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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(43): 15263-15267, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342607

RESUMO

A tetrameric pentacene, PT, has been used to explore the effects of exciton delocalization on singlet fission (SF). For the first time, triplet decorrelation through intramolecular triplet diffusion was observed following SF. Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to examine different decorrelation mechanisms (triplet diffusion versus structural changes) for PT and its dimeric equivalent PD on the basis of the rate and activation barrier of the decorrelation step. Charge-separation experiments using tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) to quench triplet excitons formed through SF demonstrate that enhanced intersystem crossing, that is, spin catalysis, is a widely underestimated obstacle to quantitative harvesting of the SF products. The importance of spatial separation of the decorrelated triplet states is emphasized, and independent proof that the decorrelated triplet pair state consists of two (T1 ) states per molecule is provided.

2.
Chem Sci ; 10(13): 3854-3863, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015927

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) allows two charges to be generated from the absorption of a single photon and is, therefore, potentially transformative toward improving solar energy conversion. Key to the present study of SF is the design of pentacene dimers featuring a xanthene linker that strictly places two pentacene chromophores in a rigid arrangement and, in turn, enforces efficient, intramolecular π-overlap that mimics interactions typically found in condensed state (e.g., solids, films, etc.). Inter-chromophore communication ensures Davydov splitting, which plays an unprecedented role toward achieving SF in pentacene dimers. Transient absorption measurements document that intramolecular SF evolves upon excitation into the lower Davydov bands to form a correlated triplet pair at cryogenic temperature. At room temperature, the two spin-correlated triplets, one per pentacene moiety within the dimers, are electronically coupled to an excimer state. The presented results are transferable to a broad range of acene morphologies including aggregates, crystals, and films.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(15): 6191-6203, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854854

RESUMO

We have designed and used four different spacers, denoted A-D, to connect two pentacenes and to probe the impact of intramolecular forces on the modulation of pentacene-pentacene interactions and, in turn, on the key steps in singlet fission (SF), that is, the 1(S1S0)-to-1(T1T1) as well as 1(T1T1)-to-5(T1T1) transitions by means of transient absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. In terms of the 1(S1S0)-to-1(T1T1) transition, a superexchange mechanism, that is, coupling to a higher-lying CT state to generate a virtual intermediate, enables rapid SF in A-D. Sizeable electronic coupling in A and B opens, on one hand, an additional pathway, that is, the population of a real intermediate, and changes, on the other hand, the mechanism to that of hopping. In turn, A and B feature much higher 1(T1T1) quantum yields than C and D, with a maximum value of 162% for A. In terms of the 1(T1T1)-to-5(T1T1) transition, the sizable electronic coupling in A and B is counterproductive, and C and D give rise to higher 5(T1T1)-to-(T1 + T1) quantum yields than A and B, with a maximum value of 85% for D.

4.
Chemistry ; 24(33): 8245-8257, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323762

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) involves the spontaneous splitting of a photoexcited singlet state into a pair of triplets, and it holds great promise toward the realization of more efficient solar cells. Although the process of SF has been known since the 1960s, debate regarding the underlying mechanism continues to this day, especially for molecular materials. A number of different chromophores have been synthesized and studied in order to better understand the process of SF. These previous reports have established that pentacene and its derivatives are especially well-suited for the study of SF, since the energetic requirement E(S1 )≥2E(T1 ) is fulfilled rendering the process exothermic and unidirectional. Dimeric pentacene derivatives, in which individual pentacene chromophores are tethered by a "spacer", have emerged as the system of choice toward exploring the mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). The dimeric structure, and in particular the spacer, allows for controlling and tuning the distance, geometric relationship, and electronic coupling between the two pentacene moieties. This Minireview describes recent advances using pentacene dimers for the investigation of iSF.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(40): 14017-14020, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915047

RESUMO

In this proof of concept study, we show that intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) can be initiated from a singlet excited state accessed by two-photon absorption, rather than through a traditional route of direct one-photon excitation (OPE). Thus, iSF in pentacene dimers 2 and 3 is enabled through NIR irradiation at 775 nm, a wavelength where neither dimer exhibits linear absorption of light. The adamantyl and meta-phenylene spacers 2 and 3, respectively, are designed to feature superimposable geometries, which establishes that the electronic coupling between the two pentacenes is the significant structural feature that dictates iSF efficiency.

6.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15171, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516916

RESUMO

When molecular dimers, crystalline films or molecular aggregates absorb a photon to produce a singlet exciton, spin-allowed singlet fission may produce two triplet excitons that can be used to generate two electron-hole pairs, leading to a predicted ∼50% enhancement in maximum solar cell performance. The singlet fission mechanism is still not well understood. Here we report on the use of time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe singlet fission in a pentacene dimer linked by a non-conjugated spacer. We observe the key intermediates in the singlet fission process, including the formation and decay of a quintet state that precedes formation of the pentacene triplet excitons. Using these combined data, we develop a single kinetic model that describes the data over seven temporal orders of magnitude both at room and cryogenic temperatures.

7.
Chemistry ; 23(25): 6111-6117, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786375

RESUMO

Two new 6,13-disubstituted pentacene derivatives, 1 c and 1 d, with alkyl and triisopropylsilylethynyl substitution have been synthesized and characterized experimentally and computationally. The alkyl substituted 1 c and 1 d represent the first 6-alkyl-substituted pentacene derivative where the fully aromatic species dominates over the corresponding tautomer. Indeed, no tautomerization product is found for either 1 c or 1 d upon heating or in the presence of catalytic amounts of acid. On the other hand, an unexpected dimer (3 c) is formed from 1 c. A plausible mechanism for this new dimerization process of the 6-methyl-substituted pentacene derivative 1 c is proposed, which involves first a bimolecular hydrogen atom transfer followed by an intramolecular [4+2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition. In the case of 6-butyl substitution, neither tautomerization nor dimerization is observed. Computations support the proposed 1 c dehydrodimerization pathway, explain why 1 d does not dimerize, and show the importance of the nature of the group at C-13 in controlling the relative stability of 6-alkyl-substituted pentacene tautomers.

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