECOPD was 21.2% for the full cohort. Patients who received prophylaxis had a significantly lower rate of AECOPD compared with those who did not (16.7% vs. 46.2%; p = 0.001). The rate was lowest in patients who received antibiotics alone (9.2%). There was no significant difference in the rate of AECOPD between patients who received steroids alone or antibiotics plus steroids, compared with the other subgroups. The OR for AECOPD was 4.3 (95% CI: 1.8-10.4; p = 0.001) for patients not receiving prophylaxis and 3.9 (95% CI: 1.5-10.1; p = 0.004) for prophylaxis other than antibiotics alone. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of antibiotics after BLVR with EBV was associated with a lower rate of AECOPD. This was not observed with the use of steroids or in combination with antibiotics.

5.
Respiration ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515245

RESUMO

Guidelines have recommended endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy as initial sampling approaches of mediastinal lymph nodes for lung cancer staging. However, the small sample volume might restrict the diagnostic utility of needle aspiration in certain mediastinal diseases. We have recently shown that transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy, which is capable of providing larger amounts of intact tissue, improves diagnostic yield in rare tumors and benign diseases compared to EBUS-TBNA. Here, we present a case of mediastinal nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma successfully diagnosed by endoscopic transesophageal cryobiopsy.

7.
Respiration ; : 1-12, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350884

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The long-term safety and effectiveness of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with Zephyr endobronchial valves in subjects with severe homogeneous emphysema with little to no collateral ventilation beyond 3 months have yet to be established. METHODS: Ninety-three subjects were randomized to either bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with Zephyr valves or standard of care (SoC) (1:1). Zephyr valve subjects were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months. SoC subjects were assessed at 3 and 6 months; they were then offered crossover to Zephyr valve treatment. RESULTS: The mean group difference (Zephyr valve - SoC) for change in FEV1 from baseline to 6 months was 16.3 ± 22.1% (mean ± SD; p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes showed the mean between-group difference for the six-minute walk distance of +28.3 ± 55.3 m (p = 0.016); St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, -7.51 ± 9.56 points (p < 0.001); modified Medical Research Council, -0.42 ± 0.81 points (p = 0.019); BODE index, -0.85 ± 1.39 points (p = 0.006); and residual volume of -430 ± 830 mL (p = 0.011) in favor of the Zephyr valve group. At 6 months, there were significantly more responders based on the minimal clinically important difference for these same measures in the Zephyr valve versus the SoC group. The clinical benefits were persistent at 12 months. The percentage of subjects with respiratory serious adverse events was higher in the Zephyr valve group compared to SoC during the first 30 days post-procedure but not statistically different for the Zephyr valve and SoC groups from 31 days to 6 months, and stable in the Zephyr valve group out to 12 months. There were 2 deaths in the SoC group in the 31-day to 6-month period and none in the Zephyr valve group out to 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with Zephyr valves in subjects with severe homogeneous emphysema and little to no collateral ventilation provides clinically meaningful change from baseline in lung function, quality of life, exercise capacity, dyspnea, and the BODE index at 6 months, with benefits maintained out to 12 months.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gender-specific differences in the prevalence of symptoms and comorbidity are known. RESEARCH QUESTION: We studied whether the relationship between these characteristics depended on gender and carried diagnostic information regarding cardiac comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 2046 patients (GOLD grades 1-4, 795 women; 38.8%) from the COSYCONET COPD cohort. Assessments comprised the determination of clinical history, comorbidities, lung function, COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC). Using multivariate regression analyses, gender-specific differences in the relationship between symptoms, single CAT items, comorbidities and functional alterations were determined. To reveal the relationship to cardiac disease (myocardial infarction, or heart failure, or coronary artery disease) logistic regression analysis was performed separately in men and women. RESULTS: Most functional parameters and comorbidities, as well as CAT items 1 (cough), 2 (phlegm) and 5 (activities), differed significantly (p < 0.05) between men and women. Beyond this, the relationship between functional parameters and comorbidities versus symptoms showed gender-specific differences, especially for single CAT items. In men, item 8 (energy), mMRC, smoking status, BMI, age and spirometric lung function was related to cardiac disease, while in women primarily age was predictive. INTERPRETATION: Gender-specific differences in COPD not only comprised differences in symptoms, comorbidities and functional alterations, but also differences in their mutual relationships. This was reflected in different determinants linked to cardiac disease, thereby indicating that simple diagnostic information might be used differently in men and women. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The cohort study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT01245933 and on GermanCTR.de with identifier DRKS00000284, date of registration November 23, 2010. Further information can be obtained on the website http://www.asconet.net .

11.
Respiration ; 100(10): 969-978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062550

RESUMO

For selected patients with advanced emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with one-way valves can lead to clinically relevant improvements of airflow obstruction, hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and quality of life. The most common complication of this procedure is pneumothorax with a prevalence of up to ±34% of the treated patients. Patients who develop a pneumothorax also experience meaningful clinical benefits once the pneumothorax is resolved. Timely resolution of a post-valve treatment pneumothorax requires skilled and adequate pneumothorax management. This expert panel statement is an updated recommendation of the 2014 statement developed to help guide pneumothorax management after valve placement. Additionally, mechanisms for pneumothorax development, risk assessment, prevention of pneumothorax, and outcomes after pneumothorax are addressed. This recommendation is based on a combination of the current scientific literature and expert opinion, which was obtained through a modified Delphi method.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 486, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are recommended markers to identify pulmonary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whether the expression of these markers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is a prognostic factor has been a matter of debate. Therefore, we investigated retrospectively a large cohort to expand the data on the role of synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 in non-small cell lung cancer lacking morphological features of neuroendocrine differentiation. METHODS: A cohort of 627 pulmonary adenocarcinomas (ADC) and 543 squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) lacking morphological features of neuroendocrine differentiation was assembled and a tissue microarray was constructed. All cases were stained with synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56. Positivity was defined as > 1% positive tumor cells. Data was correlated with clinico-pathological features including overall and disease free survival. RESULTS: 110 (18%) ADC and 80 (15%) SqCC were positive for either synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 or a combination. The most commonly positive single marker was synaptophysin. The least common positive marker was chromogranin. A combination of ≤2 neuroendocrine markers was positive in 2-3% of ADC and 0-1% of SqCC. There was no significant difference in overall survival in tumors with positivity for neuroendocrine markers neither in ADC (univariate: P = 0.4; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.867; multivariate: P = 0.5; HR = 0.876) nor in SqCC (univariate: P = 0.1; HR = 0.694; multivariate: P = 0.1, HR = 0.697). Likewise, there was no significant difference in disease free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a cohort of 1170 cases that synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are commonly expressed in ADC and SqCC and that their expression has no impact on survival, supporting the current best practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/química , Antígeno CD56/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Cromograninas/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Sinaptofisina/análise , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Serial de Tecidos
13.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) as an initial investigation technique for mediastinal nodal staging in lung cancer. However, EBUS-TBNA can be limited by the inadequacy of intact tissues, which might restrict its diagnostic yield in mediastinal lesions of certain etiologies. We have previously shown that EBUS-guided transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy can provide intact samples with greater volume. METHODS: This randomised study determined the diagnostic yield and safety of transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy monitored by endosonography for the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Patients with mediastinal lesion of 1 cm or more in the short axis were recruited. Following identification of the mediastinal lesion by linear EBUS, fine-needle aspiration and cryobiopsy were sequently performed in a randomised order. Primary endpoints were diagnostic yield defined as the percentage of patients for whom mediastinal biopsy provided a definite diagnosis, and procedure-related adverse events. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-seven patients were enrolled and randomly allocated. The overall diagnostic yield was 79.9% and 91.8% for TBNA and transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy, respectively (p=0.001). Diagnostic yields were similar for metastatic lymphadenopathy (94.1% versus 95.6%, p=0.58), while cryobiopsy was more sensitive than TBNA in uncommon tumors (91.7% versus 25.0%, p=0.001) and benign disorders (80.9% versus 53.2%, p=0.004). No significant differences in diagnostic yield were detected between TBNA first and cryobiopsy first groups. We observed 2 cases of pneumothorax and 1 case of pneumomediastinum. CONCLUSIONS: Transbronchial cryobiopsy performed under EBUS guidance is a safe and useful approach that offers diagnostic histological samples of mediastinal lesions.

14.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(7): 614-623, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961061

RESUMO

The establishment of assisted spontaneous breathing is a phase of ventilation therapy that is generally considered to be beneficial and not dangerous. However, recent findings regarding potential damage from vigorous spontaneous breathing effort should be noticed in patients with acute injured lungs. This syndrome is called patient self-inflicted lung injury. Physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists should be aware of this issue. Parameters that can be determined using esophageal pressure measurement or simple maneuvers on the respirator are helpful when deciding to implement and to monitor assisted spontaneous breathing, even in the acute phases of lung damage. In addition to monitoring, there are therapeutic options for dealing with high respiratory drive or increased breathing effort.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Humanos , Pulmão
15.
Respiration ; 100(8): 804-810, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial coils is a new treatment for patients with severe emphysema. To date, the benefits have been modest and have been suggested to be much larger in patients with severe hyperinflation and nonmulti-comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endobronchial coil treatment in a randomized multicenter clinical trial using optimized patient selection. METHOD: Patients with severe emphysema on HRCT scan with severe hyperinflation (residual volume [RV] ≥200% predicted and RV/total lung capacity [TLC] >55%) were randomized to coil treatment or control. Primary outcome measures were differences in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score at 6 months. RESULTS: Due to premature study termination, a total of 120 patients (age 63 ± 7 years, FEV1 29 ± 7% predicted, RV 251 ± 41% predicted, RV/TLC 67 ± 6%, and SGRQ 58 ± 13 points), instead of 210 patients, were randomized. At study termination, 91 patients (57 coil and 34 control) had 6-month results available. Analyses showed significantly greater improvements in favor of the coil group. The increase in FEV1 was greater in the coil group than that in the control group by + 10.3 [+4.7 to +16.0] % and in SGRQ by -10.6 [-15.9 to -5.4] points. At study termination, there were 5 (6.8%) deaths in the coil cohort reported. CONCLUSION: Despite early study termination, coil treatment compared to control results in a significant improvement in the lung function and quality of life benefits for up to 6 months in patients with emphysema and severe hyperinflation. These improvements were of clinical importance but were associated with a higher likelihood of serious adverse events.

16.
Respiration ; 100(6): 547-550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774623

RESUMO

Robotic assisted bronchoscopy represents a major turning point in bronchoscopic history. The management strategies to address significant airway bleeding in this "robotic era" are not well documented, and further guidance is required. We present a case report that exemplifies our approach and management strategy using a combined and simultaneous flexible/robotic bronchoscopy if this complication is encountered.

17.
Thorax ; 76(4): 380-386, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple breath washout (MBW) using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has the potential to reveal ventilation heterogeneity which is frequent in patients with obstructive lung disease and associated small airway dysfunction. However, reference data are scarce for this technique and mostly restricted to younger cohorts. We therefore set out to evaluate the influence of anthropometric parameters on SF6-MBW reference values in pulmonary healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated cross-sectional data from 100 pulmonary healthy never-smokers and smokers (mean 51 (SD 20), range 20-88 years). Lung clearance index (LCI), acinar (Sacin) and conductive (Scond) ventilation heterogeneity were derived from triplicate SF6-MBW measurements. Global ventilation heterogeneity was calculated for the 2.5% (LCI2.5) and 5% (LCI5) stopping points. Upper limit of normal (ULN) was defined as the 95th percentile. RESULTS: Age was the only meaningful parameter influencing SF6-MBW parameters, explaining 47% (CI 33% to 59%) of the variance in LCI, 32% (CI 18% to 47%) in Sacin and 10% (CI 2% to 22%) in Scond. Mean LCI increases from 6.3 (ULN 7.4) to 8.8 (ULN 9.9) in subjects between 20 and 90 years. Smoking accounted for 2% (CI 0% to 8%) of the variability in LCI, 4% (CI 0% to 13%) in Sacin and 3% (CI 0% to 13%) in Scond. CONCLUSION: SF6-MBW outcome parameters showed an age-dependent increase from early adulthood to old age. The effect was most pronounced for global and acinar ventilation heterogeneity and smaller for conductive ventilation heterogeneity. No influence of height, weight and sex was seen. Reference values can now be provided for all important SF6-MBW outcome parameters over the whole age range. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04099225.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Testes Respiratórios , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/fisiopatologia , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes
18.
Respiration ; 100(5): 387-394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygenated hemoglobin(OxyHem) is a simple-to-measure marker of oxygen content capable of predicting all-cause mortality in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze its predictive value during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). METHODS: In this retrospective study, data from 227 patients discharged after severe AECOPD at RoMed Clinical Center Rosenheim, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2018, was analyzed. OxyHem (hemoglobin concentration [Hb] × fractional SpO2, g/dL) was calculated from oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and hemoglobin assessed within 24 h after admission. The follow-up (1.7 ± 1.5 years) covered all-cause mortality, including readmissions for severe AECOPD. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 127 patients died, 56 due to AECOPD and 71 due to other reasons. Survivors and non-survivors showed differences in age, FVC % predicted, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, Cr, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and OxyHem (p < 0.05 each). Significant independent predictors of survival were BMI, Cr or CCI, FEV1 % predicted or FVC % predicted, Hb, or OxyHem. The predictive value of OxyHem (p = 0.006) was superior to that of Hb or SpO2 and independent of oxygen supply during blood gas analysis. OxyHem was also predictive when using a cutoff value of 12.1 g/dL identified via receiver operating characteristic curves in analyses including either the CCI (hazard ratio 1.85; 95% CI 1.20, 2.84; p = 0.005) or Cr (2.04; 95% CI 1.35, 3.10; p = 0.001) as covariates. CONCLUSION: The concentration of OxyHem provides independent, easy-to-assess information on long-term mortality risk in COPD, even if measured during acute exacerbations. It therefore seems worth to be considered for broader clinical use.

19.
Respiration ; 100(4): 308-317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COPD-specific symptoms and history but FEV1/FVC ratio ≥0.7 are a heterogeneous group (former GOLD grade 0) with uncertainties regarding natural history. OBJECTIVE: We investigated which lung function measures and cutoff values are predictive for deterioration according to GOLD grades and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We used visit 1-4 data of the COSYCONET cohort. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to identify relevant parameters. GOLD 0 patients were categorized according to whether they maintained grade 0 over the following 2 visits or deteriorated persistently into grades 1 or 2. Their clinical characteristics were compared with those of GOLD 1 and 2 patients. RESULTS: Among 2,741 patients, 374 GOLD 0, 206 grade 1, and 962 grade 2 patients were identified. GOLD 0 patients were characterized by high symptom burden, comparable to grade 2, and a restrictive lung function pattern; those with FEV1/FVC above 0.75 were unlikely to deteriorate over time into grades 1 and 2, in contrast to those with values between 0.70 and 0.75. Regarding mortality risk in GOLD 0, FEV1%predicted and age were the relevant determinants, whereby a cutoff value of 65% was superior to that of 80% as proposed previously. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding patients of the former GOLD grade 0, we identified simple criteria for FEV1/FVC and FEV1% predicted that were relevant for the outcome in terms of deterioration over time and mortality. These criteria might help to identify patients with the typical risk profile of COPD among those not fulfilling spirometric COPD criteria.

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