Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 610
Filtrar
1.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 18(5): 289-308, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because end-stage heart failure (HF) often involves both ventricles even if its initial cause was left-sided heart disease, assessment of RV size, geometry and function before, during and after LVAD implantation is of crucial importance. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the usefulness, benefits, particular challenges and limits of RV assessment in patients with end-stage HF due to primarily impaired LV function who necessitate LVAD support, with or without an additional RV mechanical support. EXPERT OPINION: Although LV unloading often induces reduction of the pulmonary vascular resistance facilitating RV reverse remodeling and functional improvement, drug-refractory RVF after LVAD implantation is not always avoidable. Therefore, patients who need a temporary or long-term biventri-cular mechanical support should already be identified preoperatively or at the latest intraoperatively. Proper assessment of RV function and its adaptability to hemodynamic overloading before LVAD implantation can predict post-implant RVF, thus helping to avoid complications generated by unforeseen RVF in LVAD recipients. Close monitoring of RV size, geometry and function in LVAD recipients with and without additional RV mechanical support is essential for early recognition of imminent RVF in those without RV support and for detection of RV recovery and weaning decision-making in those with a RV support.

3.
4.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(1): 57-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779486

RESUMO

Introduction: The development of ventricular assist devices (VADs) have enabled myocardial recovery and improved patient survival until heart transplantation. However, device options remain limited for children and lag in development.Areas covered: This review focuses on the evolution of pediatric VADs in becoming to be an accepted treatment option in advanced heart failure, discusses the classification of VADs available for children, i.e. types of pumps and duration of support, and defines implantation indications and explantation criteria, describes attendant complications and long-term outcome of VAD support. Furthermore, we emphasize the key considerations and requirements in the application of these devices in infants, children and adolescents.Expert opinion: Increasing use of VADs has facilitated a leading edge in management of advanced heart failure either as a bridge to transplantation or as a bridge to myocardial recovery. In newborns and small children, the EXCOR Pediatric VAD remains the only reliable option. In some patients ventricular unloading may lead to complete myocardial recovery. There is a strong need for pumps that are fully implantable, suitable for single ventricle physiology, such as the right ventricle.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Circulação Coronária , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(1): 54-62, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the consecutive sequelae of children and adolescents with Marfan syndrome after primary cardiovascular surgical interventions and the long-term outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of children with Marfan syndrome who underwent primary surgical intervention in childhood (<18 years) and sequential cardiovascular operations between July 1986 and September 2014 was undertaken. RESULTS: Thirty-six children (mean age 12.38 ± 4.4, range 0.62-17.14 years, at the first operation; 12 females) underwent a total of 97 sequential cardiovascular operations. Primary pathologies were annuloaortic ectasia, aortic root and ascending aorta aneurysm, aortic valve insufficiency, floppy mitral valve and midaortic syndrome. Initial operations were emergency in 2 and urgent and elective in 10 and 24 patients, respectively. Associated skeletal abnormalities were seen in 8. All underwent a second operation; 17 underwent a third operation; 6 had a fourth; and 2 had a fifth. The survival rate of children <13 years of age at the first operation compared to those who were older and male, was not statistically significant (P = 0.244). The cumulative survival rate based on age at first operation was 63.24 ± 0.16% at a mean follow-up period of 13.9 ± 6.8 (median 11.8, range 2-32.6) years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing surgery during childhood needed sequential reinterventions. However, even with multiple consecutive surgeries, long-term outcome is deemed satisfactory.

7.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(4): 523-534, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935643

RESUMO

In carefully selected patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs), good long-term results after device weaning and explantation can be achieved when reverse remodelling and improvement of native cardiac function occur. Monitoring of cardiac size, geometry, and function after initial VAD implantation is necessary to identify such patients. Formal guidelines for recovery assessment in patients with VADs do not exist, and protocols for recovery assessment and criteria for device weaning and explantation vary among centres. Barriers to evaluation of cardiac recovery include technical problems in obtaining echo images in patients with VADs, time restrictions for necessary VAD reductions/interruptions during assessment, and regurgitant flow patterns that occur with interruption of continuous flow VADs. The few larger studies addressing cardiac recovery after VAD implantation employed varied study designs, limiting interpretation. Current clinical practice is guided largely by local practice patterns, case reports, and small case series, and the available body of research-consisting mostly of expert opinions-has not been systematically addressed. This summary reviews evidence and expert opinion on VAD-promoted cardiac recovery assessment, its reliability, and associated challenges.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia
9.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 37(12): 1459-1466, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of children supported with ventricular assist devices (VADs) are bridged to heart transplantation. Although bridge to recovery has been reported, low recovery patient numbers has precluded systematic analysis. The aim of this study was to delineate recovery rates and predictors of recovery and to report on long-term follow-up after VAD explantation in children. METHODS: Children bridged to recovery at our institution from January 1990 to May 2016 were compared with a non-recovery cohort. Clinical and echocardiographic data before and at pump stoppages and after VAD explantation were analyzed. Kaplan‒Meier estimates of event-free survival, defined as freedom from death or transplantation after VAD removal, were determined. RESULTS: One hundred forty-nine children (median age 5.8 years) were identified. Of these, 65.2% had cardiomyopathy, 9.4% had myocarditis, and 24.8% had congenital heart disease. The overall recovery rate was 14.2%, and was 7.1% in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Predictors of recovery were age <2 years (recovery rate 27.8%, odds ratio [OR] 5.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0 to 16.6) and diagnosis of myocarditis (rate 57.1%; OR 17.56, 95% CI 4.6 to 67.4). After a median follow-up of 10.8 years, 15 patients (83.3%) were in Functional Class I and 3 (16.7%) in were in Class II. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53% (range 28% to 64%). Ten- and 15-year event-free survival rates were both 84.1 ± 8.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Children <2 years of age and those diagnosed with myocarditis have the highest probability of recovery. Long-term survival after weaning from the VAD was better than after heart transplantation, as demonstrated in the excellent long-term stability of ejection fraction and functional class.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am Heart J ; 206: 30-50, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300847

RESUMO

By reduction of ventricular wall-tension and improving the blood supply to vital organs, ventricular assist devices (VADs) can eliminate the major pathophysiological stimuli for cardiac remodeling and even induce reverse remodeling occasionally accompanied by clinically relevant reversal of cardiac structural and functional alterations allowing VAD explantation, even if the underlying cause for the heart failure (HF) was dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, a tempting potential indication for VADs in the future might be their elective implantation as a therapeutic strategy to promote cardiac recovery in earlier stages of HF, when the reversibility of morphological and functional alterations is higher. However, the low probability of clinically relevant cardiac improvement after VAD implantation and the lack of criteria which can predict recovery already before VAD implantation do not allow so far VAD implantations primarily designed as a bridge to cardiac recovery. The few investigations regarding myocardial reverse remodeling at cellular and sub-cellular level in recovered patients who underwent VAD explantation, the differences in HF etiology and pre-implant duration of HF in recovered patients and also the differences in medical therapy used by different institutions during VAD support make it currently impossible to understand sufficiently all the biological processes and mechanisms involved in cardiac improvement which allows even VAD explantation in some patients. This article aims to provide an overview of the existing knowledge about VAD-promoted cardiac improvement focusing on the importance of bench-to-bedside research which is mandatory for attaining the future goal to use long-term VADs also as therapy-devices for reversal of chronic HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 144, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996761

