Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 130
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 96, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of tuberculosis elimination put forward in the End TB Strategy prioritizes diagnosis and treatment of incipient and subclinical TB, recently defined by key stakeholders as "asymptomatic, early pre-clinical disease during which pathology evolves". Regarded as indicative of a high risk of TB progression, considerable efforts have been made to identify these cases through exploration of biomarkers. The present study aimed to evaluate simple scoring systems for TB exposure as screening tools for subclinical TB, the only identifiable of the incipient and subclinical disease states, in a contact investigation (CI) setting of low HIV-prevalence. METHODS: Nested within a large prospective study in household contacts (HHCs) of smear positive pulmonary TB cases in South-India conducted 2010-2012, we assessed 1) the association between the Tuberculosis Contact Score (TCS) and the Infectivity Score, with established tools for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, corrected for established TB risk factors, and 2) the capability of the TB exposure scores to identify subclinical TB defined by Mtb-culture positivity in sputum or gastric aspirate (subjects < 5 years) specimen. RESULTS: Of 525 HHCs, 29 were Mtb-culture positive and 96.6% of these asymptomatic. The TCS and the Infectivity Score associated with positive Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFeron TB-Gold In-tube assay (QFT) results in multivariate analyses (TCS: ORTST 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33; ORQFT 1.33 95% CI: 1.16, 1.51. Infectivity Score: ORTST 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.76; ORQFT 1.41 95% CI: 1.16, 1.71). The Infectivity Score showed a moderate capability to identify subclinical TB (AUC of 0.61, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Although our results did not identify an easily applicable screening tool for subclinical TB, the present study indicates that focusing on TB-related symptoms in CI settings may be of limited value for early identification of HHCs with high risk for TB progression.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(3): 436-445, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household contacts (HHCs) of individuals with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are at high risk of infection and subsequent disease. There is limited evidence on the willingness of MDR-TB HHCs to take MDR-TB preventive therapy (MDR TPT) to decrease their risk of TB disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of HHCs of MDR-TB and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) index cases from 16 clinical research sites in 8 countries, enrollees were interviewed to assess willingness to take a hypothetical, newly developed MDR TPT if offered. To identify factors associated with willingness to take MDR TPT, a marginal logistic model was fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for household-level clustering. RESULTS: From 278 MDR-TB/RR-TB index case households, 743 HHCs were enrolled; the median age of HHCs was 33 (interquartile range, 22-49) years, and 62% were women. HHC willingness to take hypothetical MDR TPT was high (79%) and remained high even with the potential for mild side effects (70%). Increased willingness was significantly associated with current employment or schooling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.07-3.13]), appropriate TB-related knowledge (aOR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.23-3.99]), confidence in taking MDR TPT (aOR, 7.16 [95% CI, 3.33-15.42]), and being comfortable telling others about taking MDR TPT (aOR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.29-4.06]). CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of HHCs of MDR-TB/RR-TB index cases willing to take hypothetical MDR TPT provides important evidence for the potential uptake of effective MDR TPT when implemented. Identified HHC-level variables associated with willingness may inform education and counseling efforts to increase HHC confidence in and uptake of MDR TPT.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(3): 425-435, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases and their household contacts (HHCs) to inform the development of an interventional clinical trial. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult MDR-TB cases and their HHCs in 8 countries with high TB burdens. HHCs underwent symptom screenings, chest radiographies, sputum TB bacteriologies, TB infection (TBI) testing (tuberculin skin test [TST] and interferon gamma release assay [IGRA]), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. RESULTS: From October 2015 to April 2016, 1016 HHCs from 284 MDR-TB cases were enrolled. At diagnosis, 69% of MDR-TB cases were positive for acid-fast bacilli sputum smears and 43% had cavitary disease; at study entry, 35% remained smear positive after a median MDR-TB treatment duration of 8.8 weeks. There were 9 HHCs that were diagnosed with TB prior to entry and excluded. Of the remaining 1007 HHCs, 41% were male and the median age was 25 years. There were 121 (12%) HHCs that had new cases of TB identified: 17 (2%) were confirmed, 33 (3%) probable, and 71 (7%) possible TB cases. The TBI prevalence (defined as either TST or IGRA positivity) was 72% and varied by age, test used, and country. Of 1007 HHCs, 775 (77%) were considered high-risk per these mutually exclusive groups: 102 (10%) were aged <5 years; 63 (6%) were aged ≥5 and were infected with HIV; and 610 (61%) were aged ≥5 years, were negative for HIV or had an unknown HIV status, and were TBI positive. Only 21 (2%) HHCs were on preventive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of HHCs in these high-burden countries were at high risk of TB disease and infection, yet few were receiving routine preventive therapy. Trials of novel, preventive therapies are urgently needed to inform treatment policy and practice.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871093

RESUMO

Ethionamide has proven efficacy against both drug-susceptible and some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Limited information is available on its pharmacokinetics in children, and current doses are extrapolated from weight-based adult doses. Paediatric doses based on more robust evidence is expected to improve antituberculosis treatment, especially in small children. In this analysis, ethionamide concentrations in children were pooled from 2 observational clinical studies conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. All children received ethionamide once-daily with weight-based dosing of approximately 20 mg/kg [range 10.4-25.3], in combination with other first- or second-line antituberculosis medications, and with antiretroviral therapy in cases of HIV co-infection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. MDR-PK1 contributed 110 children on treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, while DATiC contributed 9 children treated for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, with a combined median [range] age of 2.6 years [0.23-15], weight of 12.5 kg [2.5-66]. A one-compartment, transit absorption model with first-order elimination best described ethionamide pharmacokinetics in children. Allometric scaling of clearance (typical value 8.88 L/h), volume of distribution (typical value 21.4 L), and maturation of clearance and absorption improved the model fit. HIV co-infection decreased ethionamide bioavailability by 22%, rifampicin co-administration increased clearance by 16%, and nasogastric tube administration increased the rate, but not extent, of absorption. The developed model was used to predict paediatric doses achieving the same drug exposure as in 50-70 kg adults receiving 750-mg once-daily dosing. Based on model predictions, we recommend a weight-banded paediatric dosing scheme using scored 125-mg tablets.

5.
AIDS ; 33(14): 2197-2203, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drug-drug interactions limit current antiretroviral treatment options for HIV-infected children with tuberculosis (TB). Rifampicin (RIF) induces UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity, accelerating the clearance of raltegravir (RAL). We sought to establish an optimal and well tolerated dose of RAL when administered with RIF to HIV and TB co-infected children. DESIGN: P1101 is a phase I/II open-label dose-finding study of RAL with RIF for children 2 to less than 12 years of age beginning treatment for HIV and active TB. SETTING: Four sites in South Africa. METHODS: Chewable RAL was given at 12 mg/kg per dose twice daily (twice the usual pediatric dose) with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Intensive RAL pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted 5 to 8 days after antiretroviral therapy was initiated; a fourth antiretroviral agent was then added. RESULTS: Children were recruited into two age-defined groups: cohort 1 (2 to <6 years old) and cohort 2 (6 to <12 years old). Pharmacological targets [geometric mean (GM) AUC12 h of 14-45 µmol/l h and GM C12 h ≥75 nmol/l) were reached in both cohort 1 (28.8 µmol/l h and 229 nmol/l) and cohort 2 (38.8 µmol/l h and 228 nmol/l). The RAL-based ART was well tolerated by most participants: one participant discontinued treatment because of grade 4 hepatitis that was possibly treatment-related. At week 8, 22 of 24 participants (92%) had HIV RNA concentrations below 400 copies/ml; 19 of 24 (79%) were below 50 copies/ml. CONCLUSION: Giving 12 mg/kg twice daily of the chewable RAL formulation achieved pharmacokinetic targets safely in HIV-infected children receiving RIF for TB.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(9): 636-645, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnourished and young children are particularly susceptible to severe forms of tuberculosis and poor treatment response. WHO dosing guidelines for drugs for tuberculosis treatment are based only on weight, which might lead to systematic underdosing and poor outcomes in these children. We aimed to assess and quantify the population effect of WHO guidelines for drug-susceptible tuberculosis in children in the 20 countries with the highest disease burden. METHODS: We used an integrated model that linked country-specific demographic data at the individual level from the 20 countries with the highest disease burden to pharmacokinetic, outcome, and epidemiological models. We estimated tuberculosis treatment outcomes in children younger than 5 years following WHO guidelines (children are dosed by weight bands corresponding to the number of fixed-dose combination tablets [75 mg rifampicin, 50 mg isoniazid, 150 mg pyrazinamide]) and two alternative dosing strategies: one based on a proposed algorithm that uses age, weight, and available formulations, in which underweight children would receive the same drug doses as would normal weight children of the same age; and another based on an individualised algorithm without dose limitations, in which derived doses results in target exposure attainment for the typical child. FINDINGS: We estimated that 57 234 (43%) of 133 302 children younger than 5 years who were treated for tuberculosis in 2017 were underdosed with WHO dosing and only 47% of children would reach the rifampicin exposure target. Underdosing and subtherapeutic exposures were more common among malnourished children than among age-matched healthy children. The proposed dosing approach improved estimated rifampicin target exposure attainment to 62% and equalised outcomes by nutritional status. An estimated third of unfavourable treatment outcomes might be resolved with this dosing strategy, saving the lives of a minimum of 2423 children in these countries annually. With individualised dosing approaches, almost all children could achieve adequate exposure for cure. INTERPRETATION: This work shows that a simple change in dosing procedure to include age and nutritional status, requiring no additional measurements or new drug formulations, is one approach to improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes in children, especially malnourished children who are at high risk of mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and UK Medical Research Council.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(9): e322-e329, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221543

RESUMO

Following exposure to tuberculosis and subsequent infection, children often progress to tuberculosis disease more rapidly than adults. And yet the natural history of tuberculosis in children, as a continuum from exposure to infection and then to disease, is poorly understood. Children are rarely diagnosed with tuberculosis infection in routine care in international settings and few receive tuberculosis infection treatment. In this Personal View, we review the most up-to-date knowledge in three areas of childhood tuberculosis infection-namely, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. We then outline what is missing in each of these three areas to generate a priority research agenda. Finally, we suggest potential study designs that might answer these questions. Understanding of pathophysiology could be improved through animal models, laboratory studies assessing the immunological responses of blood or respiratory samples to Mycobacterium spp in vitro, as well as investigating immune responses in children exposed to tuberculosis. Identification of children with sub-clinical disease and at high risk of progression to clinically overt disease, would allow treatment to be targeted at those most likely to benefit. Optimisation and discovery of novel treatments for tuberculosis infection in children should account for mechanisms of action of tuberculosis drugs, as well as child-specific factors including pharmacokinetics and appropriate formulations. To conduct these studies, a change in mindset is required, with a recognition that the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection in children is a necessary component in addressing the overall tuberculosis epidemic. Collaboration between stakeholders will be required and funding will need to increase, both for research and implementation. The consequences of inaction, however, will lead to further decades of children suffering from what should increasingly be recognised as a preventable disease.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 85: 57-63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high risk of tuberculosis (TB), chronic lung disease, and mortality have been reported among people with a history of previous TB treatment, but data from high-incidence settings remain limited. The aim of this study was to characterize general morbidity and mortality among adults who had successfully completed TB treatment in the past 5 years in a high-incidence setting in South Africa. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) who had completed treatment for pulmonary TB between 2013 and 2017 were randomly selected from TB treatment registers. Household visits were conducted to locate and interview former TB (FTB) patients, and bacteriological testing for TB was offered. Additional data sources were used to ascertain the vitality status of FTB patients who could not be located. RESULTS: Addresses were located for 200 of the 223 FTB patients sampled and 89 FTB patients were contacted of whom 51 agreed to be interviewed. Approximately half reported persistent respiratory symptoms, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, and repeated lung infections. One (3.6%) of 28 patients who provided a sputum sample had culture-positive TB and another two were currently on re-treatment for TB. Fifteen deaths post treatment were ascertained, resulting in a standardized mortality ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 2.3-6.3) after successful TB treatment relative to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-incidence setting, locating and interviewing FTB patients was challenging. The study findings are consistent with a high rate of respiratory disease, including recurrent TB, and substantially elevated mortality among FTB patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Projetos Piloto , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS Med ; 16(4): e1002789, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linezolid is increasingly important for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. However, among children with MDR-TB, there are no linezolid pharmacokinetic data, and its adverse effects have not yet been prospectively described. We characterised the pharmacokinetics, safety, and optimal dose of linezolid in children treated for MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children routinely treated for MDR-TB in 2 observational studies (2011-2015, 2016-2018) conducted at a single site in Cape Town, South Africa, underwent intensive pharmacokinetic sampling after either a single dose or multiple doses of linezolid (at steady state). Linezolid pharmacokinetic parameters, and their relationships with covariates of interest, were described using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Children receiving long-term linezolid as a component of their routine treatment had regular clinical and laboratory monitoring. Adverse events were assessed for severity and attribution to linezolid. The final population pharmacokinetic model was used to derive optimal weight-banded doses resulting in exposures in children approximating those in adults receiving once-daily linezolid 600 mg. Forty-eight children were included (mean age 5.9 years; range 0.6 to 15.3); 31 received a single dose of linezolid, and 17 received multiple doses. The final pharmacokinetic model consisted of a one-compartment model characterised by clearance (CL) and volume (V) parameters that included allometric scaling to account for weight; no other evaluated covariates contributed to the model. Linezolid exposures in this population were higher compared to exposures in adults who had received a 600 mg once-daily dose. Consequently simulated, weight-banded once-daily optimal doses for children were lower than those currently used for most weight bands. Ten of 17 children who were followed long term had a linezolid-related adverse event, including 5 with a grade 3 or 4 event, all anaemia. Adverse events resulted in linezolid dose reductions in 4, temporary interruptions in 5, and permanent discontinuation in 4 children. Limitations of the study include the lack of very young children (none below 6 months of age), the limited number who were HIV infected, and the modest number of children contributing to long-term safety data. CONCLUSIONS: Linezolid-related adverse effects were frequent and occasionally severe. Careful linezolid safety monitoring is required. Compared to doses currently used in children in many settings for MDR-TB treatment, lower doses may approximate current adult target exposures, might result in fewer adverse events, and should therefore be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Linezolida , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linezolida/administração & dosagem , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Linezolida/farmacocinética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(3): 441-450, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789141

RESUMO

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has extremely poor treatment outcomes in adults. Limited data are available for children. We report on clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes for 37 children (<15 years of age) with bacteriologically confirmed XDR TB in 11 countries. These patients were managed during 1999-2013. For the 37 children, median age was 11 years, 32 (87%) had pulmonary TB, and 29 had a recorded HIV status; 7 (24%) were infected with HIV. Median treatment duration was 7.0 months for the intensive phase and 12.2 months for the continuation phase. Thirty (81%) children had favorable treatment outcomes. Four (11%) died, 1 (3%) failed treatment, and 2 (5%) did not complete treatment. We found a high proportion of favorable treatment outcomes among children, with mortality rates markedly lower than for adults. Regimens and duration of treatment varied considerably. Evaluation of new regimens in children is required.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigilância da População , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670421

RESUMO

This study characterized the pharmacokinetics of novel 100-mg levofloxacin dispersible tablets in 24 children aged <5 years who had household multidrug-resistant tuberculosus (MDR-TB) exposure. The current data were pooled with previously published data from children (n = 109) with MDR-TB receiving adult (250-mg) levofloxacin tablets, using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The adult tablets had 41% lower bioavailability than the novel dispersible tablets, resulting in much higher exposures with the dispersible tablets with the same dose.

15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(6): e128-e131, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418355

RESUMO

Three-hundred four young children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis had a gastric aspirate, induced sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate collected on each of 2 consecutive weekdays. Specimens collected on the second day were pooled in the laboratory for each child individually. The diagnostic yield by Xpert and culture from pooled specimens was not significantly different to a single gastric aspirate.

16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(3): e77-e88, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554996

RESUMO

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a profound effect on the natural history of tuberculosis, manifesting in an increased rate of disease progression, leading to increased transmission and amplification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Interventions specific to HIV-endemic areas are urgently needed to block tuberculosis transmission. These interventions should include a combination of rapid molecular diagnostics and improved chemotherapy to shorten the duration of infectiousness, implementation of infection control measures, and active screening of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis contacts, with prophylactic regimens for individuals without evidence of disease. Development and improvement of the efficacy of interventions will require a greater understanding of the factors affecting the transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-endemic settings, including population-based molecular epidemiology studies. In this Series article, we review what we know about the transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in settings with high burdens of HIV and define the research priorities required to develop more effective interventions, to diminish ongoing transmission and the amplification of drug resistance.

17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(6): 608-610, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550511

RESUMO

Levofloxacin is used for the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children, but current adult formulations are poorly palatable. A questionnaire administered to caregivers of 27 children taking a novel 100 mg dispersible taste-masked levofloxacin tablet found the new formulation to be more palatable (69%) and easier to prepare (81%) than the adult formulation. This formulation may assist children to better adhere to anti-tuberculous therapy.

18.
Trials ; 19(1): 693, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) presents a challenge for global TB control. Treating individuals with MDR-TB infection to prevent progression to disease could be an effective public health strategy. Young children are at high risk of developing TB disease following infection and are commonly infected by an adult in their household. Identifying young children with household exposure to MDR-TB and providing them with MDR-TB preventive therapy could reduce the risk of disease progression. To date, no trials of MDR-TB preventive therapy have been completed and World Health Organization guidelines suggest close observation with no active treatment. METHODS: The tuberculosis child multidrug-resistant preventive therapy (TB-CHAMP) trial is a phase III cluster randomised placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of levofloxacin in young child contacts of MDR-TB cases. The trial is taking place at three sites in South Africa where adults with MDR-TB are identified. If a child aged < 5 years lives in their household, we assess the adult index case, screen all household members for TB disease and evaluate any child aged < 5 years for trial eligibility. Eligible children are randomised by household to receive daily levofloxacin (15-20 mg/kg) or matching placebo for six months. Children are closely monitored for disease development, drug tolerability and adverse events. The primary endpoint is incident TB disease or TB death by one year after recruitment. We will enrol 1556 children from approximately 778 households with an average of two eligible children per household. Recruitment will run for 18-24 months with all children followed for 18 months after treatment. Qualitative and health economic evaluations are embedded in the trial. DISCUSSION: If the TB-CHAMP trial demonstrates that levofloxacin is effective in preventing TB disease in young children who have been exposed to MDR-TB and that it is safe, well tolerated, acceptable and cost-effective, we would expect that that this intervention would rapidly transfer into policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN92634082 . Registered on 31 March 2016.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Busca de Comunicante , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/economia , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Esquema de Medicação , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino/economia , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/economia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão
19.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 5(1): e000304, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397482

RESUMO

Introduction: Accurate tuberculosis (TB) incidence and optimal surveillance strategies are pertinent to TB vaccine trial design. Infants are a targeted population for new TB vaccines, but data from India, with the highest global burden of TB cases, is limited. Methods: In a population-based prospective trial conducted between November 2006 and July 2008, BCG-vaccinated neonates in South India were enrolled and cluster-randomised to active or passive surveillance. We assessed the influence of surveillance strategy on TB incidence, case-finding rates and all-cause mortality. Predefined criteria were used to diagnose TB. All deaths were evaluated using a verbal autopsy. Results: 4382 children contributed to 8164 person-years (py) of follow-up (loss to follow-up 6.9%); 749 children were admitted for TB evaluation (active surveillance: 641; passive surveillance: 108). The TB incidence was 159.2/100 000 py and the overall case-finding rate was 3.19 per 100 py (95% CI 0.82 to 18.1). Whereas, the case-finding rate for definite TB was similar using active or passive case finding, the case-finding rate for probable TB was 1.92/100 py (95% CI 0.83 to 3.78) with active surveillance, significantly higher than 0.3/100 py (95% CI 0.01 to 1.39, p=0.02) with passive surveillance. Compared to passive surveillance, children with active surveillance had decreased risk of dying (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.47 to 0.98) which was mostly attributable to reduction of death from pneumonia/respiratory infections (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.80). Conclusion: We provide reliable estimates of TB incidence in South Indian children <2 years of age. Active surveillance increased the case-finding rates for probable TB and was associated with reduced all-cause mortality.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA