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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180916

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors in which altered central metabolism appears to be a major driver of tumorigenesis, and many PPGL genes encode proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: While around 40% of PPGL cases carry a variant in a known gene, many cases remain unexplained. In unexplained patients showing clear evidence of a familial burden or multiple tumors, we aimed to identify causative factors using genetic analysis of patient DNA and functional analyses of identified DNA variants in patient tumor material and engineered cell lines. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Patients with a likely familial cancer burden of pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas and under investigation in a clinical genetic and clinical research setting in university hospitals. RESULTS: While investigating unexplained PPGL cases, we identified a novel variant, c.1151C>T, p.(Pro384Leu), in exon 14 of the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST), a component of the multi-enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Targeted sequence analysis of further unexplained cases identified a patient carrying a tumor with compound heterozygous variants in DLST, consisting of a germline variant, c.1121G>A, p.(Gly374Glu), together with a somatic missense variant identified in tumor DNA, c.1147A>G, p.(Thr383Ala), both located in exon 14. Using a range of in silico and functional assays we show that these variants are predicted to be pathogenic, profoundly impact enzyme activity and result in DNA hypermethylation. CONCLUSIONS: The identification and functional analysis of these DLST variants further validates DLST as an additional PPGL gene involved in the TCA cycle.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the CDKN2A gene are generally associated with the development of melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but specific genotype-phenotype correlations might exist and the extent of PDAC risk is not well established for many variants. METHODS: Using the Dutch national familial melanoma database, we identified all families with a pathogenic CDKN2A variant and investigated the occurrence of PDAC within these families. We also estimated the standardised incidence ratio and lifetime PDAC risk for carriers of a highly prevalent variant in these families. RESULTS: We identified 172 families in which 649 individuals carried 15 different pathogenic variants. The most prevalent variant was the founder mutation c.225_243del (p16-Leiden, 484 proven carriers). Second most prevalent was c.67G>C (55 proven carriers). PDAC developed in 95 of 163 families (58%, including 373 of 629 proven carriers) harbouring a variant with an effect on the p16INK4a protein, whereas PDAC did not occur in the 9 families (20 proven carriers) with a variant affecting only p14ARF. In the c.67G>C families, PDAC occurred in 12 of the 251 (5%) persons at risk. The standardised incidence ratio was 19.1 (95% CI 8.3 to 33.6) and the cumulative PDAC incidence at age 75 years (lifetime risk) was 19% (95% CI 7.5% to 30.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the notion that pathogenic CDKN2A variants affecting the p16INK4a protein, including c.67G>C, are associated with increased PDAC risk and carriers of such variants should be offered pancreatic cancer surveillance. There is no clinical evidence that impairment of only the p14ARF protein leads to an increased PDAC risk.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1524-1532, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare, autosomal-dominantly inherited cancer predisposition caused in approximately 50% of cases by pathogenic germline variants in SMAD4 and BMPR1A. We aimed to gather detailed clinical and molecular genetic information on JPS disease expression to provide a basis for management guidelines and establish open access variant databases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, questionnaire-based European multicenter survey on and established a cohort of SMAD4/BMPR1A pathogenic variant carriers from the medical literature. RESULTS: We analyzed questionnaire-based data on 221 JPS patients (126 kindreds) from ten European centers and retrieved literature-based information on 473 patients. Compared with BMPR1A carriers, SMAD4 carriers displayed anemia twice as often (58% vs. 26%), and exclusively showed overlap symptoms with hemorrhagic telangiectasia (32%) and an increased prevalence (39% vs. 13%) of gastric juvenile polyps. Cancer, reported in 15% of JPS patients (median age 41 years), mainly occurred in the colorectum (overall: 62%, SMAD4: 58%, BMPR1A: 88%) and the stomach (overall: 21%; SMAD4: 27%, BMPR1A: 0%). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive retrospective study on genotype-phenotype correlations in 694 JPS patients corroborates previous observations on JPS in general and SMAD4 carriers in particular, facilitates recommendations for clinical management, and provides the basis for open access variant SMAD4 and BMPR1A databases.

4.
J Med Genet ; 57(2): 96-103, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic germline variants in subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) are broadly associated with disease subtypes of phaeochromocytoma-paraganglioma (PPGL) syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the role of variant type (ie, missense vs truncating) in determining tumour phenotype. METHODS: Three independent datasets comprising 950 PPGL and head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) patients were analysed for associations of variant type with tumour type and age-related tumour risk. All patients were carriers of pathogenic germline variants in the SDHB, SDHC or SDHD genes. RESULTS: Truncating SDH variants were significantly over-represented in clinical cases compared with missense variants, and carriers of SDHD truncating variants had a significantly higher risk for PPGL (p<0.001), an earlier age of diagnosis (p<0.0001) and a greater risk for PPGL/HNPGL comorbidity compared with carriers of missense variants. Carriers of SDHB truncating variants displayed a trend towards increased risk of PPGL, and all three SDH genes showed a trend towards over-representation of missense variants in HNPGL cases. Overall, variant types conferred PPGL risk in the (highest-to-lowest) sequence SDHB truncating, SDHB missense, SDHD truncating and SDHD missense, with the opposite pattern apparent for HNPGL (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SDHD truncating variants represent a distinct group, with a clinical phenotype reminiscent of but not identical to SDHB. We propose that surveillance and counselling of carriers of SDHD should be tailored by variant type. The clinical impact of truncating SDHx variants is distinct from missense variants and suggests that residual SDH protein subunit function determines risk and site of disease.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 222-230, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527860

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of APC-associated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) in a large cohort, taking into account factors as adenoma count and year of diagnosis. All application forms used to send patients in for APC and MUTYH variant analysis between 1992 and 2017 were collected (n = 2082). Using the data provided on the application form, the APC and biallelic MUTYH prevalence was determined and possible predictive factors were examined using multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis in SPSS. The prevalence of disease causing variants in the APC gene significantly increases with adenoma count while MAP shows a peak prevalence in individuals with 50-99 adenomas. Logistic regression analysis shows significant odds ratios for adenoma count, age at diagnosis, and, interestingly, a decline in the chance of finding a variant in either gene over time. Moreover, in 22% (43/200) of patients with FAP-related extracolonic manifestations a variant was identified. The overall detection rates are above 10% for patients with >10 adenomas aged <60 and >20 adenomas aged <70. Patients with variants outside these criteria had FAP-related extracolonic manifestations, colorectal cancer aged <40, somatic KRAS c.34G > T variant in the tumor or a first-degree relative with >10 adenomas. Therefore, APC and MUTYH testing in patients with >10 adenomas aged <60 and with >20 adenomas aged <70 is advised. Almost all FAP and MAP patients not meeting these criteria showed other characteristics that can be used as an indication to prompt genetic testing.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(3): 333-338, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616036

RESUMO

Germline variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene PMS2 cause 1-14% of all Lynch Syndrome cancers. Correct variant analysis of PMS2 is complex due to the presence of multiple pseudogenes and the occurrence of gene conversion. The analysis complexity increases in highly fragmented DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Here we describe a reliable approach to detect true PMS2 variants in fragmented DNA. A custom NGS panel designed for FFPE tissue was used targeting four MMR genes, POLE and POLD1. Amplicon design for PMS2 was based on the position of paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) that distinguish PMS2 from its pseudogenes. PMS2 variants in exons 1-11 can be correctly curated based on this information. For exons 12-15 this is less reliable as these undergo gene conversion. Using this method, we screened PMS2 variants in 125 MMR-deficient tumors. Of the 125 tumors tested, six were unexplained MMR-deficient tumors with solitary PMS2 protein expression loss. In these six tumors two unclassified variants (class 3) and five variants likely affecting function (class 4/5) were detected in PMS2. One microsatellite unstable tumor with positive staining for all MMR proteins was found to carry a frameshift PMS2 variant (class 5). No class 4 or class 5 PMS2 variants were detected in tumors with other patterns of MMR protein expression loss.

8.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Desoxirribonuclease (Dímero de Pirimidina)/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/deficiência , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desoxirribonuclease (Dímero de Pirimidina)/deficiência , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/enzimologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(1): 72-78, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733904

RESUMO

Background To improve our understanding of the natural course of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) and ultimately differentiate between cases that benefit from early treatment and those that are best left untreated, we studied the growth dynamics of 77 HNPGL managed with primary observation. Methods Using digitally available magnetic resonance images, tumor volume was estimated at three time points. Subsequently, nonlinear least squares regression was used to fit seven mathematical models to the observed growth data. Goodness of fit was assessed with the coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and root-mean-squared error. The models were compared with Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and subsequent post-hoc tests. In addition, the credibility of predictions (age at onset of neoplastic growth and estimated volume at age 90) was evaluated. Results Equations generating sigmoidal-shaped growth curves (Gompertz, logistic, Spratt and Bertalanffy) provided a good fit (median R 2 : 0.996-1.00) and better described the observed data compared with the linear, exponential, and Mendelsohn equations ( p < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between the sigmoidal-shaped growth curves regarding the goodness of fit, a realistic age at onset and estimated volume at age 90 were most often predicted by the Bertalanffy model. Conclusions Growth of HNPGL is best described by decelerating tumor growth laws, with a preference for the Bertalanffy model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this often-neglected model has been successfully fitted to clinically obtained growth data.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658386

RESUMO

Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B and D (SDHB and SDHD) are predisposed to hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PHEO). The phenotype of pathogenic variants varies according to the causative gene. In this retrospective study, we estimate the mortality of a nationwide cohort of SDHB variant carriers and that of a large cohort of SDHD variant carriers and compare it to the mortality of a matched cohort of the general Dutch population. A total of 192 SDHB variant carriers and 232 SDHD variant carriers were included in this study. The Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR) for SDHB mutation carriers was 1.89, increasing to 2.88 in carriers affected by PGL. For SDHD variant carriers the SMR was 0.93 and 1.06 in affected carriers. Compared to the general population, mortality seems to be increased in SDHB variant carriers, especially in those affected by PGL. In SDHD variant carriers, the mortality is comparable to that of the general Dutch population, even if they are affected by PGL. This insight emphasizes the significance of DNA-testing in all PGL and PHEO patients, since different clinical risks may warrant gene-specific management strategies.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(2): 277-284, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260442

RESUMO

Context: DICER1 syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that predisposes to a variety of cancerous and noncancerous tumors of mostly pediatric and adolescent onset, including differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). DTC has been hypothesized to arise secondarily to the increased prevalence of thyroid hyperplastic nodules in syndromic patients. Objective: To determine somatic alterations in DICER1-associated DTC and to study patient outcomes. Design: Retrospective series. Setting: Tertiary referral centers. Patients: Ten patients with germline pathogenic DICER1 variants and early-onset DTC. Methods: Somatic DICER1 mutation analysis, extensive somatic DNA variant and gene fusion analyses were performed on all tumors. Results: Median age at DTC diagnosis was 13.5 years and there was no recurrent or metastatic disease (median follow-up, 8 years). All thyroid specimens showed diffuse nodular hyperplasia with at least one focus suspicious of DTC but without infiltrative growth, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis. Most of the individual nodules (benign and malignant) sampled from the 10 tumors harbored distinct DICER1 RNase IIIb hotspot mutations, indicating a polyclonal composition of each tumor. Furthermore, nine of 10 DICER1-related DTCs lacked well-known oncogenic driver DNA variants and gene rearrangements. Conclusion: On the basis of our clinical, histological, and molecular data, we consider that most DICER1-related DTCs form a low-risk subgroup. These tumors may arise within one of multiple benign monoclonal nodules; thus, hemi-thyroidectomy or, more likely, total thyroidectomy may often be required. However, radioiodine treatment may be unnecessary given the patients' ages and the tumors' low propensity for metastases.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Cancer ; 144(10): 2453-2464, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414346

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the major melanoma susceptibility gene CDKN2A explain genetic predisposition in only 10-40% of melanoma-prone families. In our study we comprehensively characterized 488 melanoma cases from 451 non-CDKN2A/CDK4 families for mutations in 30 established and candidate melanoma susceptibility genes using a custom-designed targeted gene panel approach. We identified (likely) pathogenic variants in established melanoma susceptibility genes in 18 families (n = 3 BAP1, n = 15 MITF p.E318K; diagnostic yield 4.0%). Among the three identified BAP1-families, there were no reported diagnoses of uveal melanoma or malignant mesothelioma. We additionally identified two potentially deleterious missense variants in the telomere maintenance genes ACD and TERF2IP, but none in the POT1 gene. MC1R risk variants were strongly enriched in our familial melanoma cohort compared to healthy controls (R variants: OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.88-4.68, p <0.001). Several variants of interest were also identified in candidate melanoma susceptibility genes, in particular rare (pathogenic) variants in the albinism gene OCA2 were repeatedly found. We conclude that multigene panel testing for familial melanoma is appropriate considering the additional 4% diagnostic yield in non-CDKN2A/CDK4 families. Our study shows that BAP1 and MITF are important genes to be included in such a diagnostic test.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Melanoma/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Mesotelioma/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
13.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 28(10-11): 2924-2936, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073909

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of the age-dependent disease risk conferred by germline variants in disease susceptibility genes is often hampered by the way the data are collected. Cohort-based data sets frequently contain an overrepresentation of patients (i.e. carriers of the gene variant of interest affected with the associated disease), and an underrepresentation of disease-free carriers. In order to overcome this problem, penetrance estimates can be based on family-based study designs, through the evaluation of index patients and their family members. This approach facilitates the identification of asymptomatic germline variant carriers. By adjusting for the way these family data are ascertained, an estimate for the penetrance of the pathogenic gene variant can be obtained. However, the family structure is often incomplete or missing. This complicates the estimation of the penetrance, because full adjustment of the likelihood is not possible. We present a conditional likelihood for the estimation of the penetrance of pathogenic gene variants, based on a cohort of multiple families comprising index patients, disease-free and affected non-index carriers, but with missing information on pedigree structure. The proposed estimator corrects for the ascertainment in a robust way and is shown to be more accurate than the frequently used Kaplan-Meier estimator of the penetrance function.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
15.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(9): 551-556, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991580

RESUMO

CDKN2A-p16-Leiden mutation carriers have a 20% to 25% risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Better understanding of the natural course of PDAC might allow the surveillance protocol to be improved. The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of cystic precursor lesions in the development of PDAC and to assess the growth rate. In 2000, a surveillance program was initiated, consisting of annual MRI in carriers of a CDKN2A-p16-Leiden mutation. The study cohort included 204 (42% male) patients. Cystic precursor lesions were found in 52 (25%) of 204 mutation carriers. Five (9.7%) of 52 mutation carriers with cystic lesions and 8 (7.0%) of 114 mutation carriers without cystic lesions developed PDAC (P = 0.56). Three of 6 patients with a cystic lesion of ≥10 mm developed PDAC. The median size of all incident PDAC detected between 9 and 12 months since the previous normal MRI was 15 mm, suggesting an annual growth rate of about 15 mm/year. In conclusion, our findings show that patients with and without a cystic lesions have a similar risk of PDAC. However, cystic precursor lesions between 10 and 20 mm increase the risk of PDAC substantially. In view of the large size of the screen-detected tumors, a shorter interval of screening might be recommended for all patients. Cancer Prev Res; 11(9); 551-6. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Efeito Fundador , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/epidemiologia , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1143-1150, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706640

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing efforts in molecular tumour diagnostics detect increasing numbers of novel variants, including variants predicted to affect splicing. In silico prediction tools can reliably predict the effect of variant disrupting canonical splice sites; however, experimental validation is required to confirm aberrant splicing. Here, we present RNA analysis performed for 13 canonical splice site variants predicted or known to result in splicing in the cancer predisposition genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, APC and BRCA1. Total nucleic acid was successfully isolated for 10 variants from eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissues and two B-cell lines. Aberrant splicing was confirmed in all six variants known to result in splicing. Of one known variant in the B-cell line, aberrant splicing could only be detected after formalin fixation, which indicated that formalin fixation could possibly inhibit RNA degradation. Aberrant splicing was concluded in three of four predicted splice variants of uncertain significance, supporting their pathogenic effect. With this assay, somatic splice variants can be easily and rapidly analysed, enabling retrospective analysis to support the pathogenicity of variants predicted to result in splicing when only FFPE material is available.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação , Processamento de RNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas , Inclusão do Tecido/métodos , Inclusão do Tecido/normas , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos/normas
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1339-1347, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777207

RESUMO

Although it is well established that paternally transmitted germline variants in SDHD are associated with multifocal paragangliomas and lifelong follow-up is generally advised, the risk of metachronous lesions is presently unknown. In a large Dutch cohort of SDHD variant carriers, we studied the development of new paragangliomas, and the evolution of symptoms and cranial nerve impairment. Recurrent event analysis and the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator were used to study the risk of new lesions. The relation between several predictors and development of new symptoms was assessed using logistic regression. Of the 222 SDHD variant carriers included, 65% presented with symptoms and 11% with cranial nerve dysfunction. Over a median period of 8 years, 42% reported new symptoms, and new cranial nerve impairment was observed in 11% of subjects. The estimated fraction of subjects that developed new HNPGL increased to 73% (95% CI: 52-85%) after 22 years of follow-up. Males were more likely to develop new HNPGL compared to females (HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.40), as were subjects that presented with symptoms, compared to subjects that were asymptomatic at baseline (HR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.55). In addition, the risk of new lesions decreased with number of HNPGL present at first diagnosis (HR: 0.68 and 95% CI: 0.56-0.82). Carriers of a paternally inherited SDHD variant face a considerable risk for new HNPGL. In addition, nearly 50% of subjects reported new symptoms. However, new cranial nerve deficits were observed in only 11%, which is less than reported in surgical series. These risks should be taken into account when considering treatment strategies and counseling.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Paraganglioma/patologia
18.
Gastroenterology ; 155(3): 844-851, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Germline variants in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, or PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome. Patients with these variants have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancers (CRCs) that differ from sporadic CRCs in genetic and histologic features. It has been a challenge to study CRCs associated with PMS2 variants (PMS2-associated CRCs) because these develop less frequently and in older patients than CRCs with variants in other mismatch repair genes. METHODS: We analyzed 20 CRCs associated with germline variants in PMS2, 22 sporadic CRCs, 18 CRCs with germline variants in MSH2, and 24 CRCs from patients with germline variants in MLH1. Tumor tissue blocks were collected from Dutch pathology departments in 2017. After extraction of tumor DNA, we used a platform designed to detect approximately 3,000 somatic hotspot variants in 55 genes (including KRAS, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53). Somatic variant frequencies were compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: None of the PMS2-associated CRCs contained any somatic variants in the catenin-ß1 gene (CTNNB1), which encodes ß-catenin, whereas 14 of 24 MLH1-associated CRCs (58%) contained variants in CTNNB1. Half the PMS2-associated CRCs contained KRAS variants, but only 20% of these were in hotspots that encoded G12D or G13D. These hotspot variants occurred more frequently in CRCs associated with variants in MLH1 (37.5%; P = .44) and MSH2 (71.4%; P = .035) than in those associated with variants in PMS2. CONCLUSIONS: In a genetic analysis of 84 colorectal tumors, we found tumors from patients with PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome to be distinct from colorectal tumors associated with defects in other mismatch repair genes. This might account for differences in development and less frequent occurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , beta Catenina/genética
19.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 661-668, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors have been reported that influence the probability of a germline CDKN2A mutation in a melanoma family. Our goal was to create a scoring system to estimate this probability, based on a set of clinical features present in the patient and his or her family. METHODS: Five clinical features and their association with CDKN2A mutations were investigated in a training cohort of 1227 Dutch melanoma families (13.7% with CDKN2A mutation) using multivariate logistic regression. Predefined features included number of family members with melanoma and with multiple primary melanomas, median age at diagnosis and presence of pancreatic cancer or upper airway cancer in a family member. Based on these five features, a scoring system (CDKN2A Mutation(CM)-Score) was developed and subsequently validated in a combined Swedish and Dutch familial melanoma cohort (n=421 families; 9.0% with CDKN2A mutation). RESULTS: All five features were significantly associated (p<0.05) with a CDKN2A mutation. At a CM-Score of 16 out of 49 possible points, the threshold of 10% mutation probability is approximated (9.9%; 95% CI 9.8 to 10.1). This probability further increased to >90% for families with ≥36 points. A CM-Score under 16 points was associated with a low mutation probability (≤4%). CM-Score performed well in both the training cohort (area under the curve (AUC) 0.89; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.92) and the external validation cohort (AUC 0.94; 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). CONCLUSION: We developed a practical scoring system to predict CDKN2A mutation status among melanoma-prone families. We suggest that CDKN2A analysis should be recommended to families with a CM-Score of ≥16 points.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 669-674, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In approximately 10% of all gastric cancer (GC) cases, a heritable cause is suspected. A subset of these cases have a causative germline CDH1 mutation; however, in most cases the cause remains unknown. Our objective was to assess to what extent these remaining cases may be explained by germline mutations in the novel candidate GC predisposing genes CTNNA1, MAP3K6 or MYD88. METHODS: We sequenced a large cohort of unexplained young and/or familial patients with GC (n=286) without a CDH1germline mutation for germline variants affecting CTNNA1, MAP3K6 and MYD88 using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes. RESULTS: Predicted deleterious germline variants were not encountered in MYD88, but recurrently observed in CTNNA1 (n=2) and MAP3K6 (n=3) in our cohort of patients with GC. In contrast to deleterious variants in CTNNA1, deleterious variants in MAP3K6 also occur frequently in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results MAP3K6 should no longer be considered a GC predisposition gene, whereas deleterious CTNNA1 variants are confirmed as an infrequent cause of GC susceptibility. Biallelic MYD88 germline mutations are at most a very rare cause of GC susceptibility as no additional cases were identified.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , alfa Catenina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
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