RESUMO

The potential life-threatening consequences of catecholamine use for emergency circulatory support in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related acute heart failure is a major challenge in cardiovascular emergences. In their recent work in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders Ansari U. et al. demonstrated the harmful effects of catecholamines on the outcome of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Concerning this matter we emphasize the usefulness of speckle-tracking-derived echocardiography for early recognition of an acute phase of a Takotsubo syndrome in order to avoid the deleterious effects of a catecholamine therapy in patients with Takotsubo-associated acute heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Catecolaminas , Ecocardiografia , Humanos
14.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 16(4): 259-275, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compared with the left ventricle (LV), the right ventricle (RV) is less suited for evaluation by echocardiography (ECHO). Nevertheless, RV ECHO-assessment has currently emerged as an important diagnostic tool with meaningful prognostic value and essential contribution to therapeutic decisions. Although significant progress has been made, including generation of higher-quality normative data, validation of several two-dimensional measurements and improvements in three-dimensional ECHO-techniques, many challenges in RV ECHO-assessment still persist. Areas covered: This review discusses the particular challenges and limits in obtaining accurate measurements of RV anatomical and functional parameters and focuses primarily on the difficulties in proper interpretation of the highly load dependent RV ECHO-parameters which complicates the use of this valuable diagnostic and surveillance technique. Expert commentary: There is increasing evidence that RV assessment in relation with its actual loading conditions by ECHO-derived composite variables, which either incorporate a certain functional parameter and load, or incorporate measures which reflect the relationship between RV dilation and RV load, considering also the right atrial pressure (i.e. 'load adaptation index'), is particularly suited for clinical decision-making. Load dependency of RV ECHO-parameters must be taken into consideration especially in patients with advanced RV dysfunction scheduled for LV assist device implantation or lung transplantation.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia
15.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 7(1): 82-98, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492386

RESUMO

Background: While heart transplantation has gained recognition as the gold standard therapy for advanced heart failure, the scarcity of donor organs has become an important concern. The evolution of surgical alternatives such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), allow for recovery of the myocardium and ensure patient survival until heart transplantation becomes possible. This report elaborates the role of VADs as a bridge to heart transplantation in infants and children (≤18 years old) with end-stage heart failure. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of 201 heart transplant recipients between May 1986 and September 2014 identified 78 children [38.8%; mean age 7.2 (7.8±6.0) years old; IQR: 2.6-11.8 years] with advanced heart failure who were supported with a VAD [left VAD (LVAD) =21; biventricular VAD (BVAD) =57] as a bridge to heart transplantation. Fourteen (17.9%) patients were less than 1 year old; 15 (19.2%) children had a cardiac arrest and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with 7 of these patients also requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support prior to implantation of a VAD. The aetiology of heart failure was primarily cardiomyopathy (dilative, restrictive from endocardial fibrosis, idiopathic or toxic-induced), reported in 56 (71.8%) patients. The VADs employed were primarily Berlin Heart EXCOR® (n=63), HeartWare (n=13), Berlin Heart INCOR® (n=1), and Toyobo (n=1). Results: Mean duration of VAD support was 59 (133.37±191.57) days (range, 1-945 days; IQR: 23-133 days) before a donor heart became available. The primary complication encountered while patients were being bridged to transplant was mediastinal bleeding (7.8%). The main indication for pump exchanges was thrombus formation in the valves. There was no incidence of technical failure of the blood pump or driving system components. Skin infections around the cannulae occurred in 2.5%. Adverse neurological symptoms (thromboembolism 11.1%, cerebral haemorrhage 3.6%) that occurred did not have any permanent neurological sequelae that could be detected on clinical examination in this study. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.4 (10.3±7.6) years (IQR: 3.74-15.14 years). Cumulative survival rates of patients bridged to transplantation with VAD were 93.6%±2.8%, 84.6%±4.1%, 79.1%±4.7%, 63.8%±6.2%, 61.6%±7.1%, and 52.1%±9.3% at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.79) in survival rates of patients bridged to heart transplantation with VAD compared to those who underwent primary heart transplantation. Post-transplant survival rates stratified according to the type of VAD implanted and number of ventricles supported were not statistically different (P=0.93 and 0.73, respectively). In addition, post-transplant survival rates were not significantly different when age, gender and diagnosis were adjusted for. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found when post-transplant survival rates of children who had episodes of rejection were compared to those who did not have episodes of rejection. Conclusions: The results in this series demonstrate that VADs satisfactorily support paediatric patients with advanced heart failure from a variety of aetiologies until heart transplantation. The data further suggests that patients bridged with VADs have comparable long-term post-transplant survival as those undergoing primary heart transplantation.

16.
Heart Fail Rev ; 23(2): 157-171, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453695

RESUMO

Severe right ventricular (RV) failure is more likely reversible than similar magnitudes of left ventricular (LV) failure and, because reversal of both adaptive remodeling and impaired contractility require most often only short periods of support, the use of temporary RV assist devices (t-RVADs) can be a life-saving therapy option for many patients. Although increased experience with t-RVADs and progresses made in the development of safer devices with lower risk for complications has improved both recovery rate of RV function and patient survival, the mortality of t-RVAD recipients can still be high but it depends mainly on the primary cause of RV failure (RVF), the severity of end-organ dysfunction, and the timing of RVAD implantation, and much less on adverse events and complications related to RVAD implantation, support, or removal. Reduced survival of RVAD recipients should therefore not discourage appropriate application of RVADs because their underuse further reduces the chances for RV recovery and patient survival. The article reviews and discusses the challenges related to the pre-implant and post-implant decision-making processes aiming to get best possible therapeutic results. Special attention is focused on pre-implant RV assessment and prediction of RV improvement during mechanical unloading, patient selection for t-RVAD therapy, assessment of unloading-promoted RV recovery, and prediction of its stability after RVAD removal. Particular consideration is also given to prediction of RVF after LVAD implantation which is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the different risk factors related indirectly or directly to the RV potential for reverse remodeling and functional recovery.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar , Implantação de Prótese , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425525

RESUMO

We report the techniques and long-term outcome of mitral valve (MV) repair to correct congenital mitral stenosis in children. Between 1986 and 2014, 137 children (mean age 4.1 ± 5.0, range 1 month-16.8 years) underwent repair of congenital mitral stenosis (CMS). In 48 patients, CMS is involved in Shone's anomaly. The typical congenital MS (type I) was seen in 56 patients. Hypoplastic MV (type II, n = 15) was associated with severe left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities and hypoplastic left ventricular cavity and muscle mass. Supravalvar ring (type III, n = 48) ranged from a thin membrane to a thick discrete fibrous ridge. Parachute MV (type IV, n = 10) have 2 leaflets and barely distinguishable commissures, but all chordae merged either into 1 major papillary muscle or asymmetric papillary muscles-1 dominant and the other minuscule. Hammock valve (type IV, n = 8) appeared dysplastic with shortened chordae directly inserted into the posterior left ventricular muscle mass. MV repair was performed using commissurotomy, chordal division, papillary muscle splitting and fenestration, and mitral ring resection, each applied according to the presenting morphology. During the 28-year follow-up period, 23 patients underwent repeat MV repair and 3 underwent MV replacement after failed attempts at repeat repair. At 1 and 15 years postoperatively, freedom from reoperation was 89.3 ± 5.1% and 52.8 ± 11.8%, and cumulative survival rates were 92.3 ± 4.3% and 70.3 ± 8.9, respectively. Mortality unrelated to repair accounted for 9 (20%) deaths. Long-term functional outcome of MV repair in children with CMS is satisfactory. Repeat repair or replacement may be deemed necessary during the course of follow-up.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Mitral/congênito , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estenose da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Músculos Papilares/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 53(2): 309-316, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) was founded in Berlin, Germany. EUROMACS is supported fully by the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and, since 2014, has functioned as a committee of the EACTS. The purpose of having the EUROMACS as a part of the EACTS is to accumulate clinical data related to long-term mechanical circulatory support for scientific purposes and to publish annual reports. METHODS: Participating hospitals contributed surgical and cardiological pre-, peri- and long-term postoperative data of mechanical circulatory support implants to the registry. Data for all implants performed from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2016 were analysed. Several auditing methods were used to monitor the quality of the data. Data could be provided for in-depth studies, and custom data could be provided at the request of clinicians and scientists. This report includes updates of patient characteristics, implant frequency, mortality rates and adverse events. RESULTS: Fifty-two hospitals participated in the registry. This report is based on 2947 registered implants in 2681 patients. Survival of adult patients (>17 years of age) with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices with a mean follow-up of 391 days was 69% (95% confidence interval 66-71%) 1 year after implantation. On average, patients were observed for 12 months (median 7 months, range 0-70 months). When we investigated for adverse events, we found an overall event rate per 100 patient-months of 3.56 for device malfunction, 6.45 for major bleeding, 6.18 for major infection and 3.03 for neurological events within the first 3 months after implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the first EUROMACS report, the number of participating hospitals increased from 21 to 52 (+148%), whereas the number of registered implants more than tripled from 825 to 2947 (+257%). The increase in the number of participating hospitals led us to increase the quality control measures through data input control, on-site audits and statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Artificial , Sistema de Registros , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 14(12): 949-959, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Through concerted endeavours in the fields of surgery, medicine, and biomedical engineering, patronized by government and industry, ventricular assist devices have become an established surgical treatment to support the failing heart, which could easily and simply surpass the frequency of heart transplantation. Be it as it may, complications and adverse events have unfolded, and these facilitated the way to newer biomedically-engineered pump designs in search of the perfect support for a failing heart. Areas covered: This review focuses on the evolution of the continous-flow ventricular assist device as an accepted mode of treatment in advanced heart failure, as a bridge to myocardial recovery, as a bridge to heart transplantation and as a permanent therapy, with its attendant complications and long-term outcome. Expert commentary: Continuous flow devices offer improved durability, less surgical trauma due to their smaller size, high-energy efficiency, and lower thrombogenicity, regardless of administration of single or dual anti-thrombotic therapy. These benefits translate into better survival, lower frequency of adverse events, improved quality of life and higher functional capacity of patients. Through ceaseless innovations and technology, newer pumps have been developed; however, none has been proven to be superior over the others.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
20.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 6(4): 343-352, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various surgical strategies designed to relieve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) and correct mitral regurgitation (MR) in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) have evolved, yet reports on the long-term outcomes of each technique are scarce. We provide an update on over 20 years' experience at our institution in the standardized surgical treatment of HOCM. METHODS: Between April 1986 and April 2014, 320 cases of endomyocardial resection and 305 septal myectomies were performed at our institution. Out of this sample, 57 patients (mean age 38±2.5 years, median 16.2, range 3 months-79.8 years) underwent surgery for HOCM involving septal myectomy and anterior leaflet retention plasty (ALRP), intended to obviate the systolic anterior motion (SAM) phenomenon. The preoperative mean LVOT pressure gradient was 98.98±26.2 (median 90, range 60-160) mmHg with moderate-severe MR. Standard transaortic septal myectomy was performed by resecting long blocks of septal myocardium, continued apically beyond the point of the mitral-septal contact. Through a left atriotomy, the segment of anterior mitral leaflet (AML) closest to the trigones was sutured to the corresponding posterior annulus on both sides. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed for repeat septal myectomy if the LVOT pressure gradient was greater than 20 mmHg. RESULTS: Following surgical correction, the mean LVOT pressure gradient was significantly decreased to 12.3±2.7 (median 14, 18-25) mmHg (P<0.001). Septal thickness was reduced from a preoperative mean of 28.2±3.4 (median 30, 25-34) to 10.5±1.1 (12, 15-23) mm (P<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 17.5±1.3 years (median 12, range 1-23.2 years), MR was trivial in 87% and SAM was non-existent in all, outcomes that were maintained at the latest follow-up. Two patients underwent mitral valve (MV) replacement 1 and 5 years after ALRP for recurrent MR. Two patients eventually underwent heart transplantation for end-stage heart failure, 2 and 11 years later, respectively. Twenty-year freedom from repeat MV intervention and cumulative survival rate was 92.9% and 91.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow up of HOCM patients who underwent simultaneous septal myectomy and ALRP showed sustained absence of SAM, attenuation of MI, absence of residual LVOT obstruction and sustained improvement in hemodynamic and functional status.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA