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1.
Am J Public Health ; 110(2): 180-188, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855485

RESUMO

Objectives. To develop a set of indicators to guide and monitor climate change adaptation in US state and local health departments.Methods. We performed a narrative review of literature on indicators of climate change adaptation and public health service capacity, mapped the findings onto activities grouped by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Ten Essential Services, and drafted potential indicators to discuss with practitioners. We then refined the indicators after key informant interviews with 17 health department officials in the US Pacific Northwest in fall 2018.Results. Informants identified a need for clarity regarding state and local public health's role in climate change adaptation, integration of adaptation into existing programs, and strengthening of communication, partnerships, and response capacity to increase resilience. We propose a set of climate change indicators applicable for state and local health departments.Conclusions. With additional context-specific refinement, the proposed indicators can aid agencies in tracking adaptation efforts. The generalizability, robustness, and relevance of the proposed indicators should be explored in other settings with a broader set of stakeholders.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 105001, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), produces influential, data-driven estimates of the burden of disease and premature death due to major risk factors. Expanded quantification of disease due to environmental health (EH) risk factors, including climate change, will enhance accuracy of GBD estimates, which will contribute to developing cost-effective policies that promote prevention and achieving Sustainable Development Goals. OBJECTIVES: We review key aspects of the GBD for the EH community and introduce the Global Burden of Disease-Pollution and Health Initiative (GBD-PHI), which aims to work with IHME and the GBD study to improve estimates of disease burden attributable to EH risk factors and to develop an innovative approach to estimating climate-related disease burden-both current and projected. METHODS: We discuss strategies for improving GBD quantification of specific EH risk factors, including air pollution, lead, and climate change. We highlight key methodological challenges, including new EH risk factors, notably evidence rating and global exposure assessment. DISCUSSION: A number of issues present challenges to the scope and accuracy of current GBD estimates for EH risk factors. For air pollution, minimal data exist on the exposure-risk relationships associated with high levels of pollution; epidemiological studies in high pollution regions should be a research priority. For lead, the GBD's current methods do not fully account for lead's impact on neurodevelopment; innovative methods to account for subclinical effects are needed. Decisions on inclusion of additional EH risk-outcome pairs need to be guided by findings of systematic reviews, the size of exposed populations, feasibility of global exposure estimates, and predicted trends in exposures and diseases. Neurotoxicants, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and climate-related factors should be high priorities for incorporation into upcoming iterations of the GBD study. Enhancing the scope and methods will improve the GBD's estimates and better guide prevention policy. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5496.

4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 30: 46-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978417

RESUMO

Dengue fever (DF) is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease causing a large economic and disease burden in many parts of the world. Most DF research focuses on Latin America and Asia, where burdens are highest. There is a critical need for studies in other regions where DF is an important public health problem but less well-characterized and can differ, such as the Middle East. The first documented case of DF in Saudi Arabia occurred in 1993. After a decade of sporadic outbreaks, the disease was declared endemic in 2004 and this designation persists. Climate, sociodemographic factors, and increasing urbanization impact the spread of DF in Saudi Arabia, as in other areas. However, DF transmission in Saudi Arabia is also affected by several unique factors, including large numbers of migrant workers and religious pilgrims from other dengue endemic areas across the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia. Important knowledge gaps relate to the role of climatic factors as drivers of DF in Saudi Arabia and the role of foreign workers and pilgrims in the original and continuous importation of dengue virus. Filling these gaps would improve health system preparedness.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 45002, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abundant historical evidence demonstrates how environmental changes can affect social stability and, in turn, human health. A rapidly growing body of literature, largely from political science and economics, is examining the potential for and consequences associated with social instability related to current climate change. However, comparatively little of this research incorporates the effects on human health or the role of health systems in influencing the magnitude and types of instability that could occur. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this commentary is to articulate a conceptual framework incorporating health outcomes and health systems into theorized and observed linkages between climate change and social instability, illustrating in particular the health effects of natural resource shortages, infectious disease outbreaks, and migration. DISCUSSION: Although increasing evidence exists that climate change, health, and social instability are related, key questions remain about the pathways linking these factors, as well as the magnitude, causality, and directionality of relationships across spatial and temporal scales. Models seeking to explain and predict climate-related social unrest should incorporate the many linkages between climate change, human health, and social instability. Members of the environmental health research community should work closely with those in the political science and economics communities to help deepen understandings of climate-related stressors and shocks that affect instability and worsen health outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4534.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Pública , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Humanos
6.
Inj Prev ; 25(6): 581-584, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948441

RESUMO

We explore whether the timing and burden of paediatric window fall injuries in the Seattle area have changed with higher temperatures and increased air conditioning (AC) prevalence. Using hospital trauma registry records from 2005 to 2017, along with population estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics, we calculate trauma incidence rates from paediatric window falls. Using local temperature data, we explore the relationship between temperature increases over time and the seasonality and rate of incidents. Window falls are a substantial cause of injury among children, with an annual trauma incidence rate among children age 0-8 of 10.4 per 100 000 boys and 5.9 per 100 000 girls in our sample. We find a mildly positive trend in the crude rate of window falls over the study period, increasing further when a population-level adjustment for AC prevalence is included. We do not find evidence of earlier injury timing during the calendar year.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5420-5427, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833395

RESUMO

Heat early warning systems and action plans use temperature thresholds to trigger warnings and risk communication. In this study, we conduct multistate analyses, exploring associations between heat and all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations, to inform the design and development of heat-health early warning systems. We used a two-stage analysis to estimate heat-health risk relationships between heat index and hospitalizations in 1,617 counties in the United States for 2003-2012. The first stage involved a county-level time series quasi-Poisson regression, using a distributed lag nonlinear model, to estimate heat-health associations. The second stage involved a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis to pool county-specific exposure-response associations across larger geographic scales, such as by state or climate region. Using results from this two-stage analysis, we identified heat index ranges that correspond with significant heat-attributable burden. We then compared those with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service (NWS) heat alert criteria used during the same time period. Associations between heat index and cause-specific hospitalizations vary widely by geography and health outcome. Heat-attributable burden starts to occur at moderately hot heat index values, which in some regions are below the alert ranges used by the NWS during the study time period. Locally specific health evidence can beneficially inform and calibrate heat alert criteria. A synchronization of health findings with traditional weather forecasting efforts could be critical in the development of effective heat-health early warning systems.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Medição de Risco
9.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e024451, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Climate change will impose significant health impacts. Although we know health professionals should play a critical role in protecting human health from climate change, their preparedness to engage with these issues worldwide is unclear. This study aims to map the range and nature of existing evidence regarding health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices regarding climate change and health impacts and the challenges they face, and identify knowledge gaps to guide future development of research, policy and practices. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a scoping review based on the six-stage framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. Our study includes peer-reviewed literature focusing on any aspect of health professionals' work regarding climate change and health since 2002 and indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus or Embase. Identified papers will be described and assessed. Thematic analysis will be applied to evaluate and categorise the study findings. IMPLICATIONS AND DISSEMINATION: This is the first scoping review of health professionals' activities to anticipate and prepare for health impacts attributable to climate change. It will provide evidence regarding the current situations worldwide and gaps in preparedness. The findings can be used to highlight accomplishments to date, identify gaps and further develop good practices for health professionals' engagement. The results will be published in the peer-reviewed literature and shared at health professional society meetings.

10.
Environ Res ; 168: 270-277, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Medical students will lead the health sector responses and adaptation efforts in the near future, yet little is known in China about their knowledge, perceptions and preparedness to meet these challenges. METHODS: A nationwide study was conducted at five medical universities across different regions of China using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to collect the information including perception, preparedness and educational needs in response to climate change. The data were first analyzed descriptively, then chi-square tests and kruskal wallis tests were applied to determined differences among subgroups, and logistic regression analysis were deployed to detect the socio-demographic factors influencing student's perception. RESULTS: A total of 1436 medical students were approached and 1387 participated in the study (96.6% response rate). Most students were aware of the health impacts because of climate change, with over 90% perceived air quality-related and heat-related illness, while only a small part identified undernutrition and mental health. Approximately 90% embraced their role in tackling climate change, but 50% reported themselves and the health sectors were not adequately prepared. Compared to clinical students, preventive medicine students were more likely to perceive their responsibility to address climate change (OR:1.36, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.78). Also, 80% students admitted insufficient information and knowledge on climate change and health. Most students agreed that climate change and its health impacts should be included into their current curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students in China were aware of climate change and felt responsible, but were not ready to make responses to its health impacts. Educational efforts should reinforce eco-medical literacy development and capacity building in the era of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Estudantes de Medicina , China , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Universidades
12.
J Environ Public Health ; 2018: 7973519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515228

RESUMO

Background: Ahmedabad implemented South Asia's first heat action plan (HAP) after a 2010 heatwave. This study evaluates the HAP's impact on all-cause mortality in 2014-2015 relative to a 2007-2010 baseline. Methods: We analyzed daily maximum temperature (T max)-mortality relationships before and after HAP. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) for daily mortality using distributed lag nonlinear models and mortality incidence rates (IRs) for HAP warning days, comparing pre- and post-HAP periods, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs). We estimated the number of deaths avoided after HAP implementation using pre- and post-HAP IRs. Results: The maximum pre-HAP RR was 2.34 (95%CI 1.98-2.76) at 47°C (lag 0), and the maximum post-HAP RR was 1.25 (1.02-1.53) estimated at 47°C (lag 0). Post-to-pre-HAP nonlagged mortality IRR for T max over 40°C was 0.95 (0.73-1.22) and 0.73 (0.29-1.81) for T max over 45°C. An estimated 1,190 (95%CI 162-2,218) average annualized deaths were avoided in the post-HAP period. Conclusion: Extreme heat and HAP warnings after implementation were associated with decreased summertime all-cause mortality rates, with largest declines at highest temperatures. Ahmedabad's plan can serve as a guide for other cities attempting to increase resilience to extreme heat.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Cidades , Humanos , Índia , Projetos Piloto , Estações do Ano
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373158

RESUMO

Vulnerability and adaptation assessments can provide valuable input to foster climate-resilient health systems. However, these assessments often do not explore the potential health risks of climate change far outside the range of recent experience with extreme weather events and other climate-related hazards. Climate and health stress tests are designed to increase the capacity of health systems and related sectors to manage potentially disruptive climate-related shocks and stresses. Stress tests focus on hypothetical scenarios, during which it would be difficult for the health system to maintain its essential function of providing services to protect population health. The stress test explores approaches to effectively manage acute and chronic climate-related events and conditions that could directly impact health systems, and climate-related events in non-health sectors that can indirectly impact health outcomes and/or health system function. We provide detailed methods and guidance for conducting climate and health stress tests, centering on three primary activities: (1) preparing and scoping the stress test; (2) successfully conducting the stress test; and (3) communicating the results to key stakeholders to facilitate policy and programmatic reforms.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Prática de Saúde Pública , Programas Governamentais , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200609

RESUMO

Climate change poses a range of current and future health risks that health professionals need to understand, track, and manage. However, conventional monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as practiced in the health sector, including the use of indicators, does not adequately serve this purpose. Improved indicators are needed in three broad categories: (1) vulnerability and exposure to climate-related hazards; (2) current impacts and projected risks; and (3) adaptation processes and health system resilience. These indicators are needed at the population level and at the health systems level (including clinical care and public health). Selected indicators must be sensitive, valid, and useful. And they must account for uncertainties about the magnitude and pattern of climate change; the broad range of upstream drivers of climate-sensitive health outcomes; and the complexities of adaptation itself, including institutional learning and knowledge management to inform iterative risk management. Barriers and constraints to implementing such indicators must be addressed, and lessons learned need to be added to the evidence base. This paper describes an approach to climate and health indicators, including characteristics of the indicators, implementation, and research needs.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Saúde Pública , Aclimatação , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Incerteza , Populações Vulneráveis
16.
Environ Int ; 119: 241-249, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980049

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major health threat to both avian and human populations. The ecology of the virus is driven by numerous factors, including climate and avian migration patterns, yet relatively little is known about these drivers. Long-distance transport of the virus is tied to inter- and intra-continental bird migration, while enhanced viral reassortment is linked to breeding habitats in Beringia shared by migrant species from North America and Asia. Furthermore, water temperature, pH, salinity, and co-existing biota all impact the viability and persistence of the virus in the environment. Changes in climate can potentially alter the ecology of AIV through multiple pathways. Warming temperatures can change the timing and patterns of bird migration, creating novel assemblages of species and new opportunities for viral transport and reassortment. Water temperature and chemistry may also be altered, resulting in changes in virus survival. In this review, we explain how these shifts have the potential to increase viral persistence, pathogenicity, and transmissibility and amplify the threat of pandemic disease in animal and human hosts. Better understanding of climatic influences on viral ecology is essential to developing strategies to limit adverse health effects in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Aves/virologia , Clima , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Ásia , Ecologia , Ecossistema , América do Norte
17.
Indian J Occup Environ Med ; 22(3): 144-151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647516

RESUMO

One of the most concerning environmental effects of climate change is rising levels of extreme heat, which already poses serious risks in many parts of the world. In June and July 2015, we collected weekly heat exposure data using area and personal temperature monitoring in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The study was conducted at four different traffic junctions with a cohort of 16 traffic police. For information on health effects, we administered a baseline survey at the start of the study and prospectively followed up with the officers on prevalence of heat-related symptoms. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) levels ranged from 28.2°C to 36.1°C during the study period. Traffic police workers who participated in this study were exposed to WBGT levels higher than the recommended threshold limit value as per American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines even beyond the hottest months of the season. Our findings suggest that airport measurements by the Indian Meteorological Department may not accurately capture heat exposures among individuals who work in and alongside high-density traffic junctions. Based on our temperature estimates, traffic police are at risk for heat stress. India is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades, fueled by climate change. Therefore, it is important to reduce current and future heat-related risks for traffic police workers and similar occupational risk groups by establishing protection strategies. The protocol established in this study for occupational heat exposure assessment could be applied to a larger cohort.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(8): 085001, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods. DISCUSSION: We define personal heat exposure as realized contact between a person and an indoor or outdoor environment that poses a risk of increases in body core temperature and/or perceived discomfort. Personal heat exposure can be measured directly with wearable monitors or estimated indirectly through the combination of time-activity and meteorological data sets. Complementary information to understand individual-scale drivers of behavior, susceptibility, and health and comfort outcomes can be collected from additional monitors, surveys, interviews, ethnographic approaches, and additional social and health data sets. Personal exposure research can help reveal the extent of exposure misclassification that occurs when individual exposure to heat is estimated using ambient temperature measured at fixed sites and can provide insights for epidemiological risk assessment concerning extreme heat. CONCLUSIONS: Personal heat exposure research provides more valid and precise insights into how often people encounter heat conditions and when, where, to whom, and why these encounters occur. Published literature on personal heat exposure is limited to date, but existing studies point to opportunities to inform public health practice regarding extreme heat, particularly where fine-scale precision is needed to reduce health consequences of heat exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP556.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Pesquisa
19.
Int J Biometeorol ; 61(Suppl 1): 71-80, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733859

RESUMO

Climate change and health was established as a formal field of endeavor in the early 1990s, with the number of publications increasing since the mid-2000s. The key findings in assessment reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2014 indicate the progress in understanding the magnitude and pattern of the health risks of a changing climate. The assessments maintained a similar structure, focusing on assessing the state of knowledge of individual climate-sensitive health outcomes, with confidence in the key findings tending to increase over time with greater understanding. The knowledge base is smaller than for other key sectors (e.g., agriculture) because of limited research investment in climate change and health. Vulnerability, adaptation, and capacity assessments can inform prioritization of the significant research gaps in understanding and managing the health risks of a changing climate; filling these research gaps would provide policy- and decision-makers with insights to increase short- and longer-term resilience in health and other sectors. Research needs include to understand how climate and development pathways could interact to alter health risks over time, better understand upstream drivers of climate-sensitive health outcomes, project aggregate health impacts to understand the breadth and depth of challenges that may need to be managed at geographic scales of interest, and project the time of emergence of changes in the geographic range and intensity of transmission of infectious diseases and other climate conditions. Engagement with other sectors is needed to ensure that their mitigation and adaptation activities also promote and protect health and take the health sector's needs into account. Making progress in these areas is critical for protecting the health of future populations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pesquisa/tendências , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Medição de Risco
20.
Glob Health Action ; 10(1): 1331539, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is vulnerable to floods and other hydro-meteorological disasters. Climate change is projected to increase the intensity of these events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the flood preparedness in healthcare facilities in Eastern Province. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study conducted in Trincomalee District. Surveys were conducted in 31 government healthcare facilities, using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire covering the last 5 years. Seven in-depth interviews were conducted with randomly selected Medical Officers in Charge or their equivalent, and 3 interviews were conducted with Medical Offices of Health. RESULTS: Two general hospitals, 3 base hospitals, 11 divisional hospitals, and 15 primary care units were included. Six respondents (19.4%) reported flooding in their facility, and 19 (61.3%) reported flooding in their catchment area. For the health workforce, 77.4% of respondents reported not enough staff to perform normal service delivery during disasters, and 25.5% reported staff absenteeism due to flooding. Several respondents expressed a desire for more disaster-specific and general clinical training opportunities for themselves and their staff. Most respondents (80.7%) reported no delays in supply procurement during weather emergencies, but 61.3% reported insufficient supplies to maintain normal service delivery during disasters. Four facilities (12.9%) had disaster preparedness plans, and 4 (12.9%) had any staff trained on disaster preparedness or management within the last year. One quarter (25.8%) of respondents had received any written guidance on disaster preparedness from the regional, provincial, or national level in the last year. CONCLUSIONS: While there is a strong health system operating in Sri Lanka, improvements are needed in localized and appropriate disaster-related training, resources for continuing clinical education, and investments in workforce to strengthen flood and other disaster resilience within the government healthcare system in the study district.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Inundações , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Inquéritos e Questionários
